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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
ROBERT J. MORGAN
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 25)
Only two families ever owned Lot D: those of Jacques de Pensens and Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière fils. Both men were captains, both commanded at Port Toulouse and at Ile St. Jean, and both represented powerful families in Louisbourg. In 1736, when Jacques de Pensens sold the lot to De la Vallière, he moved to Lot E, and the two families were close neighbours until 1750. They were also close to John Chrysostome Loppinot, a sergeant, later captain, who lived in Lot C until he bought the Lot E property from the De Pensens. These three families formed one distinct social group in Block 16, rarely mixing with their neighbours in the rest of the block. The De Pensens were related to Governor St. Ovide de Brouillon, and accordingly associated only with the highest members of society. The same applies to the De la Vallières who had noble blood; Barbe LeNeuf, daughter of Michel, married Louis Delort, son of the wealthiest merchant in Louisbourg. Eighteenth century class distinction, and particularly the social organization of is sharply outlined in a study of Block 16.
Jacques de Pensens was conceded Lot D, 4 May 1720. It was described thus in 1735:
... un Terrain danslad. Isle No 16 de 90 pieds de face sur la rue de Toulouze et de 26 deprofondeur lelongdelarue Royalle faisant ensuperficie 11340 pieds quarrés borné (auN) parladt. rue Royale, al'Est par le terrain deS. Lopinot laisné Surrine [PAGE 70:] longueur de 28 pieds, auS. par leterrain reserve pourle Jardin duGouvernement et al'O. par larue de Toulouze [NOTE 298].
DE PENSENS FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) PIERRE D'ESPIET DE PENSENS;
(2) MARIE LUSAVEY;
(3) JACQUES DESPIET DE PENSENS (d. 1738);
(4) PIERRE DESPIET DE PENSENS (d. 1730);
(5) JEAN GEORGES DESPIET DE PENSENS (d. 1738);
(6) PIERRE-PAUL DESPIET DE LA PLAGNE DE MARGOUET DE PENSENS;
(7) JEAN DESPIET CHEVALIER DE PENSENS (b. 1703);
(8) MARIE CHARLOTTE DELORT;
(9) PIERRE GUILLAUME DESPIET DE LA PLAGNE DE MARGOUET DE PENSENS (b. 1740);
(10) MARIE CHARLOTTE BARBE DESPIET DE LA PLAGNE DE MARGOUET DE PENSENS (b. 1743);
(11) ANNE CHARLOTTE DESPIET DE LA PLAGNE DE MARGOUET DE PENSENS (b. 1744).
The De Pensens family were natives of Auch in Gascony, and Jacques began his career in North America at Placentia where he was appointed enseigne 1 May 1698 [NOTE 299]. In 1705 he was made assistant town major at Port Royal where he won the confidence of the Acadians. He fought against the English at St. John's in 1708-09 under his cousin, St. Ovide de Brouillon. In 1712 he was appointed lieutenant at Plaisance; he and De la Vallière were among the seven captains who claimed possession of Isle Royale for the king in 1713 [NOTE 300].
By 1715 Acadians, as well as other settlers, were arriving at Port Toulouse, and De Pensens, now a captain, was sent with 40 men as commander of the settlement [NOTE 301]. He carried out negotiations for the removal of Acadians to Isle Royale throughout the summer and fall of 1715, and dealt with their problems throughout his command at Port Toulouse. In 1718 he was appointed captain and agent for the Trésorier de la Marine at Port Toulouse and to the colony's Superior Council in 1719 [NOTE 302]. In November of the same year he was appointed aide-major in place of the Comte d'Agrain who had left for France [NOTE 303]. In the fall of 1720 he went to Petit de Great to study Indian problems [NOTE 304], and then sailed to Canseau (Canso) to squelch the feuding between English and French fishermen there [NOTE 305].
In 1723 we see the first of De Pensens' requests for furlough due to ill health. This coincided with plans to send him to Ile St. Jean, which had been abandoned by the Compte St. Pierre who, in 1719, had been granted the islands of St. Jean, Magdelaine and Miscou [NOTE 306]. In 1724 he was in France [NOTE 307] but came back to Isle Royale the following year [NOTE 308]. He returned [PAGE 71:] to Port Toulouse, but in 1725 he received orders to go to Ile St. Jean the following spring [NOTE 309]. He asked for the appointment of lieutenant du Roi and a larger detachment than the 30 men which was planned for the island [NOTE 310]. Instead he was given only 25 men and an enseigne [NOTE 311].
Though De Pensens was probably sent to Ile St. Jean because of his acquaintance with the problems of young settlements and because his friendship with the Acadians would be of value in attracting them to Ile St. Jean, he obviously hated the posting and used every excuse to return to Louisbourg or France. Hence he spent the winters of 1726, 1728 and 1730, and long parts of 1727 and 1733 in Louisbourg, and 1731- 33 and 1736-38 in France, always claiming bad health as the reason for his escapes from Ile St. Jean [NOTE 312]. He was absent during almost the whole year of 1727 having discussions with the English lieutenant-governor of Canseau, Lawrence Armstrong [NOTE 313], and in distributing gifts to the Indians at Port Toulouse [NOTE 314]. Though he was placated with an addition of 15 troops in 1728 he was still not made a lieutenant du Roi since Maurepas feared that this might anger the English [NOTE 315]. He finally received this appointment in 1733 after a two-year trip to France and a personal interview with Maurepas himself [NOTE 316]. He returned to Ile St. Jean in October when permission was finally given for a full infantry company to be stationed there, probably for the purpose of road building [NOTE 317].
De Pensens remained in Ile St. Jean until 1736 when illness brought about his final removal from the island. The seriousness of his illness was by now obvious to others, and when he left for France there was no hope of his return [NOTE 318]. His nephew, Jean Georges Despiet de Pensens, accompanied him on his miserable trip home [NOTE 319]. De Pensens retired 3 April 1737 with an annual pension of 800 livres [NOTE 320].
On 4 September 1738, St. Ovide de Brouillon wrote of his shock at the death of Jacques and his nephew Jean Georges Despiet de Pensens in France. He returned the Cross of St. Louis which was to be presented to the former lieutenant du Roi [NOTE 321].
From the outline of his career it is plain to see that Jacques de Pensens occupied key positions in Isle Royale, mainly outside of Louisbourg. Though he was important in the establishment of Louisbourg and Port Toulouse, he, more than anyone else, laid the foundation of the French presence in Ile St. Jean [NOTE 322]. This is not to say that De Pensens was above reproach. He operated a profitable fishery in the Iles Michaud though such practices were forbidden for ranking officers [NOTE 323]. This brought him into conflict with fishermen like Paris [NOTE 324]. With St. Ovide., his cousin, he took part in the trade of commodities with settlers; he controlled a boat for the transportation of goods and supplies to Ile St. Jean, so he could easily participate in trade [NOTE 325]. When De Pensens' will was read it was discovered that he and the Compte D'Arrigrand, contractor for the construction of the barracks of the king's bastion, had formed a secret partnership in order to ensure the "smooth running" of the contract. It was alleged that St. Ovide himself was involved in this partnership with his cousin De Pensens, a consideration which doubtless contributed to St. Ovide's demotion from governor of Isle Royale in 1738 [NOTE 326].
Though he was a bachelor, De Pensens paternally guided the careers of the three sons of his brother, Pierre Despiet de Pensens, who died at Louisbourg in 1730. The eldest son was Jean Georges Despiet, who served in his uncle's company. He was appointed enseigne, 26 March 1711, aide-major, 15 March 1723 and captain, 8 May 1730. In 1736 he accompanied his sick uncle to France but died there himself 22 August 1738 [NOTE 327]. The next [PAGE 74:] nephew was Pierre-Paul Despiet de la Plagne de Margouet. He began his career as a cadet in Isle Royale in 1713 and was an enseigne by 1714, a lieutenant in 1730, and captain in 1737. Two years later he married Marie-Charlotte Delort, daughter of Guillaume Delort, one of the wealthiest merchants in Louisbourg. They had three children, a boy and two girls [NOTE 328]. At the death of his uncle Jacques and his brother, he was given command of a company and served for a period at the Royal Battery and as troop commander in Ile St. Jean in 1738 [NOTE 329]. Always a sickly person, when he received the Cross of St. Louis in 1747, he retired to France, where he assumed the title Seigneur de Margouet [NOTE 330].
Little is known of the youngest nephew of Jacques de Pensens, Jean Despiet chevalier de Pensens who was made an enseigne in 1725 at the age of 22 [NOTE 331]. He served in his uncle's company at Port Toulouse, but mainly on Ile St. Jean, and like his uncle, remained a bachelor. Though his brothers, especially Pierre-Paul and to a lesser extent Jean-Georges, participated in family affairs like baptisms and marriages, Jean Despiet did not. For example, Jean-Georges accompanied his sick uncle to France in 1737, and De la Plagne went to France to settle family affairs at their demise in 1738 [NOTE 332]. Part of the reason for this was his service away from the family in Ile St. Jean. In 1728 he was appointed enseigne en second [NOTE 333] in a "new" company.
Jacques de Pensens also guided Jean Despiet's career. When one member of the family was in France, Jacques arranged that Jean would assume his duties and gain experience. In 1730 for example, Jean-Georges went to France, Jacques moved to Louisbourg from Ile St. Jean, where he could not bear the lonely winters, and Jean Despiet replaced Jean-Georges [PAGE 75:] on Ile St. Jean [NOTE 334]. The uncle, however, failed to have the young man appointed lieutenant at the death of De la Tour in 1732 [NOTE 335]. He was finally successful in 1735 when Lieutenant Catalogne died and Jean replaced him [NOTE 336]. Jean remained in Ile St. Jean during the 1730's, working with his uncle and brother, De la Plagne, to construct public buildings and roads. This construction, indeed the island as a whole, was virtually under the control of the De Pensens family [NOTE 337].
Jean also replaced his brother, De la Plagne, in 1738 when the latter was settling family affairs after the death of their uncle, making him virtually captain of his own company and lieutenant in De Gannes' as well [NOTE 338]. Since Le Normant doubted the legality of this bit of nepotism and was disturbed by the discontent in the ranks caused by the appointment, Jean was replaced in the lieutenancy by Benoit [NOTE 339]. He eventually received his captaincy and was the last of his family in the colony [NOTE 340].
In 1736 Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière bought Lot D from Jacques de Pensens, who in turn moved to Lot E. The careers of De la Vallière and Jacques de Pensens were closely associated. Both were among seven lieutenants who laid claim to Cape Breton for the king in 1714, and De la Vallière served under De Pensens at Port Toulouse. Both men were greatly trusted by the Micmac Indians and the Acadians of the colony, and De la Vallière in particular was highly praised by his superiors in Canada, Plaisance and Isle Royale [NOTE 341].
LE NEUF DE LA VALLIÈRE FAMILY RECONSTITUTION:
(1) MICHEL LENEUF DE LA VALLIÈRE FILS (1677-1740);
(2) RENÉE BERTRAND;
(3) LOUIS LENEUF DE LA VALLIÈRE (b.c. 1708- d. 1787);
(4) CHARLES FRANÇOIS LENEUF DE LA POTERIE DE LA VALLIÈRE (1730-1817);
(5) JOSEPH ALEXANDRE BOISNEUF SIEUR DE LA VALLIÈRE;
(6) PHILIPPE LENEUF DE BEAUBASSIN DE LA VALLIÈRE;
(7) MARGUERITTE DE LA VALLIÈRE;
(8) BARBE LENEUF DE LA VALLIÈRE;
(9) ANGELIQUE DE LA VALLIÈRE;
(10) CHARLOTTE ROUSSEAU DE SOUVIGUY (m. 1736);
(11) MARIE CHARLOTTE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1743);
(12) LOUIS FRANÇOIS DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1744);
(13) MARIE CHARLOTTE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1750);
(14) LOUIS DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1752);
(15) LOUIS GABRIEL DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1754);
(16) PIERRE JOSEPH DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1756);
(17) MARIE CHARLOTTE DACCARETTE (m. 1743);
(18) MICHEL DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1743);
(19) MARGUERITTE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1745);
(20) MARIE CHARLOTTE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1749);
(21) JOSEPH ALEXANDRE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1751);
(22) CATHERINE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1752);
(23) GENEVIÈVE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1753);
(24) JEAN DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1754);
(25) CHARLES DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1754);
(26) MARIE ANGELIQUE DE LA VALLIÈRE (b. 1740 - illegitimate);
(27) LOUIS DELORT (m. 1739);
(28) ROUSSEAU DE VILLEJOUIN (m. 1753);
(29) PIERRE GUILLAUME DELORT (b. 1740);
(30) PHILIPPE CHARLES DELORT (b. 1741);
(31) BARBE DELORT (b. 1743-1751);
(32) MARIE CHARLOTTE DELORT (b. 1744);
(33) GUILLAUME DELORT (d. 1750);
(34) ANGELIQUE DELORT (b. 1753).
The De la Vallière family was of noble Scottish origin. Its members had come to Cherbourg, France, in 1382, but moved to Three Rivers, Quebec, in the 17th century [NOTE 342]. Michel LeNeuf de la Vallière père, was named for his father who had served as governor of Acadia (hence his title De Beaubassin). [PAGE 77:] His son Michel fils was born in the family seigneurie at Three Rivers in 1677. Michel fils served as in Newfoundland and after the fall of that colony came to Isle Royale in 1714. Within a year he was sent as lieutenant with 25 soldiers to organize the settlement at Port Toulouse [NOTE 343]. As a reward for his endeavours he was appointed aide-major in 1720 [NOTE 344]. Over the next decade De la Vallière served at Port Toulouse, dealing with the Indians and filling in for Jacques de Pensens during his frequent absences; in effect he was commandant at Port Toulouse until his death,, except between 1728 and 1731 when he replaced De Pensens as commandant at Ile St. Jean [NOTE 345].
De la Vallière's service was recognized by his appointment as captain 15 March 1723, commandant at Port Toulouse in 1727, and major in 1737. He received the Cross of St. Louis in 1731 [NOTE 346]. The only complaints lodged against him were by Acadians who resented his interference in their trade; the complaints were dismissed by all high ranking officials after careful inquiries [NOTE 347]. The faithful and energetic major died 11 October 1740 at Fort Toulouse, but was buried at Louisbourg [NOTE 348].
Though Michel de la Vallière's career at Louisbourg followed in the shadow of Jacques de Pensens, his personal life was very different. Unlike the bachelor De Pensens, he was married and fathered at least a dozen children. He was married to Renée Bertrand, daughter of François Bertrand and Jeanne Geraudin of Canada. The census of 1734 lists the De la Vallière household as containing five boys over 15 years of age and one boy younger, six daughters and two servants, besides the parents, giving a total of 16 people [NOTE 349]. The known children were Louis LeNeuf, Charles François LeNeuf de la Poterie (1730-1817), Joseph Alexandre Boisneuf Sieur de la [PAGE 78:] Vallière who became a lieutenant, Philippe LeNeuf de la Vallière, Margueritte who was ill and never married [NOTE 350], Barbe LeNeuf who married Louis DeLort and later Captain Villejouin, and Angelique. In 1736 mention is made of two of the children whom their father sent to spend the winter with the Indians at Merleguèche to learn their language [NOTE 351]. By 1739 De la Vallière had seven boys and was seeking appointments for them in other colonies [NOTE 352].
For this study, the careers of Louis, Barbe and Philippe are of some interest. Louis LeNeuf de la Vallière, the eldest son of Michel was born around 1708 [NOTE 353] at Plaisance. He was listed as a cadet in 1720 and an enseigne en second in 1730 [NOTE 354]. He was stationed with his father at Port Toulouse and in 1732 distinguished himself with a small group who captured an English ship there [NOTE 355]. In 1736 he rose to the level of enseigne en pied; then he made an admirable connection when he married Charlotte Rousseau de Souvigny, daughter of Pierre Rousseau de Souvigny, captain of the Compagnies Franche de la Marine and chevalier of the order of St. Louis. Within a year he took brief command at Port Toulouse in the absence of his father.
This is not to say that Louis de la Vallière's successful rise was due only to family ties. In 1744 as a lieutenant in Du Vivier's company he was a leader in the group that took Canso from the English. The following May he was in charge of 33 men who went to Gabarus and Fourchu to ward off British ships disturbing the fishery there. While there the British attack on Louisbourg began in earnest and he and his group had to break through British lines to get back to Louisbourg. Once there., he commanded his company at the Maurepas Bastion. After the fall of the [PAGE 79:] fortress he served for two years at Rochefort with his company. He returned to Louisbourg in 1749 and the following year was ordered by Desherbiers to go to Gedaique with 50 men. He spent a year and a half there, but was back in 1751 with 60 men to build a road between the Mira River and the Bras d'Or Lakes [NOTE 356].
Louis continued to rise in the ranks; he was a captain at the second siege of Louisbourg and served for a time at Rochefort, when he removed as major to Cayenne. LeNeuf was consequently appointed lieutenant du Roi in 1765, lieutenant-colonel in 1773 and colonel in 1775 [NOTE 357]. He retired in 1783 in his 75th year with a pension of 4,000 livres per annum. He died in 1787 at the age of 79 leaving three children, one a captain in Cayenne. a young son, and a daughter Marie Charlotte, around 40 years of age [NOTE 358].
Though Louis LeNeuf did not sire as many offspring as his father, he had his maiden sister Marguerite to care for. He had married Marie Charlotte de Souvigny in 1739, but did not have surviving children until after 1749. The 1749 census of families returning to Louisbourg lists Louis, his wife and sister, Marguerite Boisneuf, his younger brother, and Charlotte, their black slave. He apparently had his first surviving child later that year for a list of officers' families drawn up in 1763 includes Louis' 37-year old wife, a daughter Charlotte LeNeuf 14, and three sons, LeNeuf 12, Louis La Vallière 11, and Beaubassin two years of age. Marguerite, Louis' maiden sister who had been ill for 18 years, was still living with them and was 48 years old [NOTE 359].
Barbe LeNeuf made two admirable marriages: the first to Louis Delort, 2 February 1739, and the second to Gabriel Rousseau de Villejouin, 30 [PAGE 80:] December 1753. The former was a prosperous merchant, the latter a captain of the Troupes de la Marine. The first connection guaranteed her wealth, the second continued high ranking social status [NOTE 360]. She bore all of her six offspring to her first husband. One son, Louis, died in infancy in 1749; Barbe Aimable died at the age of eight [NOTE 361]. The rest survived at least until the second siege; they were Philippe Charles (b. 1741), Marie Charlotte (b. 1744), Guillaume (b. 1750), and Angelique (b. 1753) [NOTE 362].
Philippe Leneuf de Beaubassin, unlike Louis, spent his life in trade. He joined in a partnership with Messrs. Dupleix and Silvain and married Marie Charlotte Daccarette, daughter of a wealthy merchant, in 1743. They bought out Daccarette, who was killed during the first siege, and ran their operation in Block 5. Philippe had nine children [NOTE 363]. (See Chart).
This study of family interconnections reveals the widespread influence of the De la Vallières in Louisbourg. Though official correspondence gives only a hint of their day-to-day influence on the colony, there can be no doubt that people like the De la Vallières and De Pensens had as much influence on the colony as the more transitory governors and commissaires-ordonnateurs. [PAGE 81:]
(II) STRUCTURES IN BLOCK 16, LOT D:
A previous historical report has described the buildings in Lot D. It is sufficient to add here that the house was a two-storey charpente structure, but that the two storehouses on the property, both of two storeys, were in stone [NOTE 364]. These commodious storehouses indicate that Jacques de Pensens, who built them, used them to store supplies bound for Ile St. Jean, for the fish he caught off Iles Michaud, and perhaps even for materials used in erecting government buildings.
APPENDIX I - EXCERPT FROM BRENDA MARCHANT, BLOCK 16 (FORTRESS OF LOUISBOURG, 1968), pp. 3 - 11 (PLUS ENDNOTES):
On May 4, 1721, M. Jacques de Pensens, Chevalier of the Military Order of St. Louis, was conceded lot D in Block 16. The property was bounded to the east by the property of Madame de Viljoin [Villejouin], to the north by the Rue Royalle, to the south by the Governor, and to the west by the Rue Toulouse [NOTE 1].
In 1725, de Pensens sent a memoire to France, complaining that a part of his lot D concession had been taken for Antoine Paris [NOTE 2], who had been conceded a lot in the southeast half of Block 16 on October 20, 1725 [NOTE 3]. No further mention of the complaint has been found. The Etat of 1734 described lot D as 90 pieds on the Rue Toulouse and 126 pieds on the Rue Royalle [NOTE 4]. De Pensens' original concession was ratified on April 5, 1735 [NOTE 5].
De Pensens built three main structures on his Block 16 lot - a house and storehouse on the northwest corner of the property and a storehouse on the northeast corner [NOTE 6].
Plan 731-3 showed a picket fence enclosing lot D. The fence ran between the buildings along the boundaries of the property. An opening in the west wall gave entrance to the property via the Rue Toulouse while an opening in the south wall allowed passage between lots D and E.
(B) NORTHWEST CORNER OF LOT D:
(1) DE PENSENS HOUSE AND STOREHOUSE:
By the end of 1722, de Pensens had built a house and storehouse on the northwest corner of lot D. (See [PAGE 89:] plan 722-1). In 1725 de Pensens rented his house, presumably his Block 16 residence, to M. St. Ovide [NOTE 7]. In 1736 the house and storehouse were being leased when de Pensens sold the property to Michel le Neuf de la Valliere, company captain at Louisbourg [NOTE 8].
During the English Occupation, following the French defeat in 1745, the storehouse was used by the New Englanders. Plan 746-8 labelled the building as "Victualling Storehouse repaired" and coloured it a faint red to indicate a "publick building such as have had a thorough repair.
"It is probable that the house was also occupied during the English period. The marginal note on plan 746-8 stated that "all the houses in Town (except a few which the merchants occupy & put in repair themselves) have been fitted for the Officers ... and men of the ... Regimts." Plan 746-8 did not include the lot D house, although it was shown on all other English plans. (See plans 746-4, 746-5, 746-6).
Lot D remained in the de la Valliere family until at least 1756. In 1750 a contract of sale stated that the Despiet lot was bounded to the north by the property of the heirs of the late M. de la Valliere [NOTE 9]. On September 28, 1756 the property was again described as belonging to the de la Valliere heirs [NOTE 10].
The house and storehouse were still inhabited in 1767. (See plan 767-1). However, by 1768 both structures (Numbers 85 and 86 on plan 768-1) were described as in "bad" condition [NOTE 11], meaning that they "have had for the most part the Floors, partitions, and windows taken away for fuel." [NOTE 12].
(b) STRUCTURAL DETAILS (AS DESCRIBED IN 1736 CONTRACT OF SALE): [NOTE 13].
The storehouse was a stone structure situated on the northwest corner of Block 16, running for a length of 60 pieds along the Rue Royalle and for a width of 23 pieds along the Rue Toulouse. A cellar (cave) was located under the entire building. Wooden shingles covered the roof. (Also see plan 725-9 which shows the de Pensens roof in the upper left-hand corner).
A soute was located in the storehouse. [The term soute was generally used in a marine context to describe the compartment where the provisions were stored in a ship. Diderot defined soute as: "c'est le plus bas des étages de l'arriere d'un vaisseau, lequel consiste en un retranchement enduit de plâtre; fait à fond de cale, ôu l'on enferme les poudres & le biscuit. Cette derniere est placée ordinairement sous la sainte-barbe; elle doit être garni de ferblanc, afin que le biscuit se conserve mieux; & la soute aux poudres est placée sous celle-ci; mais il n'y a point de regle à cet égard." James' Military Dictionary of 1810 defined soute as the powder or bread room] This was probably a small storeroom separated from the main storage area.
The de Pensens house was a frame building with a roof of wooden shingles. It ran along the Rue Toulouse for a length of 42 pieds, abutting against the storehouse at its north end. It was 23 pieds wide.
The roofs of the two de Pensens buildings appear to have been incorporated into one roof structure which ran along the Rue Royalle, made a right-angle turn at the corner and continued along the Rue Toulouse. (See plans 734-4, N.D. 89). Plan N.D. 89 showed a hipped gable on the east end of the storehouse and a pitch roof on the house; plan 734-4 showed a pitch roof on both structures. In [PAGE 91:] contradiction N.D. 24 showed two distinct roof structures, The latter plan showed hipped gables on both ends of the storehouse roof, a hipped gable on the south end of the house, and a straight gable on the north end of the house where it abutted against the storehouse.
The problem of roof structures also involves a question of elevation. If the roofs abutted, as shown in N.D. 24, the buildings could have had different heights. However, if the house and storehouse shared a common roof, they must also have had a common elevation. It is quite probable that the elevation was low, for the buildings cannot be seen on sketches of the town (e.g. 758-9 and 766-1).
(C) NORTHEAST CORNER OF LOT D:
(1) DE PENSENS STOREHOUSE (AS DESCRIBED IN 1736 CONTRACT OF SALE) [NOTE 14]:
Almost nothing is known about the storehouse located on the northeast corner of lot D. The building was constructed by de Pensens sometime between 1724 and 1727, for it first appeared on plan 727-9.
The storehouse was a masonry building. It was situated as in plan 730-2, entering the block in a north-south direction with the north gable wall facing the Rue Royalle. The building was 42 pieds long and 23 pieds wide. A cellar ran for its entire length and width. The roof was covered with wooden shingles and appears to have had two hipped gables. (See plans 730-2, N.D. 24 and N.D. 89. Also see plan 734-4 for contradiction).
The east wall of the storehouse was used as support for the frame house in the neighbouring property, lot D. M. Daillebout, owner of lot C until 1733, had not contributed to the building of the wall but had promised to rebuild, at his expense, the portion which formed the back of his house. The de Pensens storehouse and the house in lot C appear to have had separate roof structures. (See plan N.D. 24, N.D. 89 and 730-2). Plan 734-4, however, represented the two buildings as having a common roof.
The storehouse was sold to Michel Le Neuf de la Valliere in 1736 with the rest of the property. Included in the terms of sale, de Pensens ceded to de la Valliere all the rights and pretentions concerning the east wall against the owner of lot C, S. Loppinot at that time. The 1736 bill of sale is the last documentary reference to the de Pensens storehouse.
In 1767, a building of the same scaled dimensions, presumably the storehouse, was still occupied. (See plan 176-1). Plan 768-1 represented the building in the position of the de Pensens storehouse as a wooden structure. It was "much out of repair" or in "tolerable" condition. [NOTE 15]. No mention of occupancy was made for the building in 1768 and it is probable that the storehouse was vacant at this time.
(D) MASTER CARPENTER'S HOUSE AND SHOP:
During the New England Occupation of Louisbourg, a carpenter's house and shop were constructed in Block 16. The buildings were clearly marked on plan 746-8 which described lot D and the two dark-red structures therein as "Master Carpenter's House, new Shop and Yard which is to continue."
(1) MASTER CARPENTER'S HOUSE:
The Master Carpenter's house was situated between the two lot D storehouses, facing the Rue Royalle. (See plan 746-8). It was built in the Occupation period and showed on the first English plans of Louisbourg in 1745. (See plan 745-26). It was to be used as the lodging place of the Master Carpenter and as the offices of the Storekeeper and clerk of the Cheque [NOTE 16].
The house, a wooden structure, was possibly a prefabricated building erected in the same manner as the New Ordnance Storehouse in Block 1 and the New Barracks in the Queen's Bastion which were constructed in Boston and shipped to Louisbourg for assemblage by the New Englanders. Its construction was described as "An open Frame for a House has been Improved for ... lodging the Master Carpenter." [NOTE 17]. This could be interpreted as the assemblage of a preconstructed building or, alternately, as the completion of a building begun by the French before the siege. The former interpretation seems most probable.
We know very little about the Master Carpenter's house. In September of 1747, masons were reported to be "cieling" the little rooms used as offices by the Storekeeper and Clerk of the Cheque. [NOTE 18]. Plan 748-2 was the last to show the building.
(2) CARPENTER'S SHOP:
The carpenters' shop was located in the interior of lot D, running in a north-south direction, abutting against the storehouse on the northeast corner of the property (See plan 746-8). It was [PAGE 96:] a two-storey building, constructed of wood [NOTE 19]. The shop was built in 1746. (See plan 746-4 which showed its proposed location and plan 746-8 which showed the completed structure).
The buildings was erected to provide shop, for the carpenters, glaziers, and painters [NOTE 20]. Much work was done by these craftsmen, both inside and outside of the shops. (See Library of Congress microfilm, AC 2444, Office of Ordnance for details of work done and men employed), "... Principally, the carpenters were engaged in shingling the Citadel, erecting the New Barracks, a Smith's and Cooper's Shop and Additional Victualling Storehouse, and repairing houses used as Officers' Quarters. Portable items such as sashes, coffins, and six-panel. door for the Intendant's House, and a writing desk for the New Ordnance Storehouse would have been constructed in the Carpenter's Shop."
The structure continued to be used after the English evacuation in 1749. Plan 767-1 placed the building under the heading "stores and stables occupied at present." In 1768, it was reported to be in "tolerable" condition [NOTE 21], but no direct indication of occupancy was given.
(b) MYSTERY STRUCTURES:
Plan 767-1 shows small structures projecting from the south end of the Carpenters' Shop. Similar structures are seen in Block 16 on the Despiet and Howell houses. No documentation has been found to define the projections. It is possible that they were storm porches and thus give an indication of door locations. In some cases archaeology has found doors situated to correspond to the location of the structures [During the first English occupation at least one small shed was set up in the yard of this lot. (Library of Congress, A.G. 2444, 1 Aug. 1747)].
[NOTE 298:] A.N., Colonies, C11G, Vol. 12, fols. 102-102v., 5 avril 1735; A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol. 466, 1 septembre 1735; Ibid., Vol. 462., fol. 136) 7 décembre 1726; Ibid., Vol. 466, fol. 83, 4 mai 1721;
[NOTE 299:] Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. II, p. 218;
[NOTE 300:] A.N., Colonies, C11B., Vol, 1, fol. 11, 2 septembre 1713;
[NOTE 301:] Ibid., fols. 168- 169., 3 août 1715; Ibid., fols. 123-123v., 9 septembre 1715;
[NOTE 302:] Ibid., B., Vol. 41-44, fols. 582-587v., 18 juillet 1719;
[NOTE 303:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 4. fols. 205-210, 28 novembre 1719;
[NOTE 304:] Ibid., Vol. 5. fols. 279-284, 16 septembre 1720; Ibid., fols, 285-285v., 23 septembre 1720; Ibid., fol. 286, 5 octobre 1720;
[NOTE 305:] Ibid., fols. 136-143, 10 novembre 1720;
[NOTE 306:] A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 241, 12 avril 1723; A.N., Colonies, C11B, vol. 6., fols. 211-215v., 26 novembre 1723;
[NOTE 307:] A.C., D2C, Vol. 47, Extrait des troupes tant français que Suisses du Régiment de Karrer que Sa Majesté Entretient dans l'Isle Royalle Suivant la Reveue faite le 18e octobre 1724;
[NOTE 308:] A.N., Colonies B, Vol. 48-1. fols. 398- 40l, 5 juin 1725;
[NOTE 309:] Ibid., Cllb, Vol. 7, fols. 200-203, 18 décembre 1725;
[NOTE 310:] Ibid., Ibid., fols. 381-382v., 21 décembre 1725;
[NOTE 311:] Ibid., Vol. 8, fols. 85-86, 27 juin 1726; Ibid., fols. 55- 64v., 20 novembre 1726;
[NOTE 312:] Ibid., Vol. 8, fols. 66-70, 28 novembre 1726;
[NOTE 313:] Ibid., Vol,, 9. fols. 13-23v., 25 mars 1727;
[NOTE 314:] Ibid., fols. 91- 92, 14 septembre 1727;
[NOTE 315:] Ibid., B, Vol. 52-2, fols. 574v.-577, 18 juin 1728;
[NOTE 316:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 14, fols. 376-377v., 27 avril 1733; Ibid., B, Vol. 59-2, fols. 559-560v., 2 juin 1733;
[NOTE 317:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 14, fols. 103-109v., 18 octobre 1733; Ibid., B, Vol. 61-62, fols. 604v.-605v., 4 mai 1734;
[NOTE 318:] Ibid., CllB, Vol. 18, fols. 57-61v., 10 novembre 1736;
[NOTE 319:] Ibid., fols. 67-70, 18 novembre 1736;
[NOTE 320:] A.N., Marine, C7, Vol. 241, fols. 1-7, 1 avril 1737; A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 65, fols. 482v.-483, 17 mai 1737; Ibid., C11B, Vol. 7., fol. 380, 3 avril 1737;
[NOTE 321:] Ibid., C11B., Vol. 203 fols. 39- 39v., 4 septembre 1738;
[NOTE 322:] D.C. Harvey, The French Regime in Prince Edward Island (New Haven,1926), pp. 94-100;
[NOTE 323:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 47, fols. 245-247, 28 mars 1724; Ibid., C11B, Vol. 3, fols. 76-91, 9 janvier 1719;
[NOTE 324:] Ibid., B, Vol. 47, fols. 245-247, 28 mars 1724;
[NOTE 325:] J.S. MacLennan., Louisbourg from its foundation to its fall, (Fortress Press, 1969), P. 78; A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 59-2, fols. 537-539, 2 juin 1733;
[NOTE 326:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 21, fols. 290-291v., 4 avril 1739; Ibid., E, Vol. 9, fol. 9, Dossier d'Arrigrand, n.d.; MacLennan, pp. 83-84; Blaine Adams, The Construction and Occupation of the Barracks of the King's Bastion (Fortress of Louisbourg, July 1971), pp. 23-26, 31-32a;
[NOTE 327:] A.N., Colonies, CllB, Vol. 25, fols. 229-231, 8 novembre 1743;
[NOTE 328:] H.P. Thibault, L'Ilôt 17 de Louisbourg (1713-1768), Manuscript Report Series, No. 99, 1972, pp. 151-152.
[NOTE 329:] A.N., Colonies, CllB,, Vol. 20, fols. 271-271v., 10 novembre 1738;
[NOTE 330:] H.P. Thibault, L'Ilôt 17 de Louisbourg (1713-1768), M.R.S. No. 99, 1972, pp. 150-151;
[NOTE 331:] A.N., Colonies, CllB, Vol. 7, fols. 204-209, 21 décembre 1725.
[NOTE 332:] Ibid., Vol. 18, fols. 67-70, 18 novembre 1736;
[NOTE 333:] Ibid., B, Vol. 52-2, fols. 603-604, 24 juin 1728;
[NOTE 334:] Ibid., C11B, Vol. 11, fols. 101-103, 30 novembre 1730;
[NOTE 335:] Ibid., B, Vol. 57-2. fols. 743-743v, 19 juin 1732;
[NOTE 336:] Ibid., vol. 64, fol. 474v., 8 mai 1736;
[NOTE 337:] Ibid., C11B., Vol. 17, fols. 155-157, septembre 1755;
[NOTE 338:] Ibid. Vol. 20, fols. 118-120, 25 octobre 1738;
[NOTE 339:] A.N. C11B, Vol. 20, fols. 118-120, 25 octobre 1738; Ibid., fols. 91-97v., 2 novembre 1738;
[NOTE 340:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, NO. 45, 27 septembre 1750;
[NOTE 341:] Roger Comeau, "Michel Leneuf de la Vallière de beaubassin (the younger)" in Canadian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. II, pp. 411-412;
[NOTE 342:] A.N., Colonies, E, Vol. 277, n.d.;
[NOTE 343:] Ibid., C11B., Vol. 1, fols. 198-199v., 10 septembre 1715;
[NOTE 344:] Ibid., B, Vol. 42-2., fols. 383-387, 7 juillet 1720;
[NOTE 345:] Ibid., Vol. 5, fols. 184- 188v., 5 septembre 1720; Ibid., Vol. 9. fol. 64, 20 novembre 1727; Ibid., Vol. 52-2, fols. 593v.-594, 20 juin 1728;
[NOTE 346:] Ibid., E, Vol. 277, fol. 1, n.d.; Ibid., CllB, Vol. 12, 19 juillet 1731;
[NOTE 347:] Ibid., B, Vol. 55-3, fols. 572-573, 730-733, 10 juillet 1731; Ibid., C11B, Vol. 12, fols. 26-31, 24 novembre 1731;
[NOTE 348:] Ibid., E, Vol. 277, fol. 1, n.d.; Ibid., C11B, Vol. 22, fol. 166, 15 octobre 1740;
[NOTE 349:] A.N., Outre-Mer, Gl, Vol, 466, pièce 69, 1734;
[NOTE 350:] A.C., D2C, Vol. 48, fols. 495-498., n.d. ;
[NOTE 351:] A.N., Colonies., C11B, Vol. 18, fols. 3-4, 23 janvier 1736;
[NOTE 352:] Ibid., Vol. 21, fols. 66-66v., 14 novembre 1739;
[NOTE 353:] A.C., D2C, Vol. 48, fols. 495-498, ;
[NOTE 354:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 54-2, fols. 503-503v., 20 juin 1730;
[NOTE 355:] Ibid., C11B, vol. 12, fols. 204-209, 16 novembre 1732;
[NOTE 356:] A.F.L., plan 751-7; [NOTE 357:] A.N., Colonies, E, Vol. 277, Louis Leneuf de la Vallière.;
[NOTE 358:] Ibid., fols. 32-32 bis;
[NOTE 359:] A.C., D2C, Vol. 48, fols. 495-498 [c.1763]; A.N. Outre Mer, Gl. Vol. 466, pièce 76;
[NOTE 360:] Terrance MacLean, Block 4, Louisbourg: 1713-1768, Fortress of Louisbourg, January 1974;
[NOTE 361:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 408, Reg. I, fol. 59v., 10 septembre 1749; Ibid., fol. 151v., 27 septembre 1749; Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. II, fol. 12v., 12 fevrier 1743; Ibid., Vol. 408, Reg. I, fol. 159v., 12 août 1751;
[NOTE 362:] Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. II, fol. 12v.; Ibid., Vol. 408, Reg. I, fol. 76, Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. II, fol. 32; Ibid., Reg. II, fol. 21v;
[NOTE 363:] Ibid., Vol. 407, Reg. II, fol. 26; Ibid., fol. 50; Ibid., Reg. I, fol. 42v.; Ibid., Vol. 408, Reg. I, fol. 63v.; Ibid., fol. 81; Ibid., Reg. II, fol. 2v.; Ibid., fol. 21; Ibid., Vol. 409, Reg. I, fol. 23;
[NOTE 364:] A.N., Colonies, E, Vol. 277, dossier Louis Leneuf de la Vallière, fils du Michel fils, n.d. [post 1763].
[NOTE 1:] A.F.O., Gl, v. 466 (83) 20 June 1721;
[NOTE 2:] A.C., B, v. 48-2, ff. 974-976, 29 July 1725;
[NOTE 3:] C11B., v. 15, ff. 26-50, 24 October 1734;
[NOTE 4:] Ibid., f. 33v.;
[NOTE 5:] C11G, v. 12, f. 187, 6 May 1738;
[NOTE 6:] A.F.O., G3, 2039, Vente d'emplacement, 12 September 1736;
[NOTE 7:] C11B, v. 7, ff. 257-260, 24 November 1725;
[NOTE 8:] A.F.O., G3, 2039, Vente d'emplacement, 12 September 1736;
[NOTE 9:] Ibid., 2041, Contrat de vente de maison, 1 September 1750;
[NOTE 10:] Ibid., 2044, Bacquerisse notaire., 28 September 1756;
[NOTE 11:] C.O. 217, v. 25, f. 140v., 26 September 1768;
[NOTE 12:] Ibid., f. 141v., 26 September 1768;
[NOTE 13:] A.F.O., G3, 2039, Vente d'emplacement, 12 September 1736;
[NOTE 14:] Ibid.;
[NOTE 15:] C.O. 217, v. 25, f. 141v., 26 September 1768;
[NOTE 16:] Nova Scotia A, v. 34, f. 162, 14 July 1749;
[NOTE 17:] Ibid.;
[NOTE 18:] A.C. 2444 (12), Ordnance Office, 1 October 1747;
[NOTE 19:] Nova Scotia A, v. 34, f. 162, 14 July 1749;
[NOTE 20:] Ibid.;
[NOTE 21:] C.O 217, v. 25, ff. 140- 141V., 26 September 1768.