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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
TERRENCE D. MACLEAN
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 24)
The site of Lot D was first owned by Petit IaMotte, a merchant, by virtue of the crown concessions of 1717:
Concession du petit LaMotte sur le même alignment, 16 toises de frond sur 40 de profondeur, bornée d'un costé par le terrain de Jean IaCroix, et de l'autre par celuy de gros LaMotte [NOTE 206].
As with Lots B and C, the northern boundary of the lot followed the line of the piquet buildings constructed on Block 4 by the crown in 1713. Originally the lot extended beyond Rue Royale to the south, but the layout of the town in 1722-23 cut the southern boundary back to Rue Royale. The piquet house at the front of the lot had been built for Denys De LaRonde, an officer, but by 1717 Petit LaMotte owned both the house and the lot [NOTE 207].
LaMotte died in 1723, and there followed a very complicated series of events that clouded the question of ownership of the Lot D property for more than 30 years. In 1719 LaMotte had decided to journey back to France. Fearing that he would die enroute, he made out a will in which he named his bastard son, Pierre Allain De LaMotte, as the principal heir, and a fellow Louisbourg merchant, Jean Morin, as executor of the estate. LaMotte's original intention was that his son would join him in France, where his guardian would be the merchant LaMotte's father, [PAGE 59:] but provision was also made for a Louisbourg tutor, Sieur Allain Vrignau, the child's maternal uncle. The will further stipulated that if Lamotte died on the voyage the boy's guardians in Louisbourg would be Francois Allain De LaMotte and Marie Allain De LaMotte, brother and sister of LaMotte senior, despite Vrignau's delegation as tutor [PAGE 208]. So when LaMotte died on the way to France in 1723 aboard his ship, La Comptesse d'Agrain, the responsibility for putting his will into effect fell to Jean Morin, who brought the case to the Superior Council on April 2, 17240 [NOTE 209].
Initially the council awarded the estate to LaMotte's natural son, Pierre [NOTE 210]. In 1725 the executor of the estate, Jean Morin, died and in 1726 Jean Vrignau died, at which time François Allain De LaMotte became official tutor of young LaMotte, while Claude Morin, heir of Jean Morin, became deputy tutor, and together they assumed control of the estate [NOTE 211]. Soon afterward the two men began to collect debts from the succession [NOTE 212]. Also, Francois Allain De LaMotte demanded that the court negate the 1719 will because it gave legal status to a bastard, and that the estate be awarded to the official guardian; on May 28, 1725, the council rejected this demand on the grounds that the will was the only basis for LaMotte's appointment as guardian [NOTE 213]. Undaunted, LaMotte, with the help of Claude Morin, continued to make money on the estate, so the Superior Council seized the estate to guarantee the rights of the legal heir, LaMotte fils, and placed the goods in the custody of the court clerk [NOTE 214].
Allain De LaMotte presented a petition to the colonial, administration in France demanding repeal of the council's decree. The Compte de Maurepas, French Minister of Marine, wrote to the governor and commissaire-ordonnateur [PAGE 60:] at Louisbourg, St. Ovide and De Mezy, asking why the goods were seized. He failed to see the reasoning of the Louisbourg council, as the sums in the estate could procure no interest in the hands of the clerk, and if they were to remain dormant the minor would be within his rights to demand interest [NOTE 215]. Maurepas received an explanation of the details surrounding the case from the Louisbourg officials, but stated unequivocally that they had no grounds for their judgment. He pointed out that it was not the responsibility of the judges to prevent the abuse of a tutelage, and that there was no legal precedent for a legally appointed tutor being deprived of the management of the goods belonging to the ward. The decree of the council was, therefore, untenable. Maurepas, however, felt that the council acted in good faith, so he decided not to carry Allain De LaMotte's appeal to the king, in the belief that the Louisbourg administration would grant the tutor a free hand in the management of the estate as soon as they received the minister's letter [NOTE 216]. In his reply of November 3, 1728, De Mezy informed Maurepas that the bastard son of Pierre Allain De LaMotte had died, and that François and Marie Allain De LaMotte would probably receive the estate [NOTE 217].
In the meantime Antoine Sabatier, crown attorney for the Superior Council at Louisbourg, had recommended in 1725 that the goods of the LaMotte estate be sold, because they were deteriorating in the hands of the court [NOTE 218]. In March, 1726 the council appointed Joseph Lartigue, to supervise the sale, the proceeds to go to the court clerk for eventual distribution whenever the succession could be settled [NOTE 219]. In May, Lartigue reported to the council that nobody came to the public sale, so the council appointed three experts to estimate the value of the goods, [PAGE 61:] Guillaume Delort, LaMotte Cassagnolles and Jean Baptiste Morel, and returned the goods to the court clerk [NOTE 220]. In 1728 Sabatier compounded the confusion by purchasing the succession rights from François and Marie Allain DeLaMotte, eight days after De Mezy informed Maurepas that the LaMottes would get the estate. The purchase price was 9,219 livres 19 sols. On April 20, 1729 the crown officially awarded the estate to the LaMottes, which undoubtedly came as no surprise to the crown attorney, and Sabatier became proprietor of Lot D. The deal had to be re-negotiated in 1732, however, because the value of the house on Rue du Quay had been overestimated by Delort, Cassagnolles and Morel. François Allain De Lamotte, acting for himself and his sister, agreed to reduce the purchase price by 1,500 livres. Sabatier had already paid 2,100 livres 19 sols between 1728 and 1732, 719 livres 19 sols of which was applied to the principal of the debt, leaving a balance of 7,000 livres for which LaMotte agreed to accept an annuity of 350 livres [NOTE 221].
In August, 1733, Sabatier sold Lot D to Maurice Santier, master batcher and innkeeper, for 9,000 livres. The sale included: la maison, cour, jardin que mon dit Sieur Sabatier a en cette ville scitué sur le rue du quay et rue royale; contenant y soixante et quinze pieds sur la dite rue royalle et soixante et treize sur cette du quay ... [NOTE 222].
The 1734 list of concessions confirmed Santier's ownership and the final-limits of the lot: A Maurice Santier, boucher et cabaretier, un terrain de 73 pieds de face sur la rue et place [PAGE 62:] du port, sur 181 pieds de profondeur le long du terrain de feu Sr. Pierre Casagnolle, 76 pieds le long de la rue Royalle, 63 pieds le long de la rue Dauphine, et 138 pieds sur le terrain du Sr. Jean Milly sur une distance de 18 pieds, à l'est par le terrain du Sr. Jean Milly et la rue Dauphine, au sud par la rue Royalle, à oeust par le terrain de feu Pierre de Casagnolle ... [NOTE 223]. (See Figure 2).
The lot contained 14,504 pieds square, making it the largest concession on Block 4.
Originally Santier was to pay for the land and the Rue du Quay building by 1736 in three annual installments of 3,000 livres, but the terms of the agreement had to be changed later because Santier was unable to pay, probably because his money was tied up in new construction on Lot D. When Sabatier sold his Block 2 property and house in December, 1733, the sale agreement revealed that the house was still mortgaged to support Sabatier's indebtedness to the LaMottes [NOTE 224]. Finally in late 1736, Maurice Santier sold his property and charpente house on Block 38 to Louis Logier and Jean Claparede for 2,000 livres, which the butcher agreed to turn over to Sabatier as partial payment [NOTE 225]. This left a balance of 7,000 livres, for which Santier agreed to pay an annuity of 350 livres, giving Sabatier a clear profit of 2,000 livres. After Santier's death in 1743 his heirs agreed to continue payment of the annuity, and this arrangement lasted until the first siege [NOTE 226].
In 1749 Lot D was returned to the Santier heirs, Pierre Santier, son of Maurice, and Michel Vallée, husband of Maurice Santier's daughter, [PAGE 63:] Mathurine. The question of the annuity arose when the French Minister of the Marine, having received representations from the LaMotte heirs, asked the commissaire-ordonnateur at Louisbourg, Jacques Prevost, to clarify the situation so that some arrangement could be made between the LaMotte heirs and the proprietors of Lot D [NOTE 227]. In June 1752, Prevost was able to give a report to the Compte De Jouy, who had replaced Maurepas as Minister of the Marine. After reviewing the complexities of the affair up to the first siege, Prevost turned his attention to the demand of the LaMotte heirs, Nicholas Guestres and his wife, Marie Allain De LaMotte, who held a mortgage on the Lot D property through Antoine Sabatier, that the annuity of 350 livres be reconstituted. He pointed out that Pierre Santier and Michel Vallée were, not surprisingly, in difficult economic circumstances as a result of the siege, "malaisés et ne possédent dans la colonie", and that the wooden buildings on Lot D were aging. He felt, therefore, that a return to the previous arrangement would be unfair to Santier and Vallé [NOTE 228]. In the meantime the LaMotte heirs had sold their mortgage rights to Jacques Pelu of Sillé, France. In 1754 Gabriel Dangeac, who held power of attorney in Louisbourg for Pelu, negotiated a settlement of the annuity with Santier and Vallée. The outstanding principal had risen to 10,100 livres by this time, and Dangeac offered to settle for 9,100 livres. Santier and Vallée refused to pay that much, declaring they would vacate the land and demand compensation for the buildings they constructed on Rue Royale after 1743. So the parties finally agreed to a compromise of 6,000 livres [NOTE 229]. The agreement gave Santier and Vallée full and incontestable rights to the ownership of Lot D, marking the first time since 1724 that there was a clear title to the property.
This stability lasted a mere two years, for Michel Vallée died in 1756, apparently without a will, and the ownership of Lot D was again in doubt. After the inventory and sale of Vallée's personal effects, the Superior Council appointed three experts to divide the Vallée portion of the Lot D property into three equal parts, so that they could be awarded to the Vallée children, Julienne, Marie-Anne and Michel fils. Pierre Santier retained ownership of his land on Block 4, so after October 1756, Lot D contained four smaller lots. (Figure 8). The first lot from the Vallée estate was located on the corner of Rue Royale and Rue Dauphine; containing 38 pieds of frontage along Rue Royale and running northward, along Rue Dauphine and the property of Pierre Santier, to within five pieds of the southern boundary of lot E. The distance of five pieds, designed to serve as a common laneway to provide access to all three of the Vallée lots, ran from Rue Dauphine to the eastern boundary of Santier's property and was parallel to Rue Royale. The second lot contained about 21 pieds of frontage on Rue du Quay and a depth southward of 112 pieds along the western boundary of Lot E, with the same 21 pieds width at the back. Another five pied laneway ran north to south along the western boundary of this second Vallée lot and joined the other lane issuing to Rue Dauphine. The land to the west of this north-south laneway and adjacent to Pierre Santier's property comprised one part of the third Vallée lot, the precise limits of which were not delineated, the remaining portion being formed by the land between the southern boundary of the second lot and the east to west laneway. The remainder of Lot D belonged to Pierre Santier. The first of the new lots, valued at 4,200 livres, was entrusted to Pierre as provisional tutor of young Michel [PAGE 65:] [ Photo required] Vallée; the second, valued at 4,000 livres, to Guillaume Desroche, husband of Julienne Vallée; and the third lot, valued at 3,000 livres, to Joan Roche, husband of Marie-Anne Vallée. Letourneur paid 200 livres, Desroche 800 livres to Roche to equalize the value of the awards [NOTE 230].
There were no further changes in the ownership of Lot D before the second siege, and it is not known who owned the land during the second English occupation.
Denys De La Ronde, one of the original officers at Isle Royale, was the first occupant of the land that became Lot D. Born in Quebec in 1675, he was appointed captain of a company at Acadia in 1707. He had embarked from Plaisance and arrived at Louisbourg with the founding expedition in 1713, then spend the winter in the piquet house on Block 4 built for him with royal funds [NOTE 231]. After that first winter De La Ronde was an infrequent visitor to Louisbourg, spending, most of his time outside Isle Royale or at Port Toulouse, where he was appointed commandant in 1715 [NOTE 232]. He was sent to Canada in 1719 and did not return to Louisbourg until 1727, at which time he was on a merchant ship destined for France [NOTE 233]. The officer was last mentioned as a resident of Iouisbourg in 1734 when he almost perished in a small craft caught in a wind storm off Isle Royale for eight to ten days [NOTE 234].
De La Ronde was, for a variety of reasons, one of the most prominent of the small contingent of officers sent to Louisbourg in 1713 from Plaisance and France. He was the chief envoy in the negotiations with Governor Francis Nicholson of Nova Scotia in 1714 for the withdrawal of' [PAGE 67:] the Acadian French from English territory. "The mission of La Ronde was highly successful. With a few exceptions all the people he saw agreed to go go Isle Royale. No obstacle was put in their way, and the outcome would seem to have depended entirely on the French authorities carrying out the promises made on their behalf " [NOTE 235]. The problem was that the captain went beyond his instructions in the promises he made to the Acadians, and France was not prepared to carry them out. Late in 1714, L'Hermitte, reflecting on the Acadian situation, remarked that De La Ronde often managed to get himself into trouble with his flatteries and his lies [NOTE 236]. One year later the Chevalier De Ligondes called him a "foubre" or rogue, and in 1728 the French Minister of the Marine wrote that of all the officers in Canada he was the least deserving of consideration [NOTE 237]. Despite these assessments De la Ronde was made a chevalier of the Order of St. Louis in 1721 [NOTE 238]. His work at Port Toulouse was so well received that he was commended by St. Ovide for his service and recommended for advancement; when the officer left after his term as commandant expired, the inhabitants of Port Toulouse petitioned for his return [NOTE 239].
Pierre Allain De LaMotte or Petit LaMotte as he was commonly known, owned and occupied Lot D from 1715 to 1723. He was a French merchant who had come to Louisbourg from Plaisance, probably in 1714 with the last group of settlers from Newfoundland. In Plaisance he had been involved in a business partnership with Claude Morin and Jean Rochefort, fellow Louisbourg merchants, but the partnership was dissolved in 1713 [NOTE 240]. By 1715 LaMotte seems to have moved to Lot D, since by October of that year he and a Sieur Langevin had built an addition to the magazin portion of De La Ronde's house, although there is no record of sale [NOTE 241]. After [PAGE 68:] 1717 Petit LaMotte, who by that time was sole proprietor and occupant of Lot D, was actively trading in cod and foodstuffs [NOTE 242]. His prominence as a bourgeois merchant in the early years of Louisbourg won him consideration by De Mezy, commissaire-ordonnateur, as a candidate to serve as the first merchant on the Louisbourg Superior Council [NOTE 243]. He died in 1723 on the way to France [NOTE 244].
It is doubtful whether anyone lived on Lot D between LaMotte's death and the purchase of the property in 1728 by Antoine Sabatier. Between 1724 and 1726 François Allain De LaMotte lived in Claude Morin's house. By 1725 the crown had seized the estate, and from the date of seizure to the assumption of control by Antoine Sabatier, nobody was allowed to live there. Sabatier lived on Block 2 during this period and rented the Lot D property to a gardener, Surges, [NOTE 245]. Finally the purchase of Lot D in 1733 by Maurice Santier brought new life to Block 4.
Maurice Santier and his wife, Julienne Josset, were natives of St. Malo France and were living in Louisbourg as early as 1728 [NOTE 246]. He came to Louisbourg as a master butcher, but engaged in other business ventures as well [NOTE 247]. In 1729 he built a charpente house on Block 38 when both his business and his family were small [NOTE 248]. In 1733, however, Santier's daughter, Mathurine, married Michel Vallée and one of the conditions in the marriage contract required that Maurice Santier provide living accommodation and sustenance for the couple and any children they might have for a minimum period of four years [NOTE 249]. At approximately the same time Santier brought his son, Pierre, into the family business, and to provide for expansion on both fronts Santier bought the largest lot on Block 4. By 1734 the old piquet house and store along Rue du Quay [PAGE 69:] were replaced by new buildings, providing living accommodation for two families and space for an inn, a butchery and a storehouse [NOTE 250]. In the spring of 1734 Maurice and Pierre Santier were both listed as innkeepers in an official ordinance concerning inns and taverns at Louisbourg [NOTE 251]. In the same year Maurice Santier bought over 2,000 clay pipes, which he probably distributed in the inn; in 1736 he rented one of the Rue du Quay residences to the crown; in 1739 he was renting part of the storehouse to Joachim La Masse for wine storage [NOTE 252]. He continued to operate the Block 4 business enterprises until his death in 1743 [NOTE 253].
Pierre Santier's life in Louisbourg was similar to that of his father in many ways, with one notable exception - the size of his family. Whereas Maurice Santier and wife had only two children, Pierre and Servanne (Bonnier), Santier displayed remarkable fecundity by having no less than ten children between 1736 and 1750 [NOTE 254]. Pierre remained in his father's business, and probably his house, for several years as a master butcher and innkeeper before buying his own property on Block 19 in 1736; there he opened his own inn [NOTE 255]. After his father's death in 1743 Pierre Santier moved back into the Rue du Quay house on Block 4, where he remained until the first siege [NOTE 256].
The family of Pierre Santier returned to Louisbourg and Block 4 after the first English occupation [NOTE 257]. Although Santier had built a house on Rue Royale at the back of Lot D by 1745, the family occupied the Rue du Quay house [NOTE 258]. The Block 19 house was rented to Marie Anne Visé, while another Santier house, undoubtedly the new Block 4 house facing Rue Royale, was rented to Pierre Barbereau and Gabriel Revol [NOTE 259]. In 1753 Santier rented the Rue du Quay house to Arnaud Barrouillet, a [PAGE 70:] master wig-maker, and moved his own family into the Rue Royale house [NOTE 260]. One year later Santier made out his will in the Rue Royale house, where he was confined to his room because of illness [NOTE 261]. He recovered, however, and continued to operate a butchery in Louisbourg, but not an inn; and was still alive in the fall of 1757 [NOTE 262]. Santier and his family probably left Louisbourg after the second siege.
Michel Vallée, a native of Normandy, France married Mathurine Santier in 1733 [NOTE 263]. As indicated in the marriage contract the two may have lived in Maurice Santier's residence for a short time, but by 1736 they moved to Petit Lorembec where Vallée's fishing enterprise was located. Three Vallée children were born at Petit Lorembec: Julienne in 1736, Marie in 1738 and Michel in 1740 [NOTE 264]. It is not known whether the family moved back to Block 4 after Maurice Santier's death in early 1743. Santier's widow, Julienne, died at Petit Lorembec in March, 1743, probably while living with the Vallées, and Mathurine Santier Vallée died during the first English occupation, probably in France [NOTE 265]. Michel Vallée returned to Louisbourg in 1750 with a new wife, Marianne Le Ferne, and the three children from the first marriage, and took up residence on Block 4 [NOTE 266]. Having lost everything as a result of the siege he was forced to get help from the crown to re-establish his fishing operations at Petit Lorembec and on land outside the Dauphin Demi-Bastion [NOTE 267]. The family continued to live in the Rue du Quay residence on Lot D until Michel Vallée's death in 1756.
The Vallée succession excluded the second wife of the deceased from the Lot D portion of the estate and awarded it in three equal parts to the children of the first marriage [NOTE 268]. After the succession the two [PAGE 71:] Vallée daughters lived their families on Rue du Quay, Lot D [PAGE 269]. Julien Vallée had married Guillaume Desroche, of Lorembec, a fisherman, in 1753 [NOTE 270]. Desroche was the tutor of young Michel Vallée, so it is probable that the boy lived with the Desroche family after 1756. The family left Louisbourg after the 1758 siege and one of the Desroche children was receiving subsistence payments from the French government at La Rochelle in 1761 and 1762 [NOTE 271]. Marie Vallée married Jean Roche, a master surgeon from Perigueux, France, in 1756; she was with the Desroche child at La Rochelle in 1761-62, but Roche died at Louisbourg in late 1757 [NOTE 272].
The house at the back of Lot D, ceded to young Michel Vallée from his father's estate, was rented in 1757 to a M. L'Ange, Chevalier Ducharnbon, infantry captain at Louisbourg, for an annual rent of 400 livres [NOTE 273]. One year later the house was rented to Julien Guillaume for the same price [NOTE 274].
Only one building, a combined house and store, was built on Lot D before 1734, but after that date three structures appeared. (See Figures 9 and 10)
A piquet house, the first building on Lot D, was constructed in 1713 with royal funds as a residence for Denys De La Ronde (No. 1 in Figure 9). According to a 1715 description of the house it measured 39 pieds along Rue du Quay and 20 pieds north to south, had picket walls and a bark roof: "Les piquets ont estés coupez et plantez par son [de la Ronde's] charpentier et deux de ses gens avec des soldats. La [PAGE 73:] cheminee, Les mandriers de même que la couverture et cloux qu'il a falu pour La faire appartenant au Roy. Les cloisons qui sont dedans portes vitrées et chassis ont esté faites par son charpentier ..." [NOTE 275].
The house was valued at 725 livres in 1715, 325 for planks, nails, roof and chimney, 400 for the pickets, sills, partition boards, hardware and labor. An addition to the magazin portion of the house, valued at 150 livres, (No. 2 in Figure 9) was built in 1715 by Sieurs Langevin and LaMotte, giving a total value of 875 livres for the building [NOTE 276]. The inclusion of sills (solages) in the evaluation may have referred to a base for the interior partition walls and not to sills for the exterior walls, since the 1715 description stated that the pickets were cut and planted, indicating that they were set in a trench. A profile of the building given on a 1717 plan, however, seems to show that the pickets rested on a wooden sill which in turn rested on a rudimentary stone foundation [NOTE 277].
The same profile reveals that the interior and exterior walls had exposed pickets, so the building had no revetment. The exposed walls and bark roof must have given the building a rather crude appearance, to say nothing of its comfort level. The roof had two slopes, according to the plans, and at least one fireplace located on the common wall adjoining the Lot C building [NOTE 278]. A 1720 plan depicted the building in two equal parts, obviously house and magazin, with the Rue du Quay side of each section measuring 45 pieds [NOTE 279]. The overall dimensions given on the plan seem to be inaccurate, but nevertheless there must have been a dividing wall between the original 1713 house and the 1715 Magazin.
The building deteriorated between 1724 and 1733, for Antoine Sabatier's deal for the purchase of Lot D had to be renegotiated in 1732 when it [PAGE 74:] was discovered that the value of the house and magazin was not nearly as much as had been assessed in 1726 [NOTE 280]. The structure was destroyed shortly after it was sold to Maurice Santier in 1733 [NOTE 281]. A table of dimensions, with the long side running along Rue du Quay, follows:
Table 8: DIMENSIONS OF LAMOTTE BUILDING:
(1) Plan 1718-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 75 x24;
(2) Plan 1720-4: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 90 x18;
(3) Plan 1722-1: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 72 x18;
(4) Plan 1724-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 75 x20;
(5) Plan 1726-4: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 75 x20;
(6) Plan 1730-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 55 x24;
(6) Plan 1731-3: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 72 x21;
(7) Plan Average: DIMENSIONS (in pieds: 73 x20.
The old Rue du Quay building was replaced between 1733 and 1735 by a large L-shaped building running north to south along the eastern boundary of the lot, and east to west along Rue du Quay. (Nos. 1, 2, 3, on Figure 10). The representation of this particular building on the various historical plans clearly shows that little care was taken on the English plans, except for 1767-1, to accurately and comprehensively draw the Block 4 structures. All of the English plans between 1745 and 1749 depict the old Rue du Quay building on Lot D, and not the Santier building; the same thing applies during and after the second siege on all but the 1767 English plan [NOTE 282]. On four of these plans the Rue du Quay [PAGE 76:] facade of Block 4 is shown as a simple rectangle without separation at property lines, rendering these plans useless for information on specific buildings [NOTE 283]. It becomes obvious that the authors of these plans and surveys were preoccupied with the details of the fortifications and the blocks near the King's Bastion. Their diligence waned somewhat by the time they drew in the Block 4 side of town. In most cases the buildings left out were simple wooden sheds or outbuildings which were deemed insignificant, but such was not the case with the Santier building.
The documentary evidence suggests that the north-south wing along the eastern boundary of the lot was the first part of the building to be constructed, because it housed the Santier business enterprises, after which the Rue du Quay living accommodations were built. The excellent 1734 plan shows the entire building, but this does not necessarily mean that all parts of the structure were completed [NOTE 284]. In May of 1735 the Santier family was still living on Block 38, but in 1734 the Santiers, Maurice and Pierre, were operating their inn on Block 4 [NOTE 285]. In 1736 the structure was complete, for in December of that year Santier had sold his Block 38 property and moved to Block 4 [NOTE 286]. The building was constructed of wood, but it is not certain whether it was charpente, although its size and the fact that Santier's Block 38 house was charpente indicates that piquet construction was extremely unlikely [NOTE 287 ].
Analysis of the Vallée succession papers and this lease agreements reached by Pierre Santier reveal that the Santier building was divided into four parts: a magazin comprising the north-south wing, a small house adjacent to the magazin on Rue du Quay, a larger residence next to the small house, and another large residence on Rue du Quay adjacent [PAGE 77:] to Blaise Cassagnolles' house on Lot C. After Maurice Santier's death in 1743 the magazin and small house belonged to Michel Vallée, while the two larger houses belonged to Pierre Santier [NOTE 288]. This was, of course, the most convenient way of dividing the property between the two heirs, Vallée getting the east side of the lot and Santier receiving the west. But the use of the buildings did not follow the same pattern, for Michel Vallée lived in one of Pierre Santier's houses on Rue du Quay after the first English occupation until his death in 1756, and probably lived there between 1743 and the first siege, apparently without charge since there is no record of a lease agreement [NOTE 289]. Also, it is unlikely that Vallée, a fisherman, continued to operate Maurice Santier's inn and butchery in the Lot D magazin after 1743, and just as unlikely that Pierre Santier, an innkeeper and master butcher, abandoned his father's Lot D business operations. In all probability, then, Vallée and Santier had an agreement whereby Vallée lived in the Santier house, and in return, Santier used Vallée's magazin for his business pursuits. Guillaume Desroche, who inherited the magazin from Michel Vallée in 1756, seems to have had a similar arrangement for he also lived in Pierre Santier's house apparently without a lease [NOTE 290].
The Santier magazin was built in 1733-34. Very little definitive evidence is available on the structure - it is obscured by the Ile du Quay buildings on the views of Louisbourg - except what can be gleaned from a description of the Vallée buildings on Lot D contained in two documents pertaining to the partition of the Vallée property in 1756. The magazin was located on the second of the three Vallée lots:
... le magazin faisant face a La place ou Rue duport, Lequel contient Environ vingt et un pieds de face ou largeur sur y celle avec aussy environ quarante huit pieds de profondeur tirant au sud...une petitte Batisse d'environ vingt et quatre pieds de long sur le derriere ... [NOTE 291].
The construction date for the small building, at the back of the magazin is not known. It does not appear on the 1734 plan but a 1752 plan seems to include it [NOTE 292]. A stairway mentioned in the 1756 description provides further detail on the Rue du Quay magazin:
L escalier qui Est formé contre La cheminée mitoienne quoi quétant Enpartis sur Le d magazin ... pour jouir des mansardes au dessus ...
The stairway, which provided access to the upper level of the magazin, was built partly against one wall of the house adjacent to the magazin and partly against the common chimney, with the remainder affixed to the magazin itself. The owner of the second lot, Desroche, needed permission from the proprietor of the third Vallée lot, Jean Roche, in order to use the staircase. Roche promised to allow access for a period of six months to that part of the staircase resting on his house, giving Desroche enough time to provide alternative access to the upper level of his magazin. Roche also had to tolerate a window on the ground floor of the west side of the magazin: "une fenetre au Rez de chausés Donnant sur la cour du coté du oeust ..." But Desroche had to agree to install iron bars on the window with four pouce openings to make sure that there was no access to his neighbour's back yard. Roof drains on the west side of [PAGE 79] the magazin also violated the property rights of Roche, but again Desroche was allowed to keep them [NOTE 293].
The mansard roof on the magazin probably had a ridge line in the middle, since the two plans that show the roof have that feature, although the plans do not show the mansard itself [NOTE 294]. Also, the Vallée house (no relation to Block 4 Vallées) on Block 34, built almost at the same time as the Santier magazin, had a mansard roof with a ridge line in the middle, as shown on a 1758 plan [NOTE 295]. No information is available on the interior of the magazin.
Adjacent to the magazin, on the third Vallée lot, was a small house facing Rue du Quay: "La petitte maison En L'Etat quelle Est et se consiste de bas En haut, faisant face a larue du port." The house had a fireplace on the east wall with a chimney common to it and the Santier magazin. It is not known whether this part of the Santier-Vallée building served as a residence before 1749; it is more likely that it was part of the magazin complex, hence the stairway between the two wings. The dimensions of the house were not given in the 1756 document [NOTE 296]. The Louisbourg Superior Council placed an interim rent evaluation on the house in the spring of 1756 while the Vallée succession was being sorted out, recommending a rate of 300 livres per year [NOTE 297]. In the fall of 1756 the house was awarded to Jean Roche, a master surgeon, who lived there until his death. The residence and the small amount of land given to Roche were valued at 3.000 livres, so the small house must have been in good condition at that time, though it was more than 20 years old and had gone through the first siege and English occupation [NOTE 298].
The next two sections of the Santier building on Rue du Quay were residences belonging to Maurice Santier from the date of construction, 1734-1736 to 1743, and to Pierre Santier before and after the first English occupation. An inventory taken in 1756 in the house on the east side of the Lot D property owned by Santier lifted the following rooms for the application of seals:
dans la chambre ou est decedé led deffunt Vallet ... sur les chassis d un chambre qui donne sur la cour de meme que sur un autre chassis qui joint la precedante et qui donne egallement sur lad cour ... sur la porte qui donne sur lad cour ...
The actual list of goods for the inventory contained the following references to the architecture of the house:
dans la chambre ou est decedé de d feu Vallet ... la chambre qui donne sur la cour ... [officials lifted the seal that had been placed] sur les chassis et la fenetre de la meme chambre ... nous avons passe dans cette [chambre] qui joint celle d ou nous venons de sorter et qui donne aussy sur la cour ... sur les chassis et fenetres qui donnent sur la cour ... dans le magazin qui donne sur la cour ... sur la fermeture de la port du magazin ... au grenier ... sur de la Porte en forme detrape ...
A number of conclusions can be drawn from an analysis of the Vallée inventory [NOTE 299]. The main entrance to the house, undoubtedly the door [PAGE 81] used by the court officials, was located at the front of the house facing Rue du Quay, so it can be assumed that the first room mentioned, the room in which Vallée's body rested, was in the front of the house. The Vallée inventory, unlike many of those conducted at Louisbourg, does not explicitly chart the direction in which the participants travelled, so it is not known whether that first room was to the right of the entrance or to the left. The only seal in the room was applied to an armoire, whereas in all the other rooms the windows facing the back yard were sealed, so the Vallée bedroom could not have extended to the back of the house, and any window on the front side of the house must have been secured with shutters, rendering a seal unnecessary. The next room visited was, judging from its contents, a kitchen, with a window facing the yard; so the room was located at the back of the house. The next room adjoined the kitchen, was also at the back of the house, but had more than one window facing the yard. This room contained many and diverse items, including some food, plates, eating utensils, goblets, wine, some tinware, an iron pot, pipes and clothing, etc., so it could have been a large dining and general purpose room running from the front of the house to the back. Next the party passed through a locked door into a storeroom, where they found some fishing supplies. The officials then entered the attic through a trap door which was also locked. The inventory further revealed that there was a back door leading to the yard, but did not give the location of the door. In 1758 Guillaume Desroche, who had moved into the house with his family after the Vallée estate was settled, repaired a dormer on the house [NOTE 300].
The fourth section of the Santier building, a residence adjoining the Lot C house on Rue du Quay, was nearing completion in the spring of 1735 when a dispute occurred between Maurice Santier and Blaise Cassagnolles over a chimney Santier was building against Cassagnolles' chimney [NOTE 301]. The dispute was resolved after two experts appointed by the Superior Council, Claude Morin and François Vallée, king's surveyor, gave the following report:
Nous Sousignes Certiffions que La cheminée du Sieur Blaize Casagnolle est en etat du suporter L endossement decelle du Sieur Santier; Veû que La cheminée dudit Sieur Santier est faitte de Pierre platte de Briques avec Mortier de Chaux Et sable ...
The experts guaranteed that the Lot D chimney would cause no damage to Cassagnolles' chimney, but declared that if any damage did occur by the end of September, 1735; Santier would have to pull down his chimney at Cassagnolles' request. Santier also had to agree that if Cassagnolles decided to build a new fireplace on the same location anytime after 1735, the cost of a new common chimney would have to be shared equally [NOTE 302]. In 1751 Cassagnolles demolished the old Lot C house and the supposedly common chimney along with it, precipitating another dispute, this time with Pierre Santier who demanded that Cassagnolles rebuild both the chimney and the wall. Santier's case was dismissed by the Superior Council after an expert stone mason examined what was left of the chimney and reported that it was on Cassagnolles' land and that it was constructed for the sole use of the Lot C building. He also reported that:
En ce que cette cheminee Est Bâtie En pierre Et que la cheminée de la maison Du dit Santier Est Bâtie en Briques pour l'usage de laquelle on a fait servir de Le Derriere de Contrecoeur de la cheminée dudit Sieur Cassagnolle En liant pour cette effet quelques Briques dans Le corps dela Cheminée De ce dernier ... [NOTE 303].
His case dismissed, Santier had no choice but to remove the brick chimney and fireplace or strengthen them; it is not known which alternative he chose.
In 1757 Pierre Santier became involved in another dispute concerning the Rue du Quay house at the west end of Lot D. Santier's lease agreement with the occupant of the house, Arnaud Barrouillet, was ambiguous in reference to liability for repairs [NOTE 304]. In January, 1757, the Superior Council ordered Santier to deduct 750 livres from the 1,500 livres Barrouillet owed him for rent after court-appointed experts had examined the roof and the interior of the house and concluded that major repairs were necessary. The court then ordered Santier to make the repairs [NOTE 305]. Several weeks later Barrouillet went so far as to demand that Santier pay his costs in finding a new house and moving his goods and effects out of the Rue du Quay house. The court reviewed the case and ordered that:
led Santier fera les reparations Necessaires, ala couverture de la maison dont est question fera resserer les planches haut et bas et reparer la poutre, dont le tenon est cassé, et led Barrouillet [PAGE 84:] fera de son cotté Boucher la lucarne quil a fait, le tout Conformement au raport des experts ...
The court reserved judgment on two other joists that Santier claimed were broken by Barrouillet, until the landlord could prove his accusation [NOTE 306].
Barrouillet had been paying 1,200 livres per year to Santier, but the rent included some land on Lot D with a garden, which the tenant had to enclose with a fence made with horizontal boards, "planches en travers." Nevertheless, the rent was high, so the house must have been in good condition [NOTE 307]. It was the only part of the Santier building still inhabited in 1767; the other houses and the magazin were used by the English as storehouses or stables [NOTE 308]. In 1768 nobody lived in the building and most of the floors and partitions had been torn out for fuel [NOTE 309].
Only two plans give meaningful dimensions for the entire Santier building on Rue du Quay. On plan 1734-4 the north-south wing of the building measures 27 pieds along Rue du Quay and 45 pieds front to back. The east-west wing of the building measures 45 pieds along Rue du Quay and 27 pieds front to back on plan 1734-4 [NOTE 310]. The dimensions given on the 1752-11 plan are closer to those given in the 1756 description; the north-south wing measures 21 pieds along Rue du Quay and 60 pieds front to back. (The latter figure includes the 24 pieds building on the rear of the magazin mentioned in the 1756 description). The east-west wing measures 54 pieds along Rue du Quay and 24 pieds front to back. The plan also has a line running north to south within the east west wing, which is probably the separation between the Santier and Vallée parts of the building; i.e. the separation between the small house adjacent [PAGE 85:] to the magazin and the first Santier house to the west of it. This would give a width of 15 pieds along Rue du Quay to the small house, and a total width of 39 pieds along Rue du Quay for the two Santier houses [NOTE 311]. These dimensions are presented in the following table:
Table 9: Dimensions (in pieds) of Santier-Vallée Building
(1) (Plan) 1734-4: (Magazine: Long Side - North to South): 45 x 27; (Residences: Long side - East to West): 45 x 27; East House: n/a; West House: n/a;
(2) (Plan) 1752-11: (Magazine: Long Side - North to South): 46 x 24: (Residences: Long side - East to West): 54 x 24: East House: 15 x 24; West House:30 x 24;
RUE ROYALE SANTIER RESIDENCE:
By 1745 Pierre Santier had built a house at the back of Lot D facing Rue Royale, (No. 5 in Figure 10) but the house may not have been finished until after the first English occupation [NOTE 312]. In 1753 Santier hired carpenters to finish a roof, probably on the Rue Royale residence which he was preparing for himself and his family; they moved into the house late in 1753. The carpenter had to complete, "la partie de la couverture en planche qui restre a estre couvert en bardeaux ..." [NOTE 313]. So the house had a shingled roof, with two slopes [NOTE 314]. No further information is available on the building during the French period, but it is known that the house was inhabited in 1767 by a French family and needed extensive repairs [NOTE 315]. A table of dimensions follows, with the first measurement representing the Rue Royale side:
TABLE 10: DIMENSIONS OF SANTIER HOUSE:
(1) Plan 1745- 17: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 30 x 35;
(2) Plan 1746-2: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 37 x 30;
(3) Plan 1747-1: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 30 x 20;
(4) Plan 1752-11: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 35 x 24 pieds;
(5) Plan 1757-12: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 35 x 30;
(6) Plan 1767-1: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 40 x 20;
(7) Plan 1768-1: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 35 x 30;
(8) Plan Average: Dimensions (in feet if not specified): 34.5 x 27.
RUE ROYALE VALLÉE RESIDENCE
Before his death Michel Vallée started to build a house on the corner on Rue Royale and Rue Dauphine, (No. 6 in Figure 10). The exterior of the house was finished by 1752. The Louisbourg court set the allowable rent in 1756 at 150 livres per annum, so it must have been in an unfinished state when Vallée died [NOTE 316]. When Sieur Duchambon rented the house in 1757 he was faced with putting glass in all the ground floor windows because that part of the house had apparently been used as a storehouse with shutters or bars on the windows. He also had to replace ten panes of glass on the second floor, where the living quarters were located repair the brick chimney, and fence in the yard with pickets [NOTE 317]. Julien Guillaume rented the house in 1758 and agreed to finish the upstairs of the house. The work included putting lambris on the walls of the room on the north-east side, spreading a rough cast made with earth and lime on the walls of a room on the south-west, partitioning [NOTE 87:] two cabinets with boards, and installing 24 panes of glass. Guillaume planned to have a boutique on the ground floor [NOTE 318]. The roof of the house had two slopes according to a 1752 plan [NOTE 319]. In 1767 a French family lived in the house; they were still there in 1768, by which time the house was in very poor condition [NOTE 320]. In the following table of dimensions the first measurement refers to the Rue Royale side of the house:
Table 11: Dimensions of Vallée House
(1) Plan 1752- 11: DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 38 x 24 pieds
(2) Plan 1767-1: DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 20
(3) Plan 1768- 1: DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 35 x 30
(4) Plan Average: DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 37 x 24.
I. LOT D:
[NOTE 206:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 2, fols. 152-153, Toises des concessions ..., Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1717; also A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 462, fol. 69, Concessions ..., Louisbourg, 23 décembre 1717.
[NOTE 207:] There is no record of sale from De La Ronde to LaMotte, but the former does not appear in any of the, concession lists from 1717 to 1734.
[NOTE 208:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2056 (1719), No.38, Testament de Pierre Allain De LaMotte, Louisbourg, 1 décembre 1719.
[NOTE 209:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 178, fols. 34-35 (pp. 797-798), plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 2 avril 1724.
[NOTE 210:] Ibid., fol. 35.
[NOTE 211:] A.N., Outre Mer, Gl, Vol. 406, 3rd register, fol. 2, Decés de Jean Morin, Louisbourg, 12 juin 1725; G1, Vol. 410, fol. 25, Decés de Jean Vrignau, Louisbourg, 28 mai 1726.
[NOTE 212:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 8, fol. 223, St. Ovide et De Mezy au Ministre, Louisbourg, 19 juillet 1725.
[NOTE 213:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 7, fol. 281, De Mezy, Louisbourg, 15 décembre 1725.
[NOTE 214:] Ibid., fol. 282.
[NOTE 215:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 50-2, fols. Maurepas à St. Ovide et De Mezy, Louisbourg, 1 juillet 1727 (paraphrased on selection list cards for the series in AFL, but not reproduced in original form).
[NOTE 216:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 52-2, fol. 572, Maurepas à St. Ovide et De Mezy, Louisbourg, 10 juin 1728, (paraphrased on selection 1ist cards for the series in AFL, but not reproduced in original form).
[NOTE 217:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 3, fols. 41-54, De Mezy à Maurepas, Louisbourg, 3 novembre 1728.
[NOTE 218:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 7, fols. 290-291, Representation du Procureur du Roy, Louisbourg, 12 août 1725.
[NOTE 219:] A.N., Outre Mer G2, Vol. 179, fols. 21-22, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 18 mars 1726.
[NOTE 220:] Ibid., fol. 28.
[NOTE 221:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2038-1, No. 69, Desmarest notaire, Louisbourg, 8 janvier 1732.
[NOTE 222:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 59, Vente d'une maison et terrain, Louisbourg, 1 août 1733.
[NOTE 223:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 15, fol. 28, Etat des terrains concédés dans la ville de Louisbourg sous la bon plaisir du Roy par Messieurs le gouverneur et commissaire-ordonnateur de l'Ile Royale, jusqu'au 15 octobre 1734.
[NOTE 224:] A.N., Colonies G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 53, Vente d'une maison, Louisbourg, 23 décembre 1733.
[NOTE 225:] A.N., Colonies, G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 162, Vente d'un emplacement, Louisbourg, 3 décembre 1736.
[NOTE 226:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 17, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 13 novembre 1743.
[NOTE 227:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 89, fol. 329, Le Ministre à Prevost, Paris, 11 avril 1749.
[NOTE 228:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 32, fols. 104-105, Prevost au Ministre, Louisbourg, 4 juin 1752.
[NOTE 229:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2043, No. 32, Transaction entre Dangeac et Santier et Vallée, Louisbourg, 28 octobre 1754.
[NOTE 230:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, No. 10, Succession de Michel Vallée, Louisbourg, 28 octobre 1756.
[NOTE 231:] Aegidius Fauteux, Chevaliers, p. 117; A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 467, part 3a, Census, Louisbourg, 1713.
[NOTE 232:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 37-3, fol. 210, Pontchartain à Costebelle, Paris, 4 juin 1715; C11B, Vol. 1, fols. 230- 231, LaRonde au Ministre, Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1715.
[NOTE 233:] A.N., Colonies, B, Vol. 41-4, fol. 1164, Ordre du roi, n.p., 21 mars 1719, (paraphrased on selection list cards for Serie B in AFL, but not reproduced in original form); A.M., Rochefort, 1E, Vol. 110, Liste des voyageurs, Louisbourg, 9 juillet 1727.
[NOTE 234:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 15, fols. 119-120, St. Ovide, Louisbourg, 3 septembre 1734.
[NOTE 235:] J.S. McLennan, Louisbourg, p.18; A.N., Colonies, C11B Vol. 1, passim.
[NOTE 236:] A..N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 1. fols. 82-85, L'Hermitte au Ministre, Louisbourg, 1 décembre 1714.
[NOTE 237:] A.N., Colonies., C11B, Vol. 1, fols. 208-210, Ligondes au Ministre sur l'état de la garnison, Louisbourg, 12 janvier 1715; B, Vol. 53, as quoted in McLennan, Louisbourg, p. 16 (footnote).
[NOTE 238:] Aegidius Fauteux, Chevaliers, p. 117.
[NOTE 239:] A.N., Colonies, C11B , Vol. 2, fols. 237-241, St. Ovide au Ministre, Louisbourg, 30 novembre 1717; Vol. 4, fols. 289-290, Petition de les habitants de Port Toulouse, Port Toulouse, 1719.
[NOTE 240:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2056 (ancien 1713), fols. 104-106, Sentence portant les comptes entre LaMotte et les Sieurs Morin et Rochefort, Plaisance, 9 à 10 octobre 1713.
[NOTE 241:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 1, fols. 255-256, Estimation faites par les Sieurs Lelarge et Morin des maisons du Roy qui sont au sud du Port du Louisbourg, dans l'Isle Royale, Louisbourg, 1715.
[NOTE 242:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2056 (1717), No. 54, Protêt de Pierre Allain de LaMotte, Louisbourg, 23 novembre 1717; ACM, B, Vol. 265, fols. 1-2, Contestation, Louisbourg, 18 août 1719.
[NOTE 243:] A.N., Colonies., C11B, Vol. 5, fols. 70-74, De Mezy au Ministre, Louisbourg, 13 août 1720.
[NOTE 244:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 178, fol. 34, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 2 avril 1724.
[NOTE 245:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2058 (1726), No. 61, Notariat de Louisbourg, Louisbourg, 9 décembre 1726.
[NOTE 246:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 4th, register, fol. 41, Acte de mariage de Michel Vallée, Louisbourg, 8 janvier 1733; G3, Carton 2037, No. 65, Desmarest notaire, Louisbourg, 18 octobre 1728.
[NOTE 247:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2038, No. 123, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 14 mai 1732; G2, Vol. 184, fols. plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 9 novembre 1733.
[NOTE 248:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 162, Vente d'un emplacement, Louisbourg, 3 décembre 1736.
[NOTE 249:] A.N., OutreMer G3, Carton 2038, No. 88, Contrat de mariage, Louisbourg, 24 décembre 1732.
[NOTE 250:] A.F.L., plan 1734- 4.
[NOTE 251:] A.N., Colonies., C11B, Vol., 24, fol. 307, Ordonnance, Louisbourg, 23 mai 1734.
[NOTE 252:] ACM, B, Vol. 268, fols. 168-169, Transaction entre Santier et Renaud, Louisbourg, 3 juillet 1734; A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 18, fol. 161, 1736; A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 185, fol. 324, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 28 avril 1739.
[NOTE 253:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No.17, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 11 avril 1743.
[NOTE 254:] Eight children were born in Louisbourg, two in France during, the first English occupation of Louisbourg. See AFL, Parish Records File and A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 466, No. 76, Denombrement des familles retournant à Louisbourg en 1749, Louisbourg, 1749. (Hereafter cited as denombrement des familles).
[NOTE 255:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 164, Contrat de vente, Louisbourg, 30 octobre 1736.
[NOTE 256:] ACM, B, Vol. 269, fol. 37, Transaction chez Santier, Louisbourg, 27 octobre 1744.
[NOTE 257:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 466, No. 76, Denombrement des familles, Louisbourg, 1749.
[NOTE 258:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 193, Contrat de mariage, Louisbourg, 17 mai 1751.
[NOTE 259:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 212, dossier 562, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, octobre 1749; G2, Vol. 204, dossier 470, fols. 95-96, plumitif d'audience Louisbourg, 3 décembre 1751.
[NOTE 260:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 54, Bacquerine notaire, Louisbourg, 11 juin 1755.
[NOTE 261:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2042, No. 71, Testament, Louisbourg, 30 juillet 1754.
[NOTE 262:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 206, dossier 418, fols. 38-39, plumitif d'audience concernant quarante-deux boeufs, Louisbourg, 13 août 1756; G1, Vol. 409, 2nd register, fol. 29, Acte de baptême, Louisbourg, 28 octobre 1757.
[NOTE 263:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 4th register, fol. 41, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 8 janvier 1733.
[NOTE 264:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 410, No. 31, fol. 23, Acte de baptême, Lorembec, octobre 1736; fol. 28, Acte de baptême, Lorembec, 17 août 1738; fol. 31, Acte de baptême, Lorembec, 1 janvier 1740.
[NOTE 265:] Ibid., fol. 40, Decès de Julienne Josset, Lorembec, 28 mars 1743.
[NOTE 266:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 466, No. 76, Denombrement des familles, Louisbourg, 1749; references to the Vallée family in the Parish Records File for the 1750s state they were residents of Louisbourg, not Lorembec, as stated previous to 1745.
[NOTE 267:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 28, fol. 160, Estat des effets tirer des magazins du Roy, Iouisbourg, 1751; A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, Documents concernant les habitations de pêche de Michel Vallée dans les papiers de la succession, Louisbourg, 28 octobre 1756.
[NOTE 268:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 70, Renoniciation des droits, Louisbourg, 18 octobre 1756; G2, Vol. 205, dossiers 395-396. Succession Vallée, Louisbourg, 28 octobre 1756.
[NOTE 269:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 193, dossier 4, Nos. 7-9, plumitifs des audiences, Louisbourg, décembre 1757.
[NOTE 270:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 408, lst register, fol. 52, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 12 fevrier 1753.
[NOTE 271:] ACM, Vol. B 281, Census des habitants de l'isle Royale à La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 1761; Vol. B 282, Census des habitants de l'Isle Royale à La Rochelle, Rochelle, 1762.
[NOTE 272:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1 409, 1st register, fol. 90, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 1 juin 1756; Vol. 409, 2nd register, fol. 28, Acte de Sepulture, Louisbourg, 11 octobre 1757.
[NOTE 273:] Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2045, No. 15, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 7 mai 1757.
[NOTE 274:] No. 93, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 4 avril 1758.
[NOTE 275:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 1, fol. 257, Inventaire des maisons faites en 1713, Louisbourg, 30 septembre 1715.
[NOTE 276:] Ibid., fol. 255, Estimation ... des maisons, Louisbourg, 19 octobre 1715.
[NOTE 277:] A.F.L., plan 1717-2a.
[NOTE 278:] A.F.L., plans 1717-2, 1720-2, 1720-4, 1730-2; A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 194, dossier 76, fols. 302-303, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 12 mai 1735.
[NOTE 279:] A.F.L., plan 1720-2.
[NOTE 280:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2038, No. 69, Desmarest notaire, Louisbourg, 8 janvier 1732.
[NOTE 281:] A.F.L., plan 1734-4.
[NOTE 282:] A.F.L., plans 1745-17, 1745-24, 1746-1, 1746-2, 1746-3, 1746-4, 1746-5, 1746-6, 1746-8, 1747-1, 1748-2, 1757-12, 1758-20, 1768-1.
[NOTE 283:] A.F.L., plans 1747-17, 1746-6, 1748-2, 1758-20.
[NOTE 284:] A.F.L., plan 1734-4.
[NOTE 285:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 194, dossier 76, fol. 302, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 12 mai 1735; A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 24, fol. 307, ordonnance, Louisbourg, 23 mai 1734.
[NOTE 286:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 162, Vente d'un emplacement, Louisbourg, 3 décembre 1736.
[NOTE 287:] Ibid.
[NOTE 288:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, fol. 10, Succession Vallée, Louisbourg, avril 1756.
[NOTE 289:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 54, Bacquerine notaire, 11 juin 1755.
[NOTE 290:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 193, dossier 4, fol. 7, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, décembre 1757.
[NOTE 291:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, papiers concernant la succession Vallée, Louisbourg, avril 1756, (hereafter cited as 1756 description).
[NOTE 292:] A.F.L., 1734-4 and 1752-11.
[NOTE 293:] A.N., Outre Mer G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, 1756 description, Louisbourg, avril 1756.
[NOTE 294:] A.F.L, plans 1734-4 and 1752-11.
[NOTE 295:] A.F.L., plan 1758-12.
[NOTE 296:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, 1756 description, Louisbourg, avril 1756. A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 206, dossier 418, fols. 12-14, Bail judicaire, Louisbourg, 4 juin 1756.
[NOTE 298:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 395, 1756 description, Louisbourg, avril 1756.
[NOTE 299:] Ibid., fol. 1, Succession de Michel Vallée, Louisbourg, 26 avril 1756.
[NOTE 300:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 212, dossier 554, fol. 3, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 6 mars 1758.
[NOTE 301:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 194, fol. 302, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 10 mai 1735.
[NOTE 302:] Ibid., fol. 303.
[NOTE 303:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 209, dossier 494, procès verbal, Louisbourg, 19 juillet 1751.
[NOTE 304:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 54, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 11 juin 1755.
[NOTE 305:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 206, dossier 419, fols. 43-44, plumitif d'audience, 21 janvier 1757.
[NOTE 306:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 209, dossier 505, fols. 2-3, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 14 fevrier 1757.
[NOTE 307:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No. 54, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 11 juin 1755.
[NOTE 308:] A.F.L. plan 1767-1.
[NOTE 309:] PAC, MG 11, C.O. 217, Vol. 25, fols. 140-141, Report on the present state of Louisbourg, Louisbourg, 26 septembre 1768.
[NOTE 310:] A.F.L., plan 1734-4.
[NOTE 311:] A.F.L., plan 1752-11.
[NOTE 312:] A.F.L., plan 1745-17.
[NOTE 313:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 203, dossier 304, fols. 27-28, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 1753.
[NOTE 314:] A.F.L., plan 1752-11.
[NOTE 315:] A.F.L., plan 1767-1.
[NOTE 316:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 206, dossier 418, fols. 12-14, Bail judicaire, Louisbourg, 4 juin 1756.
[NOTE 317:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2045, No. 15, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 7mai 1757.
[NOTE 318:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2045, No. 93, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 4 avril 1758.
[NOTE 319:] A.F.L., plan 1752-11.
[NOTE 320:] A.F.L, plan 1767-1; PAC, MG 11, C.O. 217, Vol. 25, fols. 140-141, Report on the present state Louisbourg, Louisbourg, 26 septembre 1768, (transcript on file at AFL).