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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
TERRENCE D. MACLEAN
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 24)
Although the land on the north-east corner of Block 4 was first granted to Jean Milly De LaCroix in 1716, it was not officially conceded until November, 1717:
Concession de Jean Lacroix sur le même alignment de 8 t. [toises] 3 p. (pieds] de front sur 40 [toises] de profondeur, bornée d'un costé par le terrain de Michel Daccarette et de l'autre par celuy du petit La Motte ... [NOTE 321].
By 1719 Jean Milly had died, leaving the land to his four sons, Jean., François, Thomas and Gaspard [NOTE 322]. When the limits of Block 4 were established after the definitive layout of the streets of Louisbourg in 1723 the Milly brothers lost about half their land [NOTE 323]. The 1717 concessions had given Petit LaMotte 16 toises of frontage on Lot D along the Rue du Quay, which was later reduced to slightly over 12 toises. To compensate for the loss the crown gave the Lot D proprietor all of the land at the back of the block between Lot C and Rue Dauphine, restricting Lot E to an average depth of 131 pieds from a previous depth of 240 pieds. When the Lot E frontage on Rue du Quay was reduced from 51 pieds to 45 pieds to make room for the newly aligned Rue Dauphine, Lot E became the smallest concession on Block 4. The final boundaries of the lot were delineated in the 1734 list of concessions:
Aux Srs. Jean Milly Et frères habitans un terrain de 45 pieds de face sur la rue du port, Et de 138 pieds de profondeur le long du terrain du Maurice Santier Et 18 pieds seulement de largeur dans la dite profondeur, et de 124 pieds d'une part le long de la rue Dauphine Et 37 pieds de l'autre; borné au nord par la rue du port, a l'Est par la rue Dauphine, au sud par le terrain de Maurice Santier sur une face coe [commune] il est dit cy dessus de 18 pieds et à oeust par ledit terrain de Maurice Santier par concession ... du 7 octobre 1716 [NOTE 324]. (See Figure 2)
The Milly brothers owned three separate parcels of land in and around Louisbourg after their father's death, a habitation on the north shore, another at the Barrachois du St. Esprit, and Lot E of Block 4. The north-east side of the Block 4 property belonged to Jean and Gaspard Milly, while the south-west side of the lot belonged to François and Thomas Milly. In 1727 the brothers changed this arrangement, giving Thomas and Gaspard Milly full control of Lot E in return for the cession of other family land to François and Jean Milly. By the terms of the agreement Thomas Millly owned the west side of the lot with 25 pieds of frontage on Rue du Quay and Gaspard Milly owned the east side of the lot with 20 pieds of frontage on Rue du Quay [NOTE 325].
Thomas Milly died in 1733, leaving his Lot E land and buildings to his wife Louise Dupuy [NOTE 326]. She and her second husband Jean Laborde, seem to have had full control of the lot by 1744, when they built a house [PAGE 90:] on Lot E measuring 45 pieds along Rue du Quay [NOTE 327]. There is no evidence that Gaspard Milly sold the land to the Labordes, nor is there any evidence that Milly ever lived on Block 4 after 1727. Lot E was returned to the Labordes after the first English occupation, and they retained it until the second siege [NOTE 328]. During the second English occupation William Phipps owned the lot [NOTE 329].
Jean Milly senior, a surgeon, came to Louisbourg from Plaisance sometime before 1716 with his wife, Marie Aubert, and four sons [NOTE 330]. He had little chance to establish himself in the new colony, for he was deceased by 1719 [NOTE 331].
All four sons of Jean Milly participated in the Isle Royale fishery as entrepreneurs [NOTE 332]. Jean fils and François Milly ve on Block 4 after the 1727 partition of Lot E, and Gaspard Milly was living elsewhere by 1734 [NOTE 333]. In 1738 Gaspard bought a house on Block 31; after the first English occupation he lived on Block 34 [NOTE 334]. Jean Milly was married to Marie Dacarrette, a native of Hendaye in Bayonne, France; François Milly married Catherine Baudry; Gaspard Milly married Genevieve Baudry, a native of Plaisance [NOTE 335].
Of the four Milly brothers only Thomas is known to have lived on Block 4 after 1727. He married Louise Dupuy and they had four children at Louisbourg between 1724 and 1732 [NOTE 336]. On February 22, 1733, Thomas Milly died, leaving, Lot E to his wife [NOTE 337]. One year later Louise Dupuy married Jean Baptiste Laborde, a native of Bayonne, France and the family established their residence on Lot E [NOTE 338].
Jean Laborde was very prominent in the legal administration of the colony. After several years as a notary at Louisbourg he was appointed clerk of the Superior Council in 1737 [NOTE 339]. After the first English occupation Laborde held office in the financial administration of the colony as Treasurer of the Marine [NOTE 340]. These positions gave the Lot E resident prominence in Louisbourg society. During Laborde's tenure in public office, two commissaire-ordonnateurs, Le Normant and Bigot, served as godfather in Laborde family baptisms, while Jean Laborde served as godfather for children of François Marie Degoutin, member of the Superior Council and Treasurer of the Marine, and Jacques Rondeau, Treasurer of the Marine [NOTE 341].
Before the first siege Laborde's involvement in Louisbourg commerce was minimal., but after 1749 his interest in trade increased. It is difficult to gauge the extent of his commercial activity, because another Jean Laborde, attorney general of the Superior Council, lived in Louisbourg throughout most of the career of the Block 4 Jean Laborde and many of the references to trade by Jean Laborde fail to specify which of the namesakes is involved [NOTE 342]. Specific references to the Block 4 Laborde, however, indicate that he owned a number of merchant ships and schooners, which he used in trading ventures and in the fishery [NOTE 343]. His trade was mainly with New England, not France, a situation not uncommon in Louisbourg at that time and one that prompted an association of merchants from St. Malo, France, to complain to the king. The merchants claimed that the New England trade was depressing the market for French dry goods and foodstuffs at Isle Royale, to their detriment. They specifically mentioned the Louisbourg Treasurer of the Marine, Laborde, and Sieurs [PAGE 92]. Jean and Antoine Morain and a Sieur Larcher as the prime offenders. "Ils n'avoient tous acune fortune En 1749, ils sont aujourd'hui a Latête de plus de quinze batimens, dont partie ont Eté français; ils Les font naviguer tant En france qu'a L'Amerique" [NOTE 344]. So was added another name to the list of successful Block 4 merchants.
The Labordes bought land on Block 21 in 1755, but continued to live on Block 4, presumably until the second siege [NOTE 345]. The Rue du Quay house on Lot E, could not be sold as long as Jean Laborde was Treasurer of the Marine, because the Treasurer General of the Colonies held a mortgage on the house to guarantee the proper management of public funds by Laborde. Accordingly, in 1750 and again in 1754 the Laborde's made the following commitment to the Treasurer General: "Le d Sr. La Borde et La d Dame dupuy ont Elu Leur domicille Irrevocable en Leur maison scize En La d Rue Et Place du port" [NOTE 346].
There were four buildings constructed on Lot E between 1717 and 1768, three were residences and one unidentified as to its use. (See Figures 11 and 12).
A piquet house was built at the front of Lot E along Rue du Quay by Jean Milly sometime before 1717 (No. 1 in Figure 11). The roof had a hip at the east end and joined the old LaMotte magazin on the west end [NOTE 347]. Originally the house measured about 50 pieds east to west, but the realignment of Rue Dauphine in 1723-24 led to a reduction in the size of the building (No. la in Figure 11). In 1726 the section of the building projecting on the new Rue Dauphine was clearly marked on a plan [PAGE 95:] of the town, but by 1730 part of the structure was removed, at which time the house measured about 40 pieds along Rue du Quay [NOTE 348]. The hip at the east end was retained, however, indicating that part of the west end of the building (about 15 pieds) was probably cut off and the house itself moved 15 pieds to the west. The house was not rebuilt, for it was described in 1733 as "une vieille maison de piquet avec une cheminee de pierre" [NOTE 349]. The 1727 agreement reached by the Milly brothers stipulated that François Millet was to pay half the expense of rebuilding the front of the house in charpente: "de contribuer de motié frais avec lui [Thomas Milly] pour faire en charpente la deventure de la maison qu'il a ceddé audit Thomas joignant a LaMotte" [NOTE 350]. But there is no evidence that these alterations were carried out.
An inventory taken after Thomas Milly's death in 1733 mentioned several rooms in the house but gave no precise information on their location:
la chambre en entrant qui fasse sur la rue ... un cabinet a costé ... une chambre en haute ... une petite chambre a main droitte a coté [NOTE 351].
The contents of the first room on the ground floor indicate that it was a very large room used for cooking, dining and storage, and also as a sitting room. The cabinet adjoining the large room contained only a cot and two linen chests. The room upstairs contained fishing supplies, chairs and some pottery, while the small room on the right hand side contained clothing and food supplies.
The south-east corner of the house appeared on a 1731 view of the town, but very little can be gleaned from it. The house apparently was a one-storey-plus-attic structure with a chimney about 15 pieds from the east end [NOTE 352]. The plans after 1730 show that the east-to-west measurement, along the front of the building facing Rue du Quay is slightly more than the same measurement along the rear of the building, a situation easily explained by reference to the Rue Dauphine alignment at the south end of Block 4 which is not parallel to the Lot D-E property line [NOTE 353]. The house survived at least until 1734, probably until 1744, when a new house was built on the same site.
The following table of dimensions is divided into two periods to account for the alterations made between 1726 and 1730, with the long side in both cases running east-to-west.
TABLE 12: DIMENSIONS OF MILLY HOUSE:
(1) Plan 1717-2; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 60 x 20;
(2) Plan 1718-2; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 55 x 24;
(3) Plan 1720-4; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 45 x 18;
(4) Plan 1722-1; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 50 x 18;
(5) Plan 1724-2; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 50 x 20;
(6) Plan 1726-4; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 45 x 20;
(7) Average; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 51 x 20;
(1) Plan 1730-2; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 40 x 24;
(2) Plan 1731-3; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 30 x 21;
(3) Plan 1734-4; DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 46 x 24;
(4) Average: DIMENSIONS (in pieds): 39 x 23;
A small shed or lean-to was attached to the east end of the Rue du Quay house in the early period (No. 2 in Figure 11). It measured about 12 x 12 pieds [NOTE 354]. There may have been another outbuilding on Lot E, for the 1733 inventory referred to a magazin but did not give its location. Since the officials conducting the inventory had apparently completed their inspection of the house by this time and were itemizing possessions outside the house, it is safe to assume that the magazin was located somewhere in the yard [NOTE 355].
A charpente house was erected by François and Thomas Milly behind the Rue du Quay residence along the western boundary of Lot E in 1726-1727 (No. 3 in Figure 11). As part of the 1727 agreement François ceded the house to Thomas and also agreed to pay half the expense of finishing the chimney, floors and partitions, and to put glass in the windows [NOTE 356]. The house was still not finished in 1733 when the Thomas Milly inventory mentioned: "un maison de Charpente qui nest pas finie et on il ny a point de cheminée" [NOTE 357]. According to the plans, the building was attached to the " rear of the Rue du Quay house [NOTE 358]. A 1730 plan undated plan show the roof hipped at the south end, but are contradicted by the 1734 plan which depicts a gable on the south end [NOTE 359]. The building disappeared from the plans after 1734, so it was probably destroyed not later than 1744 when a new house was built on Rue du Quay, Lot E. A table of dimensions follows (long side runs north to south):
TABLE 13: DIMENSIONS OF MILLY CHARPENTE HOUSE (in pieds)
(1) Plan 1730-2; 40 x 30;
(2) Plan 1731-3 DIMENSIONS: 35 x 25;
(3) Plan 1734-4; DIMENSIONS: 45 x 20;
(4) Plan ND 24; DIMENSIONS: 45 x 25;
(5) Plan Average: DIMENSIONS: 41 x 25.
A new Laborde residence replaced the old buildings at the front of Lot E in 1744 (No. 1 in Figure 12). Jean Laborde and Louise Dupuy built the house and used it in 1750 as part of the surety for Laborde's position as Treasurer of the Marine. It was described as follows: "Une maison de quarente cinq pieds de face sur La Rue et place du port en cette ville Sur Vingt Six pieds de Large par Eux [Labordes] Batié en Launée 17 quarente quatre ... Le quel dt terrain maison cour et Jardin Vallant au moins de huit a neuf mille Livres" . According to a 1752 plan the roof of the house had two slopes [NOTE 361]. Unfortunately, the building did not figure in any disputes or transactions between the time it was built and the second siege, so there is no structural information available from that period. The house needed extensive repairs by 1768 but was habitable [NOTE 362]. A table of dimensions follows:
TABLE 14: DIMENSIONS OF LABORDE HOUSE:
(1) Plan 1745-24 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 20
(2) Plan 1746-4 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 45 x 20
(3) 1747-1 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 20
(4) 1752-11 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 20 pieds
(5) 1757-12 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 50 x 30
(6) 1767-1 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 30 x 20
(7) Average DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 42 x 23.
An unidentified building, along the Rue Dauphine side of Iot E appeared on the plans in 1752 (No. 2 in Figure 12). It was described by the English in 1767 as a "house at present inhabited", but one year later the building was in bad repair with most of the floors, windows and partitions torn out [NOTE 363]. On the 1752 plan the roof had two slopes. The size of the building varied considerably on the plans, as shown in the following table (the long side runs north to south):
TABLE 15: DIMENSIONS OF RUE DAUPHINE BUILDING:
(1) Plan 1752-11; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 55 x 15 pieds;
(2) Plan 1767-1; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 25;
(3) Plan 1768-1; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 30;
(4) Plan ND 27; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 45 x 30;
(5) Average; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 42 x 25;
I. LOT E:
[NOTE 321:]A.N., Colonies, C11B,1768, Vol. 2, fols. 152-153, Toises des concessions ..., Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1717; also A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 462, fol. 69, Concessions, Louisbourg, 23 décembre 1717.
[NOTE 322:] A.N., Outre mer, Carton 2056, No. 4, Contrat de mariage, Louisbourg, 11 avril 1719.
[NOTE 323:] A.C., C11A, Vol. 126, fol. 111, Estat des Emplacements ... relatif au plan de 1723, Louisbourg, 1723; A.F.L., plans 1723-1, 1723-2, 1723-3 and 1723-4.
[NOTE 324:] A.N., Colonies, Cl1B, Vol. 15, fol. 28, Etat des terrains concédé ... jusqu'au 15 octobre 1734, Louisbourg, 15 octobre 1734; A.N., Colonies., C11C., Vol. 12., fols. 99-100, Confirmation des concessions, Paris, 5 avril 1735.
[NOTE 325:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2058 (1727), No. 48, Partition des terrains, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1727.
[NOTE 326:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 182, fol. 609, Succession Thomas Milly dit La Croix, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 327:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, No. 24, Caution fourni par Jean Laborde et Louise Dupuy, Louisbourg, 5 octobre 1750.
[NOTE 328:] A.N., Outre Mer, Gl, Vol. 409, lst register, fol. 39, Acte de Sepulture, Louisbourg 17 novembre 1754.
[NOTE 329:] PAC, MG 11, C.O. 217, Vol. 25, fols. 140-141, Report on the present state of Louisbourg, Iouisbourg, 26 septembre 1768, (transcript on file at AFL).
[NOTE 330:] Jean Milly was awarded a concession of land at Louisbourg on 7 octobre 1716; see above note 324.
[NOTE 331:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2056 (1719), No. 4, Contrat de mariage entre François Milly et Catherine Baudry, Louisbourg, 11 avril 1719.
[NOTE 332:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 466, Vol. 67, Census, Isle Royale, 1724; Ibid., No, 68, Census, Isle Royale, 1726.
[NOTE 333:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2058 (1727), No. 48, Partition des terrains, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1727; A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 15, fol. 42, Etat des terrains, Louisbourg, 15 octobre 1734.
[NOTE 334:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2046-1, No. 106, Vente d'une maison, Louisbourg, 27 octobre 1738; Ibid., Carton 2041, No. 126, Conventions, Louisbourg, 30 mars 1751.
[NOTE 335:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 2nd register, fol. 1, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 31 janvier 1723; Ibid., lst register, fol. 4, Acte de baptême, Louisbourg, 4 août 1723; Ibid., 4th register, fol. 60, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 16 janvier 1736.
[NOTE 336:] A.N., Outre Mer, Gl., Vol. 406, lst register, fol. 8. Baptême de Catherine Louise, Louisbourg, 24 août 1724; Ibid., fol. 26, Baptême de François Marie, Louisbourg, 2 décembre 1726; Ibid., 4th register, fol. 9, Baptême de Thomas, Louisbourg, 20 fevrier 1729; Ibid., fol. 38, Baptême de Blaise Michel, Louisbourg, 30 septembre 1732.
[NOTE 337:] A.N., Outre Mer., G3, Vol. 182, fol. 609, Succession de Thomas Milly dit la Croix, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 338:] A.N., Outre Mer, Vol. 406, 4th register, fol. 50, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 3 fevrier 1734; Ibid., G2, Vol. 181, dossier 38, No. 284, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1734.
[NOTE 339:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 4th register, Baptême de Marguerite, in Louisbourg, 30 décembre 1737.
[NOTE 340:] Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 408, lst register, fol. 62, Baptême, de Louise, Louisbourg, 21 octobre 1749.
[NOTE 341:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 4th register, fol. 59, Baptême, de Sabastien Charles, Louisbourg, 13 janvier 1736; Ibid., Vol. 407, lst register, fol. 41, Baptême, de François Joseph, Louisbourg, 27 novembre 1739; Ibid., 2nd register, fol. 40, Baptême de Marie Charlotte Degoutin, Louisbourg, 19 septembre 1744; Ibid., fol. 49, Baptême de François Rondeau, Louisbourg, 11 mars 1753.
[NOTE 342:] The 1749 list of families returning to Louisbourg clearly establishes that there were two Jean Baptiste Labordes at Louisbourg, one listed as notaire royale, the other as procureur du Roy (see A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 466, No. 76 denombrement des familles Louisbourg, 1749). For the judicial appointments of the attorney general see: A.N, Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 190, fols. 58-60, plumitifs d'audiances, Louisbourg, 1 juin 1739; ACM, Vol. B 270, fols. 68-69, enregistrement, Louisbourg, 17 septembre 1739; A.N, Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 193, dossier 1, fol. 35, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 8 octobre 1750; Ibid., Vol. 212, dossier 573, papiers concernant Jean Laborde, Louisbourg, 6 octobre 1750 et 6 octobre 1752. In January 1754, the attorney general lost his sanity and six months later he was temporarily replaced by Jean Pascaud, but Laborde continued to [PAGE 261:] receive half his salary. In November 1754, Laborde died at the age of 56. See: A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 34, fol. 60, Ordonnance de Prevost, Louisbourg, 7 juin 1754; ACM, Vol. B 271, fols. 24-26, Drucour et Prevost, Louisbourg, 6 novembre 1754; A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 409, 1st register, fol. 39, Acte de sepulture, Louisbourg., 17 novembre 1754.
[NOTE 343:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 52, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 6 mai 1733; Ibid., Carton 2041-1, No. 34, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 30 octobre 1750; No. 90, Vente d'un brigantin, Louisbourg, 24 novembre 1751; Ibid., Carton 2041-2, No. 146 Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 12 septembre 1752; Ibid., No. 165, Morin notaire, Louisbourg, 27 novembre 1752; Carton 2041-2, No. 6, Rondeau notaire, Louisbourg, 3 juillet 1752; Ibid., Carton 2042, No. 11, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 29 novembre 1753; Ibid., No. 10, Vente des chaloupes, Louisbourg, 25 novembre 1753; Ibid., No. 15, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 10 décembre 1753; Ibid., Carton 2044, No.74, Bacquerine notaire, Louisbourg, 25 octobre 1756; Ibid., No. 64, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg., 3 septembre 1757; Ibid., Carton 2045, No. 38, Bacquerine notaire, Louisbourg, 13 septembre 1757.
[NOTE 344:] A.N., Colonies, C11C, Vol. 9, fols. 202-205, Observations sur ce qui s'est passé touchant le commerce de france a l'Isle Royale depuis 1750 Jusqua 1753, St. Malo, 1753.
[NOTE 345:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 30, Vente d'un terrain, Louisbourg, 13 décembre 1755; Ibid., Carton 2043, No. 43, Louisbourg, 1 décembre 1754.
[NOTE 346:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, No. 24, Cautionnement fourni par Sieur et Madame Laborde, Louisbourg, 5 octobre 1750; Ibid., Carton 2043, No.43, Cautionnement fourni par Sieur et Madame Laborde, Louisbourg, 1 décembre 1754.
[NOTE 347:] A.F.L., plan 1717-2.
[NOTE 348:] A.F.L., plans 1726-4 and 1730-2.
[NOTE 349:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 182, fol. 620, Succession Thomas La Croix, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 350:] A.N., Outre Mer G3 Carton 2058 (1727), No. 48, Partitions des terrains, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1727.
[NOTE 351:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 182, fols. 611-616, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 352:] A.F.L., plan 1731-1.
[NOTE 353:] A.F.L., plans 1731-3, 1734-4.
[NOTE 354:] A.F.L., plans 1717-2, 1718-2, 1720-2, 1720- 4.
[NOTE 355:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 182, fol. 619, Succession Thomas La Croix, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 356:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2058 (1727), No. 48, Partition des terrains, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1727.
[NOTE 357:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 182, fol. 620, Succession de Thomas Croix, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 358:] A.F.L., plans 1730-2, 1731-3, 1734-4, ND 24.
[NOTE 359:] A.F.L., plans 1730-2, 1734-4, ND 24.
[NOTE 360:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, No. 24, Cautionnement fourni par Jean Iaborde et Louise Dupuy, Louisbourg, 5 octobre 1-750.
[NOTE 361:] A.F.L., plan 1752-11.
[NOTE 362:] A.F.L., plans 1767-1 and 1768-1; PAC, MG 11, C.0. 217, Vol. 25, fols. 140-141, Report on the present state of Louisbourg, Louisbourg, 26 octobre 1768.
[NOTE 363:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2058 (1727), No. 48, Partition des terrains, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1727.
[NOTE 364:] A.N., Outre Mer, Vol. 179, fol. 544, Requet de procureur general, Louisbourg, 16 juin 1728.
[NOTE 365:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 186, fol. 229, Procés criminel, Louisbourg, 8août 1740.