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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
ROBERT J. MORGAN
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 25)
The site of Lot B was the earliest privately-owned portion of Block 16. Unlike the other lots in the block it was subdivided and owned by different parties during its history. Like neighbouring lot A, British bombs completely destroyed its buildings during the second siege.
Since it had various owners, Lot B presents an interesting parade of people and professions; the inhabitants of the lot normally enjoyed social intercourse with their Lot A neighbours. On the other hand, there was a class curtain drawn between them and the upper class military personnel of Lots D and E.
In 1722, Block 16, Lot B was formally granted to Marie Josephe Bertrand, widow of Gabriel Rousseau de Villejouin, one of the seven original captains who claimed Isle Royalle for the king. It originally included what was later Lot C. On 30 April 1733, De Couagne the sub- engineer noted:
J'ay marqué par ordre de Messieurs Les Gouverneur ordonnateur de Lisle royalle; a Madame La veuve viljoin, un terrain ... long de quatre vingt dix pieds sur la rue royalle, au nort, et de soixante et dix a lest sur celle de S Louis, borné a L'ouest par le terrain de monsieur pensens et au Sud par la poudriere a Louisbourg ce 25 avril 1721 [NOTE 129].
The De Villejouins had built their house on the property in 1720 when the powder magazine was the only point of reference inside the [PAGE 32:] block [NOTE 130]. The widow also used 20 or 30 pieds of land to the south of her property as a garden until Antoine Paris was given possession of the area in 1727, thus permanently settling the southern limit of Lot [NOTE 131].
The next important changes in Lot B occurred in 1733 after the widow De Villejouin had married Charles Joseph Dailleboust. They divided and sold the western part of the property to John Chrysostome Loppinot. This half of the lot was described thus:
la dite Moitie d'emplacement presentement vendue contenant quarante quatre pieds et demi de face Sur led. Rue Royale, et Soixante et dix pieds de profondeur, courant ausud ... la d. moitié de terrain et Maison joignant dans la profondeur ducôté du Sud; al'emplacement de deffunct Antoine Paris, au nord alarue Royale, a l'Est alautre moitie dud. terrain qui reste alad. dame bertrand, & alouest au magasin et emplacement de Mr. Depensens [NOTES 132].
In the official property boundaries drawn up in 1734 by Vallée this land became Lot C [NOTE 133].
Less than three weeks later the remainder of Lot B was sold to Jean Richard. In the bill of sale the property's dimensions were given as 45 pieds (47-97 feet) along the Rue Royalle by 70 pieds (71.06 feet) along the Rue St. Louis [NOTE 134].
Jean Richard remained the sole owner of the lot for three years; on 12 October 1736 he sold the northern part of the lot with its dependencies to André Ballé, a charretier or waggoner. The dimensions of Ballé's section were given as:
quarente Cinq pieds de face sur lade. Rue Royale et environ Vingt deux pieds Sur Celle dest. Louis, aprendre depuis lamaison que ldt. S. Richard afait Batir Sur lade. Rue Jusques al'alignement Jusqua la Rue Royale; Ladite partie deterrain faisant un Retour d'equaire dans laprofondeur qui Est de trente huit pieds Joignant ledt. l'Emplacement du Sr. Loppinot Sur Lalargeur de Vingt deux pieds a Joindre Lamaison Neuve dudt. Sieur Richard [NOTE 135].
The resulting property division left Ballé with the well and Richard with the latrine. The sale agreement allowed free passage through each other's yard to use the necessities and to share evenly the repair of the well and cleaning of the latrines.
After 1736 it is convenient to designate the south end of the property as Lot B(l), the north end (first owned by André Ballé) as Lot B(2), and to study each separately.
Jean Richard and his wife ran their business in 16 B(l) as an inn; in 1741 he died leaving his widow sole possessor of the property. The following year she married Joseph LaChaume, ship captain and merchant, and they lived there with various boarders until the fall of Louisbourg in 1758.
When André Ballé bought 16 B(2) from Richard, the house was already being rented to Jean Solet, a surgeon. In the bill of sale Ballé had to promise to respect Solet's rental agreement to stay in the house for three years.
It is probable that Ballé never lived in the house, since he sold it to Julien Fizel, a merchant, in 1737 [NOTE 136]. The Fizel family owned the house until it was destroyed during the second siege of Louisbourg.
(II) OCCUPANTS TO 1736:
(A) - ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) GABRIEL ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN P RE (d. 1718);
(2) MARIE JOSEPH BERTRAND (d.c. 1749);
(3) GABRIEL ROUSSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN FILS (1710-1769);
(4) MARGUERITTE ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN (b. 1716);
(5) MICHEL ROUSSEAU D'ORFONTAINE (1718-1780);
(6) ANNE ANGELIQUE DE GANNES DE FALAISE (d. 1752); (GABRIEL CHARLES ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN (b. 1733);
(7) MICHEL ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN (b. 1734);
(8) LOUIS ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN (b. 1736);
(9) JEAN FRANÇOIS DE VILLEJOUIN (b. 1739); ADELAIDE ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN (b. 1741);
(B)- CHARLES-JOSEPH D'AILLEBOUST FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) CHARLES-JOSEPH D'AILLEBOUST;
(2) MARIE JOSEPHE BERTRAND (d.c. 1749);
(3) MARIE CHARLOTTE D'AILLEBOUST(b. 1731);
(4) LOUISE MARGUERITE D'AILLEBOUST (b. 1733);
(5) CHARLES MICHEL D'AILLEBOUST (b. 1735).
Gabriel Rousseau de Villejouin, the first inhabitant of Block 16, was one of the seven captains who first arrived at Louisbourg [NOTE 137]. As such he was an associate of Jacques de Pensens and Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière, both military captains and later inhabitants of Block 16. Unlike these two men, however, De Villejouin did not advance in the colonial hierarchy. His early death might be given as a reason, but more important was his disposition. He was described as negligent by Pontchartrain [NOTE 138]. De Costabelle found him lazy and unambitious, complaining "il n'a pas d'emulation pour acquérer du bien." [NOTE 139]. De Villejouin's laxness is shown by the fact that he did not follow correct procedure in applying for his salary, so he was not paid between 1709 and 1715. [NOTE 140]. His easy-going character angered De Costebelle who threatened to "bust him", ("on le cassera") if he did not change his ways [NOTE 141]. He neither reformed nor was he demoted [NOTE 142]. Instead he served on the Superior Council and at Port Toulouse in 1717, but was back in Louisbourg by the end of the year [NOTE 143]. He managed to accumulate land in Blocks 16, 30 and 31, but this was no more than other members of the local elite. One possible answer to De Villejouin's material success, despite his personality, is the fact that his wife was the sister-in-law of Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière, an ambitious and powerful member of the Louisbourg establishment. De Villejouin's children in turn made admirable connections with the De Gannes, De la Vallières, and the Duhagets, all high-ranking military families.
De Villejouin died 22 September 1718 leaving four children and his wife five months pregnant [NOTE 144]. They were apparently destitute since St. Ovide de Brouillan claimed that they would die of starvation and [PAGE 38:] wretchedness (misère) without supplies [NOTE 145]. His widow was given an annual pension of 300 livres the following year [NOTE 146].
The widow De Villejouin was born Marie Josephe Bertrand, daughter of François Bertrand and Jeanne Giraudet of Plaisance [NOTE 147]. Her brothers and sisters included Marguerite, the wife of Lieutenant Gabriel Dangeac René Bertrand, wife of Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière , and Jean Bertrand, a merchant at Baleine [NOTE 148]. She was dead by 1753.
The first son of her marriage to De Villejouin was Gabriel Rousseau de Villejouin fils born in 1703. He had a successful career rising in the ranks from enseigne en second in 1723 to captain and in charge of Port Toulouse in 1738. In 1750 he was commandant there. By 1754 he was major at Ile St. Jean and was there until at least 1756, after which time he went to Canada. He left Canada in the general evacuation in 1760 to go to Rochefort where he was placed in command of the colonial troops temporarily stationed there. His career ended with his appointment as governor of La Desidérade in the Leeward Islands. He died at Rochefort in 1769. [NOTE 149].
De Villejouin fils married twice, the first time in 1733 to Anne Angelique de Gannes de Falaise (1709-1752), daughter of Louis de Gannes de Falaise, a major of Acadie, and Margueritte LeNeuf de la Vallière, sister of Michel leneuf de la Vallière. This alliance cemented family relations with the Bertrands and the Dangeacs, who were related on both sides to the De Villejouins [NOTE 150]. The couple had at least five children [NOTE 151].
Anne de Falaise died in 1752 and the following year Gabriel married Barbe Delort, daughter of Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière and widow of Louis Delort, doubly enforcing his ties with that powerful family (See Block 16, Lot D and Block 4, Lot A).
Gabriel Rousseau père's second child was Margueritte, born in 1716. She married Robert Duhaget (also called "la Torride") in 1737 when he was 34 years old. They had no children but owned the finest home in neighbouring Block 17 [NOTE 152]. The third child, Michel Rousseau d'Orfontaine, was born in 1718 and entered army life, rising to the level of enseigne en pied at Louisbourg in 1754. His career continued after the fall of the fortress; he was appointed a lieutenant in Canada, and aide-major in France in 1769. He died in 1780 [NOTE 153].
Marie Josephe Bertrand, wife of De Villejouin did not remarry for ten years after her husband's death, but lived with her young family in the Block 16 property. ln 1729 she married Lieutenant Charles Joseph d'Ailleboust who was to have a varied and exciting career before his death in 1761 [For D'Ailleboust's career, see Block 17, Lot C]. They had three children, Marie-Charlotte (b. 1731), Louise Marguerite (1733-1745; 1749), and Charles Michel (1735) [NOTE 154]. The couple and their growing family lived in Lot B until 1733 when they divided up the lot and moved to another of d'Ailleboust's properties. Marie Josephe Bertrand was dead by 1749 and d'Ailleboust in 1761 [NOTE 155].
Lot B was radically altered by the division of 1733. One half became Lot C and the remainder, a much smaller Lot B, became the property of Jean Richard.
(C) - RICHARD FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) JEAN RICHARD (1701-1741);
(2) MARIE-MAGDELEINE SAMSON;
(3) SON RICHARD;
(4) ANNE MAGDELEINE RICHARD;
(5) JEAN-MARIE RICHARD (b.d. 1729);
(6) JEANNE MAGDELEINE RICHARD (b. 1731);
(7) MARIE MAGDELEINE RICHARD (b. 1733);
(8) FRANÇOISE- JOSEPHE RICHARD (b. 1740);
(9) JEAN BAPTISTE DASCORETTE (m. 1739);
(10) JEAN BAPTISTE LONGUE (m. 1743);
(11) PIERRE BOULOT (m. 1751);
(12) JOSEPH MARIE DEBLED (m. 1754).
Jean Richard was born in 1701 in Granville in the diocese of Coutance, Normandy. He came to Port Toulouse, perhaps via Acadia, and in the 1726 census is listed as a navigateur [NOTE 156]. By that time he was married to Marie-Magdeleine Samson and had a son and daughter [NOTE 157]. Richard moved to Louisbourg by 1729 [NOTE 158] and continued as a navigateur in partner-ship with Louis Lecuyer, his brother- in-law, operating a goelette, the [PAGE 41:] Marie Louise [NOTE 159]. However his main occupation had become that of aubergiste and in his Block 34 concession he is described as such. In the 1734 census of Louisbourg, Richard is described as an aubergiste with four children. Nothing is known of the boy; we know of two girls, Anne Magdeleine (b. 1731), and Marie Magdeleine (b. 1733). A son, Jean Marie, had been born in 1729 but lived only a few weeks; another son, François Joseph, was born in 1740 [NOTE 160]. Richard maintained a servant and four matelots- pêcheurs in his employ.
From the above it is obvious that Richard's wealth increased steadily during his life in Isle Royale. When he obtained land in Block 24 in 1729 he erected a cheap piquet house [NOTE 161]. When he bought his Block 16 property in 1733 he could afford 2,500 livres in payment. Furthermore, he gave his daughter Anne Magdeleine a chambre garni worth 3,500 livres when she was married in 1739. The inventory taken at his death is unfortunately mutilated, so that the value of his furnishings cannot be estimated. However, modest quantities of silver and other valuable materials reveal that Richard was a comfortable member of the Louisbourg middle class. (See Appendix IV: Succession de Jean Richart, demeurant Rue St. Louis, G2, Volume 197, No. 141, 7 mai 1741).
He certainly did not make his money from land. His property in Block 24 was expropriated around 1740 to make way for new fortifications, leaving him with only his Block 16 property [NOTE 162]. There are no references to his trading ventures after 1734 and in documents he is generally referred to as an aubergiste. One is forced to the conclusion that Richard's modest prosperity was derived from his Block 16 inn.
The only clues as to the type of establishment Richard ran is that Philibert Genier, merchant and clerk of the Superior Council resided there, as did Letertre Droguet, French merchant and ship captain [NOTE 163]. With such clientele Richard, like Julien Fizel later, likely ran a respectable inn where he and his family resided.
Partly to increase his wealth Richard divided Lot B in 1736, building himself a new house at the north end of the Lot D(l) where he resided until his death 6 May 1741, at the age of 41. He sold the house at the south end of the lot, B(2), on the corner of the Rue St. Louis and the Rue Royalle to André Ballé for 1,211 livres [NOTE 164].
(III) LOT B (1):
(D) - LACHAUME FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) JOSEPH LACHAUME (b.c. 1703-d.c. 1757);
(2) MARIE- MAGDELEINE SAMSON (m. 1742);
(3) ANNE MAGDELEINE LACHAUME (b. 1743);
(4) JEAN LOUIS LACHAUME (b. 1745);
(5) JOSEPH LACHAUME (b.c. 1750).
Richard's widow, Anne Magdelaine Samson, married Joseph La Chaume 19 June 1742 and they resided in Block 16, Lot B(l) [NOTE 165]. Joseph La Chaume was the son of Louis La Chaume and Magdeleine Triel (Tréguy). The La Chaumes were originally from Saintong, but Louis La Chaume rose to the rank of sergeant in the garrison at Port Royal. Louis La Chaume was a member of the original expedition of Acadians who left Fort Royal after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, and located in Louisbourg. Pothier described the group thus:
Quoi que n'étant pas de la classe officielle de l'Acadie, tel que les officiers d'épée et de robe, il est évident par leurs occupations que leur destin était étroitement lié à celui de l'ancienne garnison et de l'administration de l'Acadie [NOTE 166].
Though Louis La Chaume was a member of the Port Royal garrison he was retired in Louisbourg by 1723, temporarily filling in as acting [PAGE 43:] garrison major in 1726 [NOTE 167]. He had been wounded in Acadia and was therefore retired at half pay in 1725 [NOTE 168]. ln order to supplement his small pension he did some merchandising and ran an auberge in one of his properties in Block 32 or on the Rue du Quay [NOTE 169]. He left Louisbourg in 1745 and due to his age and infirmity never returned, living near Bordeaux till his death in the early 1750's [NOTE 170]
His son Joseph and one daughter Anne, remained in Louisbourg. The second daughter, Catherine, married Bernard Douaizon, a Bordeaux merchant; Anne was married to Jean Baptiste Guyon of Louisbourg. Joseph was born in Port Royal sometime after 1703, and before he married the widow Richard, had bought land in Block 32 next to that of his father [NOTE 171]. He is described as a ship captain in 1750 [NOTE 172]. However, he may have helped his father at the family inn before he married in 1742. His marriage to the widow Richard brought him new property and he and his wife ran Lot B(1) as an inn where they resided. He rented out his property in Block 32 until he sold it in 1755 [NOTE 173]. The Lot B(l) property seems to have catered to the same sort of people as the Fizel's next door: there are references to a ship captain, Jean Mathurin, and a merchant, Emard, living there [NOTE 174].
Joseph and Catherine shared equally the property of their father after his death [NOTE 175]. He sold his share of his father's Block 32 property in 1755 [NOTE 176].
When he married the widow Richard, La Chaume and his new wife lived with his first wife's remaining daughter, Jeanne, who was married by 1754 [NOTE 177]. The la Chaumes had three children of their own: Anne Magdeleine (b. 17 April 1743), Jean Louis (b. 1 April 1745) and Joseph, who was born before 1750 [NOTE 178]. Joseph La Chaume continued to live in Lot B (1) and was dead by 1757. The family presumably left for France the following year [NOTE 179].
(IV) LOT B (2):
The division of Lot B in 1736 left the northern half of the lot, B(l), in the possession of André Ballé.
(E) - BALLÉ FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) ANDRÉ BALLÉ (d. 1745-1749);
(2) ANGELIQUE FRIQUANT (d. 1745-1749, m. 1738);
(3) ANDRÉ BALLÉ (b. 1739);
(4) JEANNE ANGELIQUE BALLÉ (b. 1740);
(5) JEAN BAPTISTE BALLÉ (b. 1742);
(6) MARTIN BALLÉ (b. 1742);
(7) PIERRE MARTIN BALLÉ (b. 1744).
It appears, however, that though he owned the property Ballé lived in André Carrerot's property at Rochefort Point [NOTE 180].
Ballé was a charretier, a carter or waggoner who, at various times hauled stone and sand from the beach for the building of Louisbourg roads [NOTE 181]. He may have done some shipping until at least 1739 when he sold a 35-tonneau boat to Pierre Carrerot [NOTE 182]. However, he is uniformly referred to as a charretier.
André Ballé was a native of Avranches, the son of Richard Ballé and Françoise Jeannot. In 1738 he married Angelique Friquant the daughter of Jacques Friquant, a Louisbourg, blacksmith and Marie Fauché [NOTE 183]. The couple had five children: André (b. 3 April 1739), Jeanne Angelique (b. 10 December 1740), twins Jean Baptiste and Martin (b. 30 October 1742), and Pierre Martin (b. 11 August 1744) [NOTE 184].
Both Ballé and his wife died at Rochefort after transportation to France in 1745. The eldest son, André, only ten years old, inherited his father's holdings at Louisbourg with Joseph Guillet, husband of Angelique Préville, as tuteur [NOTE 185].
During the time Ballé owned 16 B(2) Jean Solet lived there, presumably paying his rent to the new owner.
(F) - SOLET FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) JEAN SOLET (d.c. 1755);
(2) MARIE LEMANQUET (m. 1729); ANDRÉ SOLET (b. 1736);
(3) LEGER SOLET (b. 1737);
(4) MARIE LOUISE SOLET;
(5) MARIE FRANÇOISE SOLET;
(6) SEBASTIEN DUMAINE (m. 1754);
(7) GUILLAUME TARDIEU (m. 1755).
Richard had made a private agreement to rent the house to Solet and in the deed of sale to Ballé he insisted that Solet's right of occupation for three years be respected. [NOTE 186]. Jean Solet (Solé, Sollé) was the eldest son of Pierre Solet and Balise Cousaux. In 1729 he married Marie Lemanquet, daughter of Jean [PAGE 47:] Lemanquet and Barbe Vincent from Plaisance [NOTE 187]. There are records of four children: André (b. 1736), Leger (b. 1737), and two daughters, Marie Louise who married Sebastien Dumaine in 1754, and Marie Françoise who married Guillaume Michel Tardieu in 1755. [NOTE 188].
Jean Solet, a native of the diocese of St. Bertrand de Commenge in Gascoigne, not far from Auch, came to Scatarie before 1729 when he was married to Marie Lemanquet [NOTE 189]. He was a master surgeon there, and by 1734 he was practicing in Petit Lorembec [NOTE 190]. Between 1734 and 1736 he moved to Louisbourg and rented the house in Lot B(2). It is uncertain when he left the house but Julien Fizel purchased the property 12 January 1737 and no mention is made of Solet. If we take this to mean that Solet was gone by 1737, it is likely he moved to Louisbourg sometime in 1734, with his rental agreement with Richard extending for three years [NOTE 191]. By 1744 he was back at Lorembec and it appears that he later studied at Rochefort. There is no record of his returning to Louisbourg in 1749, but it is certain that he was dead by 1755 [NOTE 192].
Julien Fizel purchased the property from André Ballé 12 January 1737 [NOTE 193].
(G) - FIZEL FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) JULIEN FIZEL (b.c. 1707-d. 1757);
(2) MARIE DETCHEVERRY (m. 1731-d. 1733);
(3) FRANÇOISE JACQUETTE FIZEL (b. 1732);
(1) JULIEN FIZEL (remarries in 1733);
(2) FRANÇOISE TETARD;
(3) NICOLAS FRANÇOIS FIZEL (1734-1738);
(4) VINCENT FIZEL (b. 1736);
(5) ANNE PERRINE (b. 1737);
(6) JULIEN FIZEL (b. 1739);
(7) MARIE FRANÇOISE FIZEL (b. 1741);
(8) PIERRE BERNARD FIZEL (b. 1742);
(9) FRANÇOISE MARIE FIZEL (b. 1743);
(10) JOSEPH CECILE FIZEL (b. 1752);
(11) BARBE LOUISE FIZEL (b. 1753);
(12) JEAN FRANÇOIS FIZEL (b. 1754);
(13) ETTIENETTE ANNE FIZEL (b. 1755);
(14) ETIENNE ROCHE (m. 1756).
He was in the house by 1741 since he renewed the passage rights to the well and latrine with the Richards that year [NOTE 194].
Julien Fizel, the new owner of Lot B(2), the son of Julien Fizel and Nicolase Le Cocq, was born around 1707 in Hocquigny near Avranches in the bishopric of Coutances, Normandy. In 1739 he was referred to as an aubergiste on the Rue du Quay [NOTE 195]. In 1731 he married Marie Detcheverry, daughter of Dominique Detcheverry, a master blacksmith from Bayonne, and Elizabeth Degli [NOTE 196]. They had one child, Françoise Jacquette, in December 1732 before the mother died, probably of small pox, 7 May 1733 [NOTE 197].
One month later, in June, 1733, 15-year old Françoise Tetard, an Acadian daughter of François Tetard and Marie Doiron, lost her father. On 25 August she married Fizel and they eventually had ten children, all but one of whom survived. [NOTE 198].
Thus in 1734 Fizel was living in Louisbourg with his wife Françoise, the daughter of his first marriage, the first son of his second marriage, and a servant. He was listed in the census of that year as an aubergiste, but he must have been renting since he had no land grants at the time [NOTE 199]. However, after 1736 he became owner of a good deal of property. First came the house in Block 16, followed by a property in Fourchu in 1741, two properties in Block 15 bought from Philibert Genier in 1740 and 1742, and the old Nadau dit Lachapelle fishing property in the Dauphin Fauxbourg in 1752. [NOTE 200]. There is also a reference to Fizel owning a property in Grand Framboise [NOTE 201].
Fizel was a busy individual involved in numerous activities. On his land at Framboise and Fourchu he raised sheep and cattle, which he shipped to Louisbourg for local consumption. ln a number of documents he is said to have run a sheep butchery on property rented from Blaise Cassaignolles on the north shore of the harbour. This would make him a person of vital importance to Louisbourg [NOTE 202]. He bought and sold various boats, and used some to ship his cattle and other goods [NOTE 203]. He seems to have had his finger in many pies; in his inventory we find that he had 1,541 livres worth of pelts in stock, presumably in one of the three buildings he owned in his Block 15 property where he ran a boutique [NOTE 204]. He was in the market for any goods from books to wigs and ran his Block 16 property as an inn where he also lived. His inn seems to have catered to [PAGE 50:] a decent clientele: Joseph Felix Chesnay, sergeant-at-arms of the Superior Council, and Philibert Genier, secretary of the council, lived there, as did visiting ship captains. In 1743 the house held at least six guests, including Chesnay and five ship captains, besides Le Contois and Hughes Vincent, Fizel's cooks, and Fizel's 14-year old son Louis. Fizel was also there, and presumably his wife. The rest of his six children probably lived across the street in his Block 15 property. It is interesting to note here that Fizel's staff served dinner to the pensionnaires between 8 and 9 P.M. at a time when Fizel himself was being shaved [NOTE 205].
Fizel did not limit his interests to his private affairs; he also served as a militia captain. In this capacity he was tragically killed, mistaken for an Englishman, presumably while outside the town walls during the nervous spring of 1757 when the colony already feared an English attack. He left a pregnant wife and ten children [NOTE 206]. Though there is no record of Françoise Tetard's marrying again, she was well off. Fizel left her debt free with Louisbourg properties valued at 22,000 livres, goods valued at 30,000 livres and a house in Brest he had bought during the first British occupation, which he was leasing out when he died [NOTE 207].
(V) STRUCTURES IN BLOCK 16, LOT B (1):
The house in Lot B(l) was built by Jean Richard probably in 1736. There is no evidence as to its construction materials; its dimensions can be deduced as approximately 48 pieds (51.16 feet.) on the Rue St. Louis by 23 pieds deep. [NOTE 208]. This means it was contiguous with the houses in Lots B(l) and A(2); all maps showing the house bear this out. The outside entrance to the yard was from the Rue Royalle, via the 16 B(2) property. [PAGE 51:] The two properties shared the well and latrine, the latter being owned by the occupant of B(l) [NOTE 209]
We have a general idea of the layout of the house in 1741 from the rather mangled inventory of Jean Richard. It had two storeys; on the first floor there was a chambre to the right of the entrance door on the Rue St. Louis. The room seems to have served as a kitchen and sleeping quarters, presumably for Richard, containing a bed, commode, buffet, table and fireplace, as well as cooking utensils. At the back of the room there must have been a door leading to a small adjoining chambre to the left, that is at the southwest corner of the house, which overlooked the yard. This room had two beds and an English bureau. A small chambre overlooking the yard with a door that locked with a key, apparently a storeroom, was on the second floor to the left of the stairs or steps, and another chambre with tables and an armoire containing family valuables and papers. Shutters are mentioned for the upstairs room overlooking the yard [NOTE 210].
Only one map shows the roof of the building: it had a gable roof [NOTE 211]. Other maps reveal that the building was demolished in the second siege [NOTE 212].
A few more insights into this building are presented in the bill of sale of B(2) to André Ballé. Richard had just completed a house in B(l) and was selling his former residence in B(2) to Ballé. In the sale agreement, Richard had to bar the two windows of his new house which overlooked the B(2) property; one window was upstairs and one was on the ground floor. Since the houses adjoined, the downstairs window probably overlooked the yard; the upstairs window looked over the roof or the yard of B(2). It is more likely that it overlooked the yard [NOTE 213].
The house had no gutters since Ballé agreed to allow the rain from the house to run on his new property [NOTE 214].
(VI) STRUCTURES IN BLOCK 16, LOT B (2):
Though we have more information on the house in 16 B(2) than B(l), the evidence presents some problems of interpretation. It appears that the house, the first constructed in Block 16., underwent substantial modifications between its construction around 1719 and its destruction in 1758.
The first document referring to the house, the bill of sale of sublot B(2) to Jean Richard in 1733, refers to the house as "une maison de briquets couverte en planche." The sale price is 2,500 livres [NOTE 215]. This is clearly too cheap for a brick house; for example, Antoine Paris' house in 16 A(l) was valued at 4,500 livres in 1732, and this was a charpente building of about the same size [NOTE 216].
It would appear that "briquet" should accordingly read "piquet." This deduction is confirmed by the fact that when the house was sold three years later it was described as "une Maison de piquet" [NOTE 217] and priced at 1,211 livres. The drop in price can be attributed partly to the fact that the property was cut in half and the latrine was shared with the neighbour. Though land values were not greatly inflated in the 1730's the price still seems low. It is possible that the house had deteriorated badly and that Richard wanted to make a quick sale, perhaps to help pay for his new house next door. At any rate, the house was piquet in 1736. When Richard sold the house to Ballé in 1736 the house was described as having a gutter at the west end which Richard agreed to repair [NOTE 218].
Unfortunately we do not have the bill of sale which Ballé and Fizel agreed upon in 1737. All we know is that the house was hit by a bomb during the first siege [NOTE 219]. The next we note is in 1752 when Fizel was [PAGE 53:] complaining about carpentry work done to the house [NOTE 220]. Then in 1757 when Fizel was killed, the house, described as stone, was valued at 9,000 livres [NOTE 221]. In common with the other houses in Blocks 16 and 15 situated along the Rue St. Louis, the house was destroyed during the second siege; the certificate of demolition described it as stone [NOTE 222]. This evidence indicates that the house, though originally piquet, was converted into a stone dwelling before 1757. Maps do not indicate its construction materials.
The actual dimensions of the house are never spelled out, but after the erection of the house in 16 B(l), reliable maps always show the two places as contiguous [NOTE 223]. This means the house, which filled the property along the Rue St. Louis between the Rue Royalle and the 16 B(l) house, was 22 pieds in depth [NOTE 224]. Measurements for frontage on the Rue Royalle from available maps are as follows:
(1) 60 pieds - 1720-2;
(2) 55 pieds - 1730-2;
(3) 42 pieds - 1731-3;
(4) 45 pieds - 1734-4;
(5) 33 feet - 1747-1;
(6) 38 feet - 1767-1 (taken from foundation tracings);
(7) 38 pieds - N.D. 89 (1736-1739);
(8) 38 pieds - N.D. 24 (1735-1736).
These maps reveal a radical decrease in the length of the house along the Rue Royalle between 1734 and 1746, perhaps accounting for the drop in its sale price between 1733 and 1736. By 1747 the house scales at 33 feet, while Fizel's work on the house in the 1750's, when he built in stone, may have again enlarged the house.
All plans revealing the house's roof show it to be a hip roof, but in the Fizel inventory a room is located "en Mansardes", perhaps indicating a mansard roof by 1757 [NOTE 225].
The first documentary evidence of the interior design of this house is found in court records following a fight, that broke out there in 1743. The house evidently had a dining room with a large table for boarders. There was a kitchen downstairs and rooms, at least some of which were private, upstairs. Fizel's 14-year old son, Louis, had his own room upstairs. Though this incident took place between 8 and 9 P.M. the wife and other children are not mentioned or called as witnesses, meaning they were all absent or lived, in another property owned by Fizel [NOTE 226].
In 1752 when Fizel was having the house repaired, windows, sashes,,and shutters are mentioned [NOTE 227].
Finally, in the 1757 inventory of Fizel's effects, the house was described as having a large chambre downstairs to the left of the main entrance with a cabinet, perhaps at the back of the room. This large room seems to correspond to the "dining room" mentioned above, since a table is mentioned along with kitchen utensils, and 13 chairs of different types. Two beds are mentioned - presumably in the cabinet.
The next room noted is the kitchen, likely to the right of the main entrance but connecting with the dining room. Above the kitchen was a small chambre with one bed. Andirons in the room might indicate a fireplace. There was another small chambre and corridor adjoining the other chambre which had two beds. Next was a large chambre, Fizel's private room, with his clothes, a secretary table bed and dining table.
There was a room or rooms ("les chambre") in the attic ("en Mansardes et greniers") with one bed. In the cellar or basement ("cave ou Celier") [PAGE 55:] everything from food and shingles to what appears to be a fire pump were stashed away [NOTE 228].
Though changes occurred to the house between 1743 and 1757, the two descriptions coincide closely enough to indicate that the house had not changed materially in layout between those two dates. Like its neighbours the house was wiped out in the second siege [NOTE 229].
I. [PAGE 230:]
[NOTE 129:] Ibid., G1, Vol. 466, pièce 83, p. 30, 30 avril 1733; A.F.L., plans 722-1, 723-2, 723-3;
[NOTE 130:] A.F.L., plan 720-4;
[NOTE 131:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 50-2, fols. 570-572, 10 juin 1727; Ibid., Vol. 49-2, fols. 696-696v., 16 avril 1726;
[NOTE 132:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 63, 2 mars 1733;
[NOTE 133:] A.F.L., plan 734-5;
[NOTE 134:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3,, Carton 2038-2. No. 61, 21 mai 1733;
[NOTE 135:] Ibid., Carton 2039, No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 136:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 209-2. dossier 508, fol. 68, 24 décembre 1757;
[NOTE 137:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 36-7, fol. 433v., 21 mars 1714;
[NOTE 138:] Ibid., Vol. 37-3, fols. 792-806, 4 juin 1715;
[NOTE 139:] Ibid., C11C, Vol. 11., fols. 6-6v., 1 décembre 1714;
[NOTE 140:] Ibid., B, Vol. 37-3, fols. 853-854, 4 juin 1715;
[NOTE 141:] Ibid., C11C., Vol. 11, fols. 6-6v., 1 décembre 1714;
[NOTE 142:] Ibid., CllB, Vol. 1., fols. 149-164v., 28 novembre 1715;
[NOTE 143:] Ibid., fols. 261-262,, 7 septembre 1715; Ibid. Vol. 2, fols. 261-264, 20 janvier 1717; Ibid., B, Vol. 39-5, fols- 1045-1064, juin 1717;
[NOTE 144:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2056, No. 26, 28 septembre 1718;
[NOTE 145:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 5, fols. 150-162, 4 janvier 1719;
[NOTE 146:] Ibid.,B, Vol. 42-2. fols. 373-382, 2 juillet 1720;
[NOTE 147:] A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl., Vol. 406., Reg. II, fol. 13v., 16 janvier 1729;
[NOTE 148:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2056, No. 26, 28 septembre 1718;
[NOTE 149:] A.N. Marine, C7, Vol. 287; A.N., Colonies, CllB, Vol. 20, fols. 91-97v., 2 novembre 1738; Ibid., Vol. 29, fols. 66-71v., 6 décembre 1750; Ibid., B, Vol. 99, fol. 249, pièce 19, 30 mai 1754;
[NOTE 150:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 76, 10 janvier 1733;
[NOTE 151:] Ibid., G1, Vol. 406., Reg. IV, fol. 53v., 12 octobre 1734; A.N., Hospices et Secours, F15, 3432: 54, p. 2, 24 Ventose année 7 [1798-1799]; A.N., Outre- Mer, Gl. Vol. 406, Reg. IV, fol. 49, 24 novembre 1733; Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. I, fol. 41, 25 novembre 1739; Ibid., fol. 84v., 15 décembre 1741;
[NOTE 152:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2046-1, No. 1, 25 septembre 1737; H.P. Thibault, L'Ilôt 17 de Louisbourg (1713-1768), National Historic Sites Service Manuscript Report Series, No. 99, 1972, p. 134;
[NOTE 153:] A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 287; A.C., D2C, Vol. 59, fol. 34v.;
[NOTE 154:] H.P. Thibault, L'Ilôt 17 de Louisbourg (1713-1768), pp. 129- 132;
[NOTE 155:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 75, 31 juillet 1749; Thibault, p. 132;
[NOTE 156:] Jean Richard, navigateur, aubergiste, is not to be confused with Jean Richard, master mason., who lived in Block 38. This seems to have happened in Adams, Artisans At Louisbourg, p. 87, and Pothier, "Les [PAGE 232:] Acadiens à L'Ile Royale (1713 à 1734)", La société Historique Acadienne, Vol. 3, No. 3, P. 100;
[NOTE 157:] A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol. 466, No. 68, Census 1728;
[NOTE 158:] Ibid., p. 24;
[NOTE 159:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 49, 9 septembre 1734; Lecuyer was a convert to Roman Catholicism and was a native of Hampshire, England, A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol. 406, 9 novembre 1723, n.p.;
[NOTE 160:] Ibid., G1, Vol. 406, Reg. IV, fol. 27v., 8 mai 1731; Ibid., fol. 47, 8 juillet 1733; Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. I, fol. 46v., 15 avril 1740; Ibid., Vol. 406., Reg. IV, fol. 12, 6 juin 1729; Ibid., Vol. 407, fol. 70, 7 mai 1741;
[NOTE 161:] The house was valued at 160 livres in 1739 and 370 livres in 1741. A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 21, fols. 271-273v., 24 octobre 1739; Ibid., Vol. 24, fols. 219-220, 19 octobre 1741;
[NOTE 162:] Ibid., Vol. 24, fols. 219-220, 19 octobre 1741;
[NOTE 163:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 185, fols. 342-345, 19 août 1739; Ibid., Vol. 196, No. 124, fol. 39, 29 juillet 1740;
[NOTE 164:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 165:] Ibid., Carton 2046-2. No. 140, 19 juin 1742;
[NOTE 166:] B. Pothier, "Les Acadiens à l'Ile Royale (1713 à 1734)", La Société Historique Acadienne, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1969;
[NOTE 167:] A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol. 466, fols. 396-400, n.d.; Ibid., Vol. 462, fol. 133, 1726;
[NOTE 168:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 7, fols. 32- 33v., 29 novembre 1723; Ibid., B, Vol. 47, fols. 276-291, 26 juin 1724; La Chaume was given a pension of 12 livres per month, A.C., D2C, Vol. 60, fol. 4, 12 juillet 1725; A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 7, fols. 272-272v., 10 décembre 1725; [PAGE 233:]
[NOTE 169:] A.N., Colonies, C11C. Vol. 12, fol. 111, 5 avril 1735; Ibid., fol. 107v. 5 avril 1735; A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol. 466, No. 69; Proulx, Aubergistes et Cabaretiers de Louisbourg, 1713-1758, p. 21;
[NOTE 170:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 90, fol. 92, 6 mars 1749; Ibid., fol. 106, 24 mars 1749; A.N., Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 202, dossier 271, No.1, 14 avril 1753;
[NOTE 171:] A.N., Colonies, C11C, Vol. 12, fol, 107v., 5 avril 1735;
[NOTE 172:] A.N., Outre- Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1. No- 133, 16 décembre 1750;
[NOTE 173:] Ibid., Carton 2044, 14 avril 1755;
[NOTE 174:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 211, fol. 526, 14 juin 1750; Ibid., Vol. 188, fol.367v., 2 juin 1751;
[NOTE 175:] Ibid., Vol. 202, fol. 271,, 1 and 14 avril 1753;
[NOTE 176:] Ibid., G3,, Carton 2044, No. 79, 14 avril 1755;
[NOTE 177:] Ibid., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 76, 1749;
[NOTE 178:] Ibid. Vol. 407, Reg. II, fol. 16, 17 avril 1743; Ibid., fol. 49v. 1 avril 1745;
[NOTE 179:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 206-2. fols. 2v.-4, 12 août 1757;
[NOTE 180:] Ibid., Vol. 196, fol. 93v., 8 fevrier 1736; Ibid., Vol. 190, fol. 43, 9 décembre 1737;
[NOTE 181:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 17, fols. 164-198v., 1736; A.N., Outre-Mer, G2., Vol. 197, fol. 130, 1 fevrier 1740;
[NOTE 182:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2046-1. No. 157, 23 décembre 1739;
[NOTE 183:] Ibid., Gl., Vol. 407, Reg. I, fols. 7v.-8, 14 mai 1738; Ibid., G3, Carton 2046-1, 10 juillet 1738;
[NOTE 184:] Ibid., Gl, Vol. 407, Reg. I, fol. 24v., avril 1739; Ibid., fol. 61, 11 décembre 1740; Ibid., Reg. II., fol. 8v., 30 octobre 1742; Ibid., fol. 37, 11 août 1744;
[NOTE 185:] Ibid., G2., Vol. 211, fol. 528E, 29-30 octobre 1749;
[NOTE 186:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2039, No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 187:] Ibid., Gl, Vol. 406, Reg. IV. fol. 14, 22 août 1729;
[NOTE 188:] Ibid., fol. 60v., 11 fevrier 1736; Ibid., fol. 66, 23 juin 1737; Ibid., Vol. 409, fol. 18, 18 juin 1754; Ibid., fol. 53v., 8 avril 1755;
[NOTE 189:] Ibid., Gl Vol. 406, Reg. IV, fol. 14, 22 août 1729. The census of 1734 lists Solet as a native of Bordeaux but the parish records seem to be a more reliable source than the census;
[NOTE 190:] Ibid., Vol. 466, pièce 69, 1734;
[NOTE 191:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 209-2, dossier 508, fol. 68, 24 décembre 1757; Ibid., G3, Carton 2039-l, No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 192:] Ibid., Gl. Vol. 409, Reg. I. fol. 53v., 8 avril 1755. Linda Hoad, Surgery and Surgeons in Ile Royale, p. 83;
[NOTE 193:] Ibid.; G2, Vol. 209-2, dossier 508, fol. 68, 24 décembre 1757;
[NOTE 194:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2046-2. No. 42, 2 mai 1741;
[NOTE 195:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 185, fol. 361, 4 mars 1739;
[NOTE 196:] Ibid., fol. 46, 7 mai 1733;
[NOTE 197:] Ibid., G3, Vol. 406, Reg. IV, fol. 46, 7 mai 1733; Ibid., fol. 41, 13 décembre 1732;
[NOTE 198:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 182, fols. 877-882, 16 juin 1733; Ibid., Gl, Vol. 406, Reg. IV, fol. 47v., 25 août 1733; Ibid., fol. 53v., 21 octobre 1734; Ibid., fols. 59v.-60, 15 janvier 1736; Ibid., fol. 68, 25 septembre 1737, Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. I, fol. 14v., 17 octobre 1738; Ibid., fol. 31, 28 juillet 1739; Ibid., fol. 70, 9 mai 1741; Ibid., Reg. II, fol. 3v., 22 juillet 1742; Ibid., fol. 25v., 3 novembre 1743; [PAGE 235:] Ibid., vol. 408, Reg. I, fol. 102, 7 fevrier 1752; Ibid., Reg. II, fol. 31v., 15 août 1753; Ibid., Vol. 409, Reg. I, fol. 72, 22 septembre 1755;
[NOTE 199:] A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol. 466, fol. 69, 1734;
[NOTE 200:] Ibid., G2. Vol. 209-2., fol. 67, 24 décembre 1757; Linda Hoad, The Dauphin Fauxbourg, 1971, pp. 3, 29, 30;
[NOTE 201:] Ibid., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 82, 1753;
[NOTE 202:] A.N., Colonies, C11C, Vol. 27, fols. 215-216v., 8 juin 1746; A.N., Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 187, fols. 10, 12, 16, 22, 23, 20 septembre 1742; A.N., Colonies, CllB, Vol. 24, fols. 66-66v., 25 octobre 1745;
[NOTE 203:] A.N., Colonies,, C11C, Vol. 13, fol. 61v., 1749; A.N., Outre-Mer, G3,Carton 2046-2. No. 50, 30 septembre 1741; A.C.M., B, Vol. 276, p. 216,, 1739-1743; Ibid., Vol. 279, p. 217, fols. 38v.- 39v., 1743-1745;
[NOTE 204:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 202, dossier 272, fol. 39v., 31 juillet 1752; Ibid., Vol. 209., dossier 508, 4 août 1757;
[NOTE 205:] Ibid., Vol. 198., fol. 176, septembre 1743;
[NOTE 206:] A.N., Colonies, E,, Vol. 184, 24 décembre 1773;
[NOTE 207:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G2, dossier 508, pièce 4. avril-août 1757;
[NOTE 208:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2039, No. 165, 12 octobre 1736; Ibid., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 83, fol. 30, 30 avril 1733;
[NOTE 209:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2039, No.165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 210:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 197, dossier 141, mai 1741;
[NOTE 211:] A.F.L., plan N.D. 89;
[NOTE 212:] A.F.L., plans 768-1., 767-1., 767-la; [NOTE 213:] A.N., Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2039., No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 214:] Ibid.;
[NOTE 215:] Ibid., Carton 2038-2. No. 63, 2 marS, 1733;
[NOTE 216:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 181, fols. 59-93., 20 fevrier 1732;
[NOTE 217:] Ibid., G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 218:] Ibid.;
[NOTE 219:] D.F.C., Ordre 216, 17 juillet 1745;
[NOTE 220:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 204, dossier 471, fols. 27v.-28, 31 juillet 1752;
[NOTE 221:] Ibid., Vol. 209, dossier 508, août 1757;
[NOTE 222:]; A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 89, fol. 14, 1 juillet 1758;
[NOTE 223:] A.F.L., plans 746-3, 747-1, N.D. 89;
[NOTE 224:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1. No. 165, 12 octobre 1736;
[NOTE 225:] Ibid., G2, Vol. 209, dossier 508, pièce 4, 3 août 1757;
[NOTE 226:] Ibid., Vol. 198, dossier 176, septembre 1743;
[NOTE 227:] Ibid., 9 Vol. 204, dossier 471,, fols, 27v.-28, 31 juillet 1752;
[NOTE 228:] Ibid., Vol. 209, dossier 508, pièce 4. 3 août 1757;
[NOTE 229:] A.F.L., plan 767-1.