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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
ROBERT J. MORGAN
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 25)
Lot C was owned by three people during the French period: Jean Chrysostome Loppinot, Gabriel Dangeac and Michel Dumoncel. The first two were military men, the third a merchant. Dumoncel did not obtain the property until 1756, so during most of its history Lot C, like Lots D and E, was owned by soldiers. This accounts for the close social intercourse between the inhabitants of Lots C, D and E which culminated in Loppinot's buying the De la Plagne house in Lot E in 1750.
This was the last lot to have an owner in Block 16 since it did not come into existence until March, 1733 when the original De Villejouin property, which encompassed what was later Lots B and C, was divided in half. The dimensions of Lot C were 44 1/2 pieds along the Rue Royalle by 70 pieds deep [NOTE 230].
The purchasers were the newly-weds, John Chrysostome Loppinot and his wife Magdeleine Bottier dit Berrichon, who moved into a house on the lot constructed by the previous owner, Charles Joseph d'Ailleboust, sometime between 1729 and 1733.
LOPPINOT FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) JEAN CHRYSOSTOME LOPPINOT (b.c. 1704-d. 1765);
(2) MARIE MAGDELEINE BOTTIER DIT BERRICHON (1717- 1779, m. 1733;
(3) JEAN CHRYSOSTOME VICTOR LOPPINOT (fils) (b. 1733);
(4) LOUISE CHARLOTTE LOPPINOT (b. 1735);
(5) NICOLAS LOPPINOT (DIT LA FREZILLIÈRE) (b. 1737);
(6) MARIE MAGDELEINE LOPPINOT (b. 1739);
(7) JOSEPHE LOPPINOT (b. 1740);
(8) JOSEPH CHARLE (DIT BEAUPORT) LOPPINOT (b. 1741);
(9) JEANNE (JEANNETTE) LOPPINOT (b. 1743);
(10) LOUIS CHARLE LOPPINOT (b. 1744);
(11) CHARLES LOUIS LOPPINOT (b.d. 1750);
(12) AMABLE MARIE LOPPINOT (b. 1752);
(13) CHARLOTTE MARGUERITE LOPPINOT (b. 1753);
(14) JEAN AMABLE BALTAZAR LOPPINOT (b. 1755);
(15) AMABLE CAME (m. 1752);
(16) MICHEL DE COUAGNE (m. 1758).
Jean Chrysostome Loppinot, as the eldest boy in his family was named for his late father who had been procureur du roy and councillor at Port Royale. His mother was an Acadien, Jeanne Doucet. He was born in Acadie, but with his younger brother, Louis dit la Frezillière, lived in Louisbourg. [NOTE 231]. [PAGE 58:]
Both sons followed military careers: Jean Chrysostome was an enseigne when he was married; Louis was an enseigne when he was killed during the first siege [NOTE 232]. The elder brother rose in the ranks by his own talent. He certainly had no money behind him when he began his career; his father was deeply in debt and had even spent time in debtors' prison in 1716 [NOTE 233]. He did have his father's status, however, and in 1730 was appointed enseigne en second, beginning a long military career [NOTE 234]. His talents were early realized for in 1732 he was sent to Paris to raise 100 recruits in the capacity of a sergeant [NOTE 235]. In 1734 he was placed in charge of a detachment of soldiers building the road from Louisbourg to the Mira River, and he was promoted to enseigne en pied in 1737. The latter position he seems to have held temporarily, but by 1746 it was permanent [NOTE 236]. During the first siege he acted as a garçon major, an assistant to the town major, and was judged "un bon officier" by Governor Duchambon [NOTE 237].
During the first English occupation Loppinot was again put in charge of recruiting troops for the Marine [NOTE 238]. He then commanded Isle Royale troops stationed on the Islands of Ré and 0léron near Rochefort, and brought captured French troops from England to Rochefort [NOTE 239]. He was designated to stay at Rochefort until the last transport left for Louisbourg prior to the British evacuation in 1749 [NOTE 240]. His work merited him the Cross of St. Louis in 1754 [NOTE 241].
After the second siege Loppinot was again major of the Isle Royale troops at Rochefort where he died in 1765, leaving his wife and eight of his children who were still at home. His wife received an annual gratification of 1,200 livres [NOTE 242].
In common with others of the military class, Loppinot dealt in commerce. His interest seems to have been primarily in ships and shipping; it is possible that he obtained his first boats through his wife Magdeleine Bottier, whose father was a merchant in the Presqu'île du Quay. There are records of his selling three goelettes and buying another; by the 1750's there was at least one boat operating under his ownership. Loppinot paid in goods for a boat bought around 1743, so he was probably running a shipping service around the colony in his goelettes [NOTE 243].
Loppinot's marriage also brought him into the possession of land in the Presqu'île du Quay. The property was divided among his wife's family, but Loppinot held two magasins in 1749 which he rented to the king; a third magasin, rented to the government in 1751, was likely in his newly purchased property in Block 16, Lot E [NOTE 244].
Loppinot's family was large and the members we can trace were as successful as their father. The children were unusually lucky in that their parents both lived long lives. Loppinot was able to place his sons in the military and guide their early careers. The first son, Jean Chrysostome fils, entered the army as a cadet around 1741, when his father lied about his age, adding five years to his real eight. This position was given in compensation for land expropriated in Block 8, which was used for fortifications [NOTE 245]. By 1749 Joseph Charles dit Beauport, then aged nine was also a cadet [NOTE 246]. The last we hear of him he was 25 years old and a sub-lieutenant in Louisiana. Another boy, Nicolas dit la Frezillière was 29 in 1763, and an enseigne, presumably in France [NOTE 247].
However, it is Loppinot fils' career that touched Louisbourg most directly. In 1754 he was an enseigne en pied and was sent to Boston, ostensibly to learn English. Governor Shirley took him as a spy, however, and in 1755 he was imprisoned for four months. He fell ill and was finally sent to England where he met exiled Acadians. He was not released until 1756, but in the process he apparently learned some English, for Drucour sent him and Duvivier, who were both aides-major, to conclude the capitulation of the fortress on the night of 26 July 1758 [NOTE 248]. The last we see of Loppinot fils is in 1782 when he was lieutenant du Roi par interim in St. Dominique serving with De Couagne, his brother-in-law, who was permanent lieutenant du Roi there [NOTE 249].
The two Loppinot daughters who married at Louisbourg were well connected. Louise Charlotte married Lieutenant Amable Jean Joseph Came in 1752 at the age of 17; Jeanne or Jeannette, as she called herself, married Captain Michel de Couagne in 1758 at 15 [NOTE 250].
Before we leave the Loppinots, we might review their household in 1745: a growing family of eight children,, a Negro slave (Margueritte Rose), and her illegitimate son Jean François, a domestique (Jean), plus the young mother of 27 and the ambitious father [NOTE 251]. Loppinot was a reliable officer, friendly, with his superiors and a good example of the middle class Louisbourg officer.
In 1750 Jean Chrysostome Loppinot moved to Lot E and the family of Gabriel François Dangeac from Block 38 bought the Lot C house. Dangeacs served in all four of the northern colonies comprising New France.
DANGEAC FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) GABRIEL DANGEAC (d. 1737);
(2) MARGUERITTE BERTRAND;
(3) GABRIEL FRANÇOIS DANGEAC (b. 1709);
(4) GENEVIÈVE LAFEVRE (m. 1735);
(5) CATHERINE FRANÇOISE DANGEAC (b. 1735);
(6) MARIE GENEVIEVE DANGEAC (b. 1737);
(7) GEORGE DANGEAC (b. 1741);
(8) MARGUERITE DANGEAC (b. 1742);
(9) CHARLOTTE DANGEAC (b. 1743);
(10) ANDRÉ DANGEAC (b. 1743);
(11) LOUIS DANGEAC (b.d. 1750);
(12) FELICITÉE DANGEAC (b. 1751);
(13) MARGUERITE DANGEAC;
(14) CHARLES LÉOPOLD EBÉRHARD, BARON DE L'ESPERANCE (m. 1725-d. 1738);
(15) CHARLES GABRIEL SÉBASTIEN, BARON DE L'ESPERANCE;
(16) MICHEL DE MERVILLE DANGEAC;
(17) GENEVIEVE DE BAULAC;
(18) MARIE MARGUERITTE DANGEAC (b. 1752);
(19) LOUIS BENJAMIN DE BOUTHERIE (m. 1756).
Gabriel Dangeac père was from Saintonge and served, probably as a child, in the French navy as early as 1685. He served as a cadet in Canada for [PAGE 61:] nine years until 1696 when he became an enseigne in St. Ovide de Brouillan's company in Plaisance. During, that time he spent six years as aide-major. In 1714 he and his garrison evacuated Plaisance for Louisbourg where he served as lieutenant until 1716 [NOTE 252]. As a member of De Villejouin's company he was stationed at Port Toulouse, receiving his captaincy when De Villejouin died [NOTE 253]. He was transferred to Louisbourg with his company of 41 men by 1720 and finally, after 21 years, he was allowed to go home on a furlough [NOTE 254]. After his return he received the Cross of Saint Louis [NOTE 255].
By 1732, at the age of 62, Dangeac was the oldest captain in Isle Royale. It was the custom to appoint the senior captain and his company to the Royal Battery, and Dangeac, despite age and ill health, was sent there [NOTE 256]. Part of his company served at the Royal Battery, part built fortifications and part were assigned to road work [NOTE 257]. Life in the Royal Battery was just too much for the man and he asked to be removed; besides the personal expenses that attended his position were great and he was bitter that Duchambon., though younger than he, had been promoted to the majority [NOTE 258]. He was finally replaced by De la Perelle but too late, for his health declined until his death in 1737. [NOTE 259].
Gabriel Dangeac married Margueritte Bertrand, one of the Bertrand sisters who managed to marry top ranking military men: her sister Marie Josephe married De Villejouin in Lot B, who happened to be Dangeac's captain, while her sister René married Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière who lived next door in Lot D. The Dangeacs had three children: Gabriel François, Michel de Merville and Margueritte.
Like his father, Gabriel François spent his life in the service of the king. There is no evidence of their participating in trade on the side, meaning they probably were relatively poor. He was born 20 January 1709 at Plaisance, and entered military service, becoming enseigne en second May 1723, enseigne en pied seven years later, and lieutenant 19 June 1732 [NOTE 260]. In 1738 he was sent as commandant to Port Dauphin and stayed there until 1741 [NOTE 261]. Before returning to Isle Royale in 1749, Dangeac was appointed captain in 1747 and served in Canada. When he returned to Louisbourg he was appointed to the Royal Battery [NOTE 262].
Meanwhile Dangeac had married Geneviève La Fèvre in 1735. She was the daughter of Jean François Le Fèvre, a merchant from Canada and his wife the late Anne Bodry (Baudry) [NOTE 263]. The couple had at least nine children. The eldest, Catherine, married Louis Benjamin de Boutherie, a sub-lieutenant, in 1756 [NOTE 264]. while André, who had become an enseigne by 1758, had risen to the rank of captain at Port au Prince Haiti, by 1774 [NOTE 265]. In 1749 just before they moved into Block 16, the Dangeac family consisted of the parents, four daughters, Catherine (14), Geneviève (12). Margueritte (7), and Charlotte (6), three boys, George, André and newly-born Louis, Margueritte, Dangeac's widowed sister, and a male and a female servant [NOTE 266].
In 1751 Dangeac was transferred to Port Dauphin with his company and 30 men to perform road work in the area [NOTE 267]. He stayed there until at least 1756. Since Dangeac was outside Louisbourg during this period, it is doubtful whether he resided in his Block 16 property very often. In 1756, for example, he rented the property to a Lieutenant Colonel Marin of the Bourgogne Battalion [NOTE 268]. It is possible that Dangeac's family remained at home while he was away, but his widowed sister, Margueritte, [PAGE 64:] who had lived with him for many years was called a "habitant de Ste. Anne" (Port Dauphin) in 1756 when she moved from there to Block 38 [NOTE 269]. In 1739 he and the whole family were definitely living at Port Dauphin, largely because they could not afford to live in Louisbourg [NOTE 270]. The Cross of St, Louis was conferred upon him in 1754. [NOTE 271].
After the fall of Louisbourg Dangeac was appointed governor of St. Pierre and Miquelon, a position he held for ten years; he lived there with his wife and seven of his children [NOTE 272]. He had the taxing responsibility of settling refugees from Isle Royale in the small space available in the islands, of allocating land, of obtaining fuel, wood for building, supplies, and managing the fishery, a task which he performed competently and with a minimum of complaints [NOTE 273]. He was created a brigadier in 1770, and finally retired 31 May 1773 at age 64, after 50 years of service [NOTE 274]. Dangeac died in France 9 March 1782 at the age of 73 [NOTE 275]. At least two of his daughters, Marie Geneviève (79) and Charlotte (73), were still alive in 1816 [[NOTE 276].
Michel de Merville was younger than Gabriel François and hence a cadet at his father's death in 1737 [NOTE 277]. He became an enseigne en second in 1738 [NOTE 278]. Between 1738 and 1742, he served in Ile St. Jean [NOTE 279]. He reached the level of captain by 1752, but died in 1759 at Soubine near Rochefort [NOTE 280]. He was married to Geneviève de Baulac and one child, Marie Margueritte, was recorded to the marriage on 20 August 1752 [NOTE 281].
The daughter of Gabriel Dangeac, Margueritte, married Charles-Léopold Ebérhard de l'Espérance, Baron of the Holy Roman Empire, 26 February 1725. At the time he was a lieutenant in the Karrer Regiment stationed at Louisbourg. The Baron was the illegitimate son of Jean Fleury d'Espérance [PAGE 65:] who had sired 23 illegitimate children by four mistresses, one of whom was the baron's mother, Sébastienne Curie [NOTE 282]. The Baron was ill for several years and died 10 November 1738, leaving a son, Charles Gabriel Sébastien, as Baron de l'Espérance [NOTE 283].
Charles Gabriel Sébastien and his mother lived with the family of Gabriel François Dangeac until 1?56. The young Baron rose to the level of captain by 1763 when he and his uncle established the colony of St. Pierre and Miquelon on a firm footing [NOTE 284]. When Dangeac retired in 1773, Charles Gabriel became governor of the colony [NOTE 285].
On 28 September 1756, Gabriel François Dangeac exchanged his property in Lot C with Michel Dumoncel, merchant, trader and aubergiste [NOTE 286] [For biographical information on Michel Dumoncel see H.P. Thibault, Block 17, Louisbourg (1713-1768), September 1972, pp. 84-85.] Dumoncel, however, did not live in the house, since he clearly continued as a resident of Block 17 [NOTE 287]. There is no evidence as to who resided in Lot C after 1756. Perhaps Colonel Marin remained there until the fall of the Fortress.
(II) STRUCTURES IN BLOCK 16, LOT C:
The house in Block 16, Lot C, was built between 1729, when the widow De Villejouin married Charles-Joseph d'Ailleboust, and 1730 or 1731 when Map 1730-2 shows a house next to, but not abutting on, the De Pensens storehouse at the north-east end of Lot D. The house actually adjoined the storehouse whose walls helped support the house; moreover all plans but 1730-2 show the house to be longest along the Rue Royalle. This suggests that the representation of the house on this map is conjectural: [PAGE 67:] that the house was either about to be built or was in the early stages of construction in 1730. It was certainly constructed by 1731 [NOTE 288].
When d'Ailleboust sold the lot to John Chrysostome Loppinot in 1733, its dimensions were given as 44 1/2 pieds along the Rue Royalle by 70 pieds deep. When the property was sold in 1750 the measurements were 45 pieds (47.9 feet) by 72 pieds (76.7 feet) [NOTE 289]. The latter dimensions are more credible since the 1733 measurements preceded the official alignments of 1734.
The dimensions of the house from reliable maps are as follows:
(1) Map 1731-3 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 48 pieds; Depth: 27 pieds;
(2) Map 734-4 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 45 pieds; Depth: 25 1/2 pieds;
(3) Map 1746-4 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 40 feet; Depth: 20 feet;
(4) Map 1746-5 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 40 feet; Depth: 20 feet;
(5) Map 1746-8a = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 40 feet; Depth: 25 feet;
(6) Map 1767-1 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 50 feet; Depth: 25 feet;
(7) Map 1768-1 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 52 feet; Depth: 25 feet;
(8)Map N.D. 89 = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 42 pieds; Depth: 28 1/2 pieds;
(9) Map Average = Length (along the Rue Royalle): 45.73 feet; Depth: 25.16 feet.
Charles Joseph d'Ailleboust constructed the house in charpente [NOTE 290]. The only description that we have dates from 1750 when Loppinot sold the house to Dangeac as "Une Maison, en Bois, a un Seul Etage, avec une cave audessous." (A wooden house, one storey only, with the basement below) [NOTE 291].
Plans show the house to have a gable roof with the exception of N.D. 24 which shows a hip on the south end only. Another plan, 1734-4, shows the house and the contiguous De Pensens storehouse with a common roof. In general, the maps indicate the house on an east-west alignment with a roof separate from the adjoining storehouse in Lot D [NOTE 292].
The only other detail of the house is found in the 1736 bill of sale for the Lot D property. In the description, reference is made to Loppinot's "maison de charpente" leaning ("appuyé") against the storehouse next door. D'Ailleboust had agreed, when the house was constructed, to rebuild, at his own expense, the section of the wall of the storehouse against which his house was backing ("adossée") if the need should arise [NOTE 293].
Unfortunately, no description was given when Dangeac and Dumoncel exchanged houses in 1756. However, since Dangeac exchanged the house for a stone one, this might signify that the house was well constructed and in good condition. [NOTE 294].
The house was occupied by the British after 1758 and was described as constructed of wooden materials but in only tolerable condition, meaning "much out of repair." [NOTE 295].
Evidence suggests other buildings in the property. Two maps, 1730-2 and N.D. 24, which was drawn before 1736, both indicate a building at the southern limit of Lot C. The structure on an east-west alignment,, measures 39 pieds by 15 pieds in the former, and 45 pieds by 21 pieds in the latter map. Map 1730-2 indicates that it had a gable roof, but N.D. 24 shows a hip roof. Maps after 1736 do not show the structure.
Documents indicate buildings in the yard. The 1733 bill of sale refers to "appurtenances et dependences" (appurtenances and outbuildings), and that of 1750 mentions "plusieurs cabanot, ecurie, Etable, cour et Jardin" (several huts, stable,, shed, yard, and garden) [NOTE 296].
Finally, a well was located in the yard. It was probably near the property line with Lot B(2), and may have been shared with Fizel at one time. [NOTE 297]
I. [PAGE 236:]
[NOTE 230:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2038-2, No, 63, 2 mars 1733;
[NOTE 231:] Ibid., Gl, Vol. 406, Reg. !V, fol. 42v., 13 janvier 1733; A.N., Colonies, E. Vol. 290, 15 octobre 1760; A.N., Outre-Mer, G3,, Carton 2055, No. 74, 7 octobre 1712;
[NOTE 232:] A.N., Colonies, E,, Vol. 290., fol. 9., 21 mars 1765; A.N., Outre-Mer, D.F.C., Vol. 217, fol. 38, 21 juin 1745;
[NOTE 233:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 2, fols. 4-8, 13 avril 1717;
[NOTE 234:] A.C., D2C, Vol. 60, fol. 14, 8 mai 1730;
[NOTE 235:] This is the only explanation at present for Loppinot's being temporally referred to as a sergeant in 1732. A.M., Rochefort, lE, Vol. 116, fols. 275-281, 15 avril 1732; A.N., Colonies, C11B. VoL. 12, fols. 195-201., 22 avril 1732; Ibid., B, Vol. 57-2., fols. 760-763 (456-464), 19 juin 1732;
[NOTE 236:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 15, fols. 167-169v., 16 novembre 1734; Ibid., B, Vol. 65, fols. 482v.-483, 17 mai 1737; Ibid., C11B., Vol. 23, fols. 7-12v., 10 octobre 174;
[NOTE 237:] Ibid., CllC, Vol. 16, 27 septembre 1745;
[NOTE 238:] Ibid., B, Vol. 86-1. p. 185, 12 septembre 1747;
[NOTE 239:] Ibid., p. 184, 17 septembre 1747; Ibid., Vol. 88-2., p. 301, 13 mai 1748;
[NOTE 240:] A.N., Marine, lE, Vol. 146, fols. 59-64, 24 janvier 1749;
[NOTE 241:] A.N., Colonies, C11B., Vol. 24, fol. 251, 10 octobre 1754;
[NOTE 242:] Ibid., FlA, Vol. 49, part 1, fol. 153, 19 décembre 1763; Ibid., E, Vol. 290, fol. 9, 21 mars 1765;
[NOTE 243:] A.N., Outre- Mer, G3, Carton 2046-2., No. 45, 6 octobre 1740; Ibid., No. 53, 27 juillet 1741; A.C.M., B, Vol. 276, fols. 400-442,, 19 septembre 1740; Ibid., Vol. 279., fol. 217, 1743-1745; Ibid., Liasse 6116, fol. 32v., p. 16, 1751;
[NOTE 244:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 30, fols. 342-342v., 1751; Ibid., fols. 338-340v., 28 décembre 1751;
[NOTE 245:] Ibid., Vol. 23,, fols. 7-12v., 10 octobre 1741;
[NOTE 246:] A.C., F5B, Article 5b, 1749:
[NOTE 247:] Ibid., D2C., Vol. 48, fols. 495-498, [c.1763];
[NOTE 248:] A.N., Colonies, E, Vol. 290, fols. 2, 6, 6 janvier 1758; Ibid., CllB, Vol. 35, fols. 317-322; Ibid., Vol. 36, fols, 8-llv.; Ibid., Vol. 383 fols. 43-46;
[NOTE 249:] A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 74, fols. 44-49, 1781- 1782;
[NOTE 250:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2047-2, No. 53, 15 juin 1752; Ibid., Carton 2045, No. 84, 17 fevrier 1758;
[NOTE 251:] Ibid., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 76, p. 4, 1749; A.C., F5B. Article 5b, 1749;
[NOTE 252:] A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 5, fols. 2, 3, 7; A.N., Colonies, B., Vol. 36-7, fol, 433v., 21 mars 1714; A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 5, fol. 4, 20 septembre 1716;
[NOTE 253:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 41-4; fols. 592-596v., 19 juillet 1719; Ibid., C11B, Vol. 4, fols. 183-186, 23 octobre 1719;
[NOTE 254:] Ibid., Vol. 5, fol. 267, 18 novembre 1720; Ibid., fols- 386-388., 30 novembre 1721;
[NOTE 255:] A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 5, 1 and 10 août 1724; A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 7, fols. 14-19v., 16 novembre 1724; Ibid., B, Vol. 48-2., fols, 969-962, 25 juillet 1725;
[NOTE 256:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 12, fols. 263-268, 15 novembre 1732; Ibid., B, Vol. 59-2, fols. 518-520v., 19 mai 1733; Ibid., fols. 533-534., 2 juin 1733;
[NOTE 257:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 14, fols. 22-30v., 10 octobre 1733;
[NOTE 258:] Ibid., fols. 117-122, 22 octobre 1733;
[NOTE 259:] Ibid., E, Vol. 5, 30 août 1737;
[NOTE 260:] A.N., Marine, E, Vol. 5, fols, 8-9., 17 juin 1784;
[NOTE 261:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 20, fols. 271-272v., 10 novembre 1738; Ibid., Vol. 23, fols. 67-67v., 19 octobre 1741;
[NOTE 262:] A.N., Marine, E, Vol. 5, fols. 8-9, 17 juin 1784;
[NOTE 263:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2039, No. 75, 17 décembre 1735;
[NOTE 264:] Ibid., Carton 2044, No. 71, 29 août 1756;
[NOTE 265:] A.N., Colonies, C12, Vol. 7, fols. 111-111v., février 1783;
[NOTE 266:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G1, Vol,, 466, fol. 76, Census 1749;
[NOTE 267:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 31, fols, 19-24, 17 août 1751;
[NOTE 268:] Ibid., Vol. 36., fol. 238, 20 décembre 1756;
[NOTE 269:] A.N., Outre- Mer, G3, Carton 2045, 23 juin 1757;
[NOTE 270:] A.N., Colonies, C11B., Vol. 21, fols,, 59-60v., 14 Novembre 1739;
[NOTE 271:] Ibid., B., Vol. 99, dossier 249, pièce 19., 30 mai 1754;
[NOTE 272:] Ibid., C12, Vol. 14, fols. 3-3v., 1 janvier 1763; Ibid., Vol. 3, fols. 12-12v., 26 fevrier 1769;
[NOTE 273:] Ibid., C12A, Vol. 1, fols. 135- 135v., 137-137v.; Ibid., Vol. 3. fols. 12-12v.; Ibid., fols. 153-154;
[NOTE 274:] Ibid., E, Vol. 5, 4 fevrier 1773;
[NOTE 275:] Ibid., fols. 8-9, 17 juin 1784;
[NOTE 276:] Ibid. fols. 11-12., 24 avril 1816;
[NOTE 277:] Ibid., E, Vol. 5, 30 août 1737;
[NOTE 278:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 20, fols. 91-97v., 2 novembre 1738;
[NOTE 279:] Ibid., Vol. 24, fols. 61- 62v., 22 octobre 1742;
[NOTE 280:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G1, Vol. 408, Reg. II, fol. 13, 20 août 1752; A.N., Hospices et Secours, F15, 3432: 17, p. 4;
[NOTE 281:] Ibid.;
[NOTE 282:] Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. II, pp. 424-425; A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2058-1, 26 fevrier 1725;
[NOTE 283:] Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. II, pp. 424-425;
[NOTE 284:] A.N., Colonies, C12A, Vol. l, fol. 21, 14 juillet 1763;
[NOTE 285:] Ibid., Vol. 4, fols. 163-164, 16 juillet 1773; Ibid., vol. 6, fol. 38, 25 mars 1776;
[NOTE 286:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 68, 28 septembre 1756;
[NOTE 287:] H.P. Thibault, Block 17, Louisbourg (1713-1768)., September 1972, pp. 84-85;
[NOTE 288:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1. No., 140, 12 septembre 1736; A.F.L., plan 731-3;
[NOTE 289:] A.N., Outre- Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, No. 32, 1 septembre 1750;
[NOTE 290:] Ibid., Carton 2038-2, No. 63, 2 mars 1733;
[NOTE 291:] Ibid., Carton 2041-1, 1 septembre 1750;
[NOTE 292:] A.F.L., plans 731-3, N.D. 89;
[NOTE 293:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3,, Carton 2039, No. 63, 12 septembre 1736;
[NOTE 294:] Ibid., Carton 2044, No. 68, 28 septembre 1756;
[NOTE 295:] A.F.L., plans 767-1. 768-1;
[NOTE 296:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3,, Carton 2038-2, No. 63, 2 mars 1733; Ibid., Carton 2041-1, No. 32, 1 septembre 1750;
[NOTE 297:] Ibid.