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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
TERRENCE D. MACLEAN
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 24)
The land on Block 4 that ultimately became Lot C was granted to Pierre La Motte Cassagnolles in 1717 by De Costebelle and De Soubras in the following form:
Concession du Sr. La Motte Cassagnol sur Le même alignement de 5 toises de frond, sur 40 de profondeur, borné d'un costé par la maison du petit La Motte, et de l'autre par celuy du S. de Lore [NOTE 136].
The alignment of the front of the lot followed that of a piquet house built on the land in 1713, but the concession did not include the building itself which still belonged to its original occupant, Jacques De Pensens. This anomaly ended in 1720 when De Pensens officially sold the house to Cassagnolles. The act of sale followed a decision of the Conseil de Marine in 1718 to transfer ownership of the building to the Proprietor of the land [NOTE 137].
In 1723 the rear of the lot became Rue Royale, reducing the size of the concession by approximately 70 pieds in length. The final limits of Lot C were given in the official toisé des concessions in 1734:
A feu Pierre Casagnolle, habitant marchant, un terrain de 30 pieds de face sur la place du port, et de 170 pieds de profondeur le long du terrain de la dame veuve Duvivier, et de 181 pieds de profondeur le long [PAGE 40:] du terrain occupé présentement par Maurice Santier, jusqu'à la rue Royalle, borné au nord par la ditte place du Port, à l'est par le terrain de Made veuve Duvivier, le dit terrain acquit en partie par Messieurs Casagnolle et de Pensens qui l'occupoient en vertu des ordres porté par la lettre commune du Conseil de Marine du 10 aout 1718, et porté par l'augmentation de lisle ... [NOTE 138] (See Figure 2)
The 1720 sale of De Pensen's interests in Block 4 gave Pierre Cassagnolles full ownership of Lot C until his death in 1730, [NOTE 139]. Following the terms of his will the property was left to Nicolas Cassagnolles, his brother and principal. heir [NOTE 140]. In February, 1731, Nicolas Cassagnolles sold the inheritance to Bernard Detcheverry:
consistent en une Maison Magazin et Jardin, le tout en un tenant, confrontant d'un cotté a la maison appartenante au Sieur Sabatier et de l autre a autre maison appartenante a Madame Duvivier, par le devant le Rue duquay ... et Generalement tous les meubles et planches et Boisage qui se trouveront ... pour le prix et somme de quatre mille deux cents ciquante livres [NOTE 141].
The act of sale, which included a lot and store on the Ile du Quay in addition to the Block 4 inheritance, was followed by a partnership agreement between Detcheverry and Blaise Cassagnolles, cousin of Nicolas [NOTE 142]. It is not known whether Detcheverry's association with Cassagnolles was a condition of the original act of sale, but the agreement did stipulate that each partner held equal ownership of the Block 4 and Ile du Quay [PAGE 41:] properties. The transaction was registered with the Superior Council on November 4, 1735, at which time the description of the lot conformed exactly to the limits delineated in the 1734 list of concessions [NOTE 143]. The boundaries changed slightly in 1743 when part of the Detcheverry-Cassagnolles land was ceded to François Duvivier in the settlement of a land dispute [NOTE 144]. (See above, Figure 3)
Lot C was returned to Detcheverry and Cassagnolles after the first English occupation, and the two merchants retained it until Detcheverry's death in 1750 dissolved their partnership. The heirs to the Detcheverry estate, Miguel and Marie Detcheverry, agreed with Blaise Cassagnolles to divide Lot C into two parts, the first consisting of 40 pieds along Rue Royale, 85 pieds along the western boundary of the lot and 90.5 pieds along the eastern boundary; the second lot containing 30 pieds along Rue du Quay, 85 pieds along the western boundary of the lot and 90.5 pieds along the eastern boundary. (See Figure 5) Pierre Damestoye, acting for his wife, Marie Detcheverry, and his brother-in-law, Miguel Detcheverry, took possession of the Rue Royale lot while Blaise Cassagnolles assumed full ownership of the Rue du Quay lot [NOTE 145]. The agreement did not mention the relationship between Bernard Detcheverry and his heirs, but they probably were not members of Bernard Detcheverry's immediate family. There were no further changes in the ownership of Lot C until the siege of 1758.
(2) OCCUPANTS: Jacques De Pensens came to Isle Royale in 1713 as a member of the expedition that founded Louisbourg and so became one of the original officers of the new garrison. Born in the diocese of Auch, France, De Pensens was appointed ensign at Plaisance in 1698, aide-major at Port Royal in 1705, and lieutenant at Plaisance in 1712 [NOTE 146]. He embarked for Isle Royale from France and spent the winter of 1713-1714 in the simple piquet house built for him on the site of Block 4 with royal funds [NOTE 147]. In the spring of 1714 De Pensens was promoted to captain and was sent with Captain Denys De La Ronde to Annapolis to negotiate the withdrawal of Acadians from Nova Scotia. During the negotiations with Governor General Francis Nicholson in July, De Pensens became ill and had to return to Louisbourg, leaving the command of the mission to De la Ronde [NOTE 148]. The captain was sent to Port Toulouse in 1715 as commandant, with a garrison of 40 men and was still commandant there in 1724 [NOTE 149]. In 1718 he became a chevalier of the Order of St. Louis and one year later a member of the Louisbourg Superior Council [NOTE 150]. De Pensens probably ceased to be a resident of Block 4 by 1715, although his house was not sold until 1720 [NOTE 151]. Appointed commandant at Isle St. Jean in 1726, major of Isle Royale in 1730, and finally king's lieutenant at Isle St. Jean in 1733, the officer maintained a residence on Block 16 at Louisbourg until 1736 [NOTE 152]. He retired in April 1737, and died a few months later.
Pierre La Motte Cassagnolles, one of the first merchants to reside on Block 4, owned the house and the lot after 1720. There is no record of his commercial activities in Louisbourg, nor does his name appear in the parish records of the town, so it is safe to assume that Cassagnolles spent much of his time in France and probably directed his business affairs from there.
Nicolas Cassagnolles became the new proprietor of Lot C after his brother's death in 1730. A native of the archdiocese of Auch, France, Nicolas was a bourgeois merchant at Louisbourg from the early 1720s until his death in 1735 [NOTE 153]. He did not live on Block 4, but within a year of inheriting the property he sold it with the Cassagnolles lot and store on Ile du Quay to Bernard Detcheverry, who, in partnership with Blaise Cassagnolles, owned the lots and operated the business for 20 years [NOTE 154].
Bernard Detcheverry had been engaged in the commerce of Isle Royale as early as 1723, when he was described in a Louisbourg court case as "un marchand negotiant de St. Jean de Luz" [NOTE 155]. Prior to his alliance with Blaise Cassagnolles, Detcheverry's business dealings centered on the cod fishery; he was the proprietor of a number of fishing vessels between 1717 and 1729 [NOTE 156]. The purchase and subsequent sale of an English schooner by Detcheverry in 1729 involved some interesting commercial practices prevalent in 18th century Louisbourg. To begin with, Detcheverry had to get permission from St. Ovide, the governor, to buy the 15-ton schooner, because all transactions involving English vessels at Isle Royale had to be approved by the administration of the colony. The price paid to Obadiah Beall for the schooner was 100 livres, plus 11 barrels of wine and an unspecified quantity of eau de vie [NOTE 157]. Detchevery sold the vessel two weeks later to Gaspard Milly also a resident of Block 4 for 150 livres and a cable for a chaloupe (a small boat sometimes used as a tender for larger vessels) [NOTE 158]. Such bartering very often replaced the exchange of currency in the colony's internal commerce.
In 1736 Detcheverry lived in the Lot C house on Rue du Quay [NOTE 159]. He also owned and occupied a large parcel of land outside the town of Louisbourg on the Lorembec-Baleine road after 1734 [NOTE 160]. In 1742 he was living on Rue Royale in the charpente house at the back of Lot C [NOTE 161]. His death in 1750 ended the Detcheverry-Cassagnolles partnership and ultimately led to the partition of Lot C [NOTE 162].
Blaise Cassagnolles was born c. 1690 in Maniet, in the province of Gascony in southern France, son of Nicolas Cassagnolles and Marie Escoubes [NOTE 163]. In 1735 he married Marie Jeanne Seaux in Louisbourg, daughter of Louis Seaux and Angelique Dupuis of Louisbourg, formerly of Plaisance, and niece of François Milly and Jean Laborde, also residents of Block 4 [NOTE 164]. The Cassagnolles had four children baptised at Louisbourg, and at least one godparent in each baptism was a resident of either Iot C or Lot E of Block 4, indicating a close connection between the occupants of each lot [NOTE 165]. The Cassagnolles family owned at least one slave in 1734, and another in 1753 [NOTE 166]. In 1735 the family lived in the Rue du Quay house on Lot C; by 1738 they had moved to the newly constructed Rue Royale house where they remained until the first siege [NOTE 167]. Cassagnolles returned to Louisbourg with his family in 1749 after the first English occupation and remained at least until the spring of 1757 [NOTE 168].
Like Bernard Detcheverry, Cassagnolles had been engaged in Louisbourg commerce long before the 1731 partnership agreement. He was importing foodstuffs as early as 1719 and owned boats operating out of Louisbourg in the 1720s [NOTE 169]. But it is only after their association that the two merchants became involved in extensive commercial operations at Louisbourg. The initial partnership agreement was signed in 1730, renewed in 1742. [PAGE 47:] By the terms of the agreement all assets in Louisbourg were common, income accruing equally to each partner; both partners were to live in the same house. Also included in the pact were 11 principles upon which the business was to operate, covering everything from bookkeeping to the maintenance of buildings [NOTE 170]. The groundwork for the partnership had been laid with the individual participation by both merchants in the Isle Royale cod fishery throughout the 1720s, culminating in the joint ownership of a 50-ton fishing schooner, La Louise, in 1729 [NOTE 171]. So it is not surprising that the Detcheverry-Cassagnolles business thrived after 1730 with the fishery as a foundation.
The extent of their involvement in the cod fishery can be gauged by analyzing, the sale and purchase of vessels at Louisbourg by Detcheverry and Cassagnolles. Recorded transactions involving the two merchants between 1733 and 1743 show that the partnership purchased 12 vessels ranging in size from 20 to 60 tons but sold only four [NOTE 172]. The evidence also indicates a steady expansion of their business interests up to the first siege.
The business ventures of the Lot C merchants were not limited to the cod fishery. They also marketed small quantities of coal and shoes in the town, and supplied building materials, tobacco and eau de vie to the crown at various times during the 1730s and 1740s [NOTE 173]. The two owned livestock in 1732 and 1742, but it is not known whether they sold it, nor is the quantity of livestock specified in any of the documents; other cargoes imported by Detcheverry and Cassagnolles included a variety of materials for making clothing [NOTE 174]. In short Bernard Detcheverry and Blaise Cassagnolles, like the majority of Louisbourg merchants, derived most of their profit from the cod fishery but traded in other products to supplement their income.
The business had not fully recovered from the first siege when the death of Bernard Detcheverry in 1750 ended the partnership. Blaise Cassagnolles assumed control of the business by paying 930 livres to the heirs of Detcheverry. He was also responsible for all debts incurred by the partnership [NOTE 175]. Cassagnolles continued to operate the business until the second siege, buying vessels, recruiting fishing crews, and marketing diverse products such as corded cloth and flour [NOTE 176]. Following the partition of Lot C in 1751 Cassagnolles and his family vacated the Rue Royale house which belonged to the Detcheverry heirs at that time, and built a new house on Rue du Quay where they probably stayed until the 1758 siege. During the second English occupation an English merchant, Mr. Roe, lived in the Rue du Quay house.
The Rue Royale portion of Lot C was administered after 17 1 by Pierre Damestoye on behalf of his wife, Marie Detcheverry, and her brother, Miguel Detcheverry. He also recruited fishermen for Miguel Detcheverry, but Damestoye's own occupation in Louisbourg is not known NOTE 177]. As landlord of the Detcheverry property on Lot C he rented most of the Rue Royale house and property to Jean Baptiste Dubois, a Louisbourg wholesale merchant, from July 20, 1750 to July 19, 1751 for 80O livres; so Cassagnolles must have vacated the Rue Royale house shortly after his partner's death, Damestoye reserved two rooms on the second storey of the house for his own use [NOTE 178]. His tenant, Dubois, an active businessman who seems to have dealt mainly in flour, appeared in court on numerous occasions during the early 1750s on debt charges, so his business could not have been very successful [NOTE 179]. He became involved in a dispute with Damestoye in early October, 1751, over repairs to the house, and his [PAGE 49:] lease must have been abrogated, for Damestoye granted a new lease to Jean Dolabaratz., captain of a fireship. [A vessel loaded with combustibles and explosives, ignited and set adrift to destroy an enemy's ships or constructions]. The new tenant rented the first floor of the house at 300 livres for one year, from November, 1751, to November, 1752 [NOTE 180]. In 1754 the house was rented to François Solignac and Fabien Dulong, business associates, on a six year lease [NOTE 181]. The siege of 1758 negated most of that lease, however, and it is not now known who lived in the house during the second English occupation.
Four buildings were erected on Lot C of Block 4 during the French occupation of Louisbourg, two piquet structures at the front of the lot, a charpente house at the rear of the lot, and another residence on Rue du Quay of unknown construction. (See Figures 6 and 7).
The piquet house (No. 1 in Figure 6) on Rue du Quay was built in 1713, and survived until 1751. From a description of the house in 1715 it is known that the structure had piquet walls, a boarded roof, a basement, one chimney, and measured 30 pieds along Rue du Quay and 20 pieds north to south. The walls, roof, chimney and basement were built by the king's labourers with pickets, planks and boards from the king's supply. DePensens hired a woodworker to make the partitions, doors and windows and supplied him with the requisite materials [NOTE 182]. The house was valued at 600 livres in October, 1715 [NOTE 183].
There is very little evidence available on the architecture of the house. The 1720 act of sale states that the main entrance faced the Quay [NOTE 184]. The chimney was located on the east wall of the house adjacent [PAGE 51:] to the Lot D, Rue du Quay building, and was the subject of a dispute in 1735 between Blaise Cassagnolles and Maurice Santier, the proprietor of Lot D. Apparently there was a common chimney with a two-sided fireplace between the Lot C building and the Lot D building until 1735, when Maurice Santier started to build a larger fireplace in his new house and store adjacent to Cassagnolles' house. Cassagnolles was not sure whether his old fireplace, constructed of "terre grace" (probably a mixture of earth and mortar), would be able to support the weight of Santier's new brick fireplace against it. He protested to the Superior Council, demanding that Santier prove that the Lot C chimney was strong enough to support the brick chimney and thus avoid the possibility of injury that could result from the collapse of the Cassagnolles chimney [NOTE 185]. Experts called in to investigate the case certified that the old Lot C chimney was strong enough to support the load of the Santier chimney, so the case was closed [NOTE 186]. The only architectural evidence on the Lot C piquet house provided by the historical plans refers to the roof; it had two slopes [NOTE 187]. The structure did not appear on any of the historical views of the town.
The Rue du Quay house survived longer than the other original buildings on Block 4 dating from the first year of the colony's existence, having stood for 38 years. The original construction of the building was hurried and simple, if not primitive as indicated by the crude nature of its fireplace and the list of materials used in its construction. The house must have been in poor condition by the 1740s; probably a shabby reminder of the infant days of the town, in sharp contrast to some of the later charpente and masonry buildings. Cassagnolles and Detcheverry built a [PAGE 52:] new house and moved out of the Rue du Quay dwelling by the late 1730s. Since there is no record of a lease for the building and since the Cassagnolles-Detcheverry business was expanding rapidly at the time, it is likely that the house was used for storage. At any rate, when Blaise Cassagnolles was faced with the prospect of moving back into the house after the partition of Lot C in 1751 he opted for a new building to replace the old piquet house, and the old building was torn down.
A sampling from the historical plans of the dimensions of the piquet house (short side running north to south) confirms the documentary evidence on its size:
Table 4: Dimensions of Cassagnolles-Detcheverry Piquet House DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified):
Plan 1718-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 33 x 24; Plan 1720-4: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 30 x 18;
Plan 1722- 1: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 27 x 18;
Plan 1724- 2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 30 x 20; Plan 1726- 4: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 30 x 20;
Plan 1730-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 45 x 25;
Plan 1734-4: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 35 x 23;
Plan 1745- 17: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): - x 25 ft.;
Plan 1726- 2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 30 x 25 ft.;
Plan 1748-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): - x 22 ft.;
Plan Average: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 32 x 22;
The demolition of the piquet house on Rue du Quay in 1751 occasioned another dispute with the proprietor of lot D, Pierre Santier, son of Maurice. He claimed that the wall and chimney adjoining his property [PAGE 53:] and destroyed by Cassagnolles were structures common to both lots, so he appealed to the Superior Council to order Cassagnolles to rebuild the wall and chimney or pay damages [NOTE 188]. The court decided. to visit the site with an expert stone mason to determine whether the Cassagnolles chimney had been built solely for the service of the Lot C building and entirely on Cassagnolles land, or whether the chimney was, as Santier claimed, common to the respective properties. Their report vindicated Cassagnolles' action and gave him clearance to build his new building on the site of the piquet house:
la cheminée que Le dit Sieur Cassagnolle à fait demolir et dont il reste encore Environ cinq pieds au dessus des fondements acté batie pour L'usage et seul da sa maison et sur son terrain Et quil ne paroist point qu'elle dût etre mitoyenne lors de sa construction avec la maison du dit Santi.er ... [NOTE 189].
The 1752 residence of Blaise Cassagnolles (No. 1 in Figure 7) was larger than the earlier Rue du Quay building, as the following table illustrates, and the roof had two slopes according to a 1752 plan [NOTE 190]. It was built of wood, which could have been either piquet or charpente, and was in need of extensive repairs by 1768 [NOTE 191 ]. (In the following table of dimensions the long side runs north to south):
TABLE 5: DIMENSIONS OF CASSAGNOLLES HOUSE
Plan 1752- 11; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified: 35 x 30 pieds
Plan 1757- 12; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified: 50 x 35
Plan 1767- 1; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified: 30 x 30
Plan 1768- 1; DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified: 40 x 40
Plan Average DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified: 40 x 36
A piquet magazin (No. 2 in Figures 6 and 7) was built in back of the Rue du Quay house in the early 1720s. In 1738 Blaise Cassagnolles's neighbor, Captain François Duvivier stated that "en 1721 ou 1722 Le Sieur Ia Motte Cassagnolles fit battir un magazin de piquet en dedans de son terrain en joignant sa maison qui fait fasse sur la place du quay ..." [NOTE 192]. In the 1731 sale of Lot C the magazin, house and garden were described as being connected [NOTE 193].
The historical plans confirm that the north end of the store was connected to the Rue du Quay house [NOTE 194]. Plan 1730-2 shows a hipped roof at the south end, while on plan 1734-4, in general the most accurate of all the historical plans for Block 4, the store has a gabled roof on the south end [NOTE 195]. The building does not appear on the English plans in 1745-46, but it could have been considered as an out-building or shed and consequently not drawn in. This does not mean that the building did not exist, for the plans in question make no attempt to depict any ancillary buildings on Block 4, and are generally vague for that area of the town. A building of similar dimensions appears on plan 1752-11, [PAGE 55:] but is detached from the new Rue du Quay building by about ten pieds, which could mean that the store was relocated or that a new structure was built [NOTE 196]. The same building appears on the 1767-1 plan. In the following table of dimensions the long side runs north to south.
Table 6: DIMENSIONS OF CASSAGNOLLES-DETCHEVERRY STOREHOUSE
Plan 1730-2: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 36 x 24;
Plan 1731-3: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 36 x 18
Plan 1734-4: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 39 x 18;
Plan 1752-11: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 42 x 15;
Plan Average: DIMENSIONS (in pieds if not specified): 38 x 19
The Cassagnolles-Detcheverry charpente house on Rue Royale was built in 1736 (No. 3 in Figures 6 and 7) signalling the first round in a lengthy dispute over the boundaries of Lots C and B on Block 4 [NOTE 197]. The settlement of the dispute, although it changed the boundaries of the lots, did not occasion any realignment of the Lot C house [NOTE 198]. When Lot C was partitioned in 1750 the Rue Royale portion of the property was granted to Pierre Damestoye, "avec la maison de charpente et qui batisses qui sont dans l'interieur du d terrain" [NOTE 199]. Damestoye, acting for Bernard Detcheverry's heirs, rented to Jean Baptiste Duboe: "La maison de quarante pieds de face sur la rue Royalle avec tout sa cour et depandances ... le dite Bailleur aura la jouissance d'une chambre et antichambre au second Etage en entrant à gauche, ainsy qu'un cabanot dans la cour fermant a clef." Thus, Damestoye retained two rooms on the second floor of the [PAGE 56:] house and a cabanot for his own use. The lease also stipulated that the landlord was responsible for any repairs to the drains, windows and the hardware for the doors and windows, and that the tenant could, at the expiration of the lease, take with him any hardware added to the doors of the house, unless the landlord wished to buy it [NOTE 200]. Under this arrangement Dubois deducted from his rent in October, 1751, more than 14 livres which he expended on repairs to the house, including the replacement of 20 panes of glass missing at the time he moved in, the puttying of all the windows in the house, plus a general cleaning and some minor repairs [NOTE 201]. A court dispute over the payment for the repairs ensued; by the end of October the first storey of the house, presumably in good condition, was rented to Jean Dolabaratz. The lease gave Dolabaratz the use of two large rooms and three cabinets plus a courtyard, leaving the second storey to Damestoye [NOTE 202]. In 1754 the entire house was rented to François Solignac and Fabien Dulong and described as "une maison scise en cette ville faisante face a la Rue Royale" [NOTE 203].
From these descriptions it is clear that the Rue Royale residence was a large frame house with the main entrance facing the street, having five rooms on the first floor and at least two on the second floor to the left of the entrance. The roof had two slopes according to plan 1752-11, but on plan ND 89 the roof has a hip at the east and west ends. The long side of the house was parallel to Rue Royale [NOTE 204]. The building survived the second siege but was in need of many repairs by 1768 [NOTE 205].
Table 7: DIMENSIONS OF CASSAGNOLLES-DETCHEVERRY CHARPENTE HOUSE
(1) Plan 1745-17 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 30 x 35
(2) Plan 1746- 2 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 37 x 30
(3) Plan 1747-1 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 45 x 20
(4) Plan 1752-11 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 42 x 24 pieds
(5) Plan 1757-12 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 35 x 30
(6) Plan 1767-1 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 40 x 20
(7) 1768-1 DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 35 x 30
(8) Plan Average DIMENSIONS (in feet if not specified): 37.5 x 27.
[NOTE 136:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 2, fol. 152-153, Toisé des concession ... , Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1717; also A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 462, fol. 69, Concessions, Louisbourg, 23 décembre 1717.
[NOTE 137:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2057, No. 1, Vente d'une maison de Jacques De Pensens à Pierre Cassagnolles De LaMotte, Iouisbourg, 24 fevrier 1720.
[NOTE 138:] A.N., Colonies C11B, Vol. 15, fol. 28, Etat des terrains concédés dans la ville de Louisbourg sous le bon plaisir du Roy par Messieurs le gouverneur et commissaire-ordonnateur de l'Ile Royale jusqu'au 15 octobre 1734, Louisbourg, 15 octobre 1734; also A.N., Colonies, C11G, Vol. 12, fol. 99-100, confirmation des concessions ... Paris 5 avril 1735.
[NOTE 139:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2057, No. 1, Vente d'une maison, Louisbourg, 24 fevrier 1720.
[NOTE 140:] A.N., Outre Mer G3, Carton 2037, No. 28, Testament du Sr. Pierre La.Motte Cassagnolles, Louisbourg, 3 novembre 1728.
[NOTE 141:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 190, fols. 41- 42, Acte de vente, St. Jean De Luz, 21 février 1731.
[NOTE 142:] Ibid., fol. 43.
[NOTE 143:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 191, fol. 167, plumitif d'audience, 4 novembre 1735.
[NOTE 144:] See above, p. 25.
[NOTE 145:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 122, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 28 juin 1750.
[NOTE 146:] Aegidius Fauteux, Chevaliers, pp. 112-113; Mary MacD. Maude, "Espiet de Pensens", DCB, Vol. 11, pp. 218-220.
[NOTE 147:] A.N., Outre Mer, Gl,Vol. 467, part 3a, Census, Louisbourg, 1713.
[NOTE 148:] J.S. McLennan, Louisbourg, pp. 15-18.
[NOTE 149:] Ibid., p. 34; A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, fol. 7, Acte de baptême, Louisbourg, 4 mai 1724.
[NOTE 150:] Aegidius Fauteux, Chevaliers, pp. 112-113.
[NOTE 151:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2057, No. 1, Vente d'une maison, Louisbourg, 24 fevrier 1720.
[NOTE 152:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 140, Contrat de vente, Louisbourg, 12 septembre 1736.
[NOTE 153] A.N., Outre Mer, G1., Vol. 409, 2nd register, fol. 28, Acte de sepulture de Nicolas Cassagnolles, Louisbourg, 6 octobre 1757.
[NOTE 154:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2., Vol. 190, fols. 41-42, Acte de vente, St. Jean De Luz, 21 fevrier 1731.
[NOTE 155:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2., Vol. 178, fol. 787, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 9 juin 1723.
[NOTE 156:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2056, Nos. 21 et 22, Notariat de Louisbourg, 14 juillet 1717; ACM, Vol. B265, fols. 22-23, Contestation, Louisbourg, 6 ju.illet 1722.
[NOTE 157:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2037, No. 35, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 2 novembre 1729.
[NOTE 158:] Ibid., No. 49., Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 16 novembre 1729.
[NOTE 159:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-2, No. 45, Desmarest notaire, Louisbourg, 14 juin 1736.
[NOTE 160:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 15, fols. 15-25, Etat des terrains, Louisbourg, 22 décembre 1734.
[NOTE 161:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 187, fol. 106, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, novembre 1742.
[NOTE 162:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 122, Laborde notaire., Louisbourg, 28 juin 1750.
[NOTE 163:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 64, Contrat de mariage, Louisbourg, 2 fevrier 1735; Carton 2046-1, No. 111, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 4 décembre 1738.
[NOTE 164:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 406, 4th register, fol. 55, Acte de mariage, Louisbourg, 3 fevrier 1735
[NOTE 165:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 4th register, fol. 59, Acte de baptême de Bernard, Louisbourg, 14 décembre 1735; Vol. 406, fol. 65, 4th register, Acte de baptême de Jean, Louisbourg, 24 avril 1737; Vol. 407, lst register, fol. 62, Acte de baptême de Jean Silvestre, Louisbourg, 31 décembre 1740; Vol. 407, 2nd register, fol. 47, Acte de baptême de Nicholas, Louisbourg, 19 fevrier 1745.
[NOTE 166:] A.N., Outre Mer, G1, Vol. 406, 4th register, fol. 23, Enterrement de Jean Gassanault, Louisbourg, 29 août 1734; G3, Carton 2041-2, No. 78, Rondeau notaire, Louisbourg, 1 mars 1753.
[NOTE 167:] A.N., Outre Mer G2, Vol. 194, dossier 74, 2nd letter, Petition de Blaise Cassagnolles, Louisbourg, 15 septembre 1735.
[NOTE 168:] The records of court appearances in Louisbourg for the period from 1750-1757 contain numerous references to Cassagnolles example, A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 212, dossier 541, plumitifs d'audiences, Louisbourg, 13 fevrier 1753 à 27 avril 1757.
[NOTE 169:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 178, fols. 195-230, Contestation., Louisbourg, septembre 1719; G3, Carton 2058, No. 30, Notariat de Louisbourg, 17 octobre 1725.
[NOTE 170:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-2, No. 129, Contrat de société, Louisbourg, 18 décembre 1742.
[NOTE 171:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2037, No. 30, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 9 novembre 1729.
[NOTE 172:] A.N., Outre Mer G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 18, Vente d'un goelette, Louisbourg, 4 novembre 1734; G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 25, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 14 septembre 1734; ACM, Vol. B267, fols. 116-118, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 1 mai 1738; ACM, Vol. B267, fols. 120-121, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 28 mai 1738; A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2046-1, No. 148, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 1 juin 1739; G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 27, Vente d'une goélette, Louisbourg, 28 novembre 1743; G3, Carton 2046-2, No. 133, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 3 décembre 1742; G3, Carton 2039-1, No. 146, Vente d'un brigantin, Louisbourg, 25 octobre 1736; ACM, Vol. B 266, fols. 65-66, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 6 avril 1733; A.N., Outre Mer, Carton 2038-2, No. 49, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 31 mai 1733; G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 33, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 26 octobre 1733; G3, Carton 2038-2, No. 25, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 17 décembre 1733; ACM, Vol. B267, fols. 20-22, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 15 septembre 1734; G3, Carton 2046-1, No. 40, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 25 novembre 1737; ACM., Vol. B267, fols. 103-104, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 25 novembre 1737; A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2046-1, No. 21, Vente d'un batteau, 19 décembre 1737; G3, Carton 2046-1, No. 132, Vente d'un batteau,12 novembre 1742; G3, Carton 2046-2, No. 134, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 25 novembre 1742; G3, Carton 2046-2, No. 74, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 3 décembre 1742.
[NOTE 173:] A.N., Colonies, C11C , Vol. 11, fols. 117-125, Bordereau de la recette et depense ... 1736, Louisbourg, 1736; A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 197, dossier 153, fol. 12, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, [PAGE 246:] 23 septembre 1740; A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 23, fols. 169-176, Bordereau des paiments ... 1741, Louisbourg, 8 octobre 1741; A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 204, dossier 470, fols. 6-7, Contestation, Louisbourg, 16 octobre 1750.
[NOTE 174:] Examples are found in: A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 181, fols. 35-44, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 27 janvier 1732; G2, Vol. 186, fols. 386-436, plumitifs d'audiences, Louisbourg, fevrier et mars, 1742.
[NOTE 175:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, No. 79, Dissolution de société, Louisbourg, 4 novembre 1751.
[NOTE 176:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2041-1, No. 88, Vente d'une goelette, Louisbourg, 16 décembre 1751; G3. Carton 2047-1, No. 158, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 5 fevrier 1751; G3, Carton 2041-2, No. 72, Vente d'un batteau, Louisbourg, 18 mai 1753; G2, Vol. 209, dossier 497, fols. 38-39, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 5 novembre 1751; G2, Vol. 205, dossier 385, fols. 29-30, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 25 juillet 1755.
[NOTE 177:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 144, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 14 novembre 1750.
[NOTE 178:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 121, Bail d'une maison, Louisbourg, 10 juillet 1750.
[NOTE 179:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 205, dossier 385 et 386, plumitifs d'audiences, Louisbourg, juillet à novembre 1755; A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vols. 200-204, passim.
[NOTE 180:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 209, dossier 497, fols. 26-28, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 4 octobre 1751; A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 169, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 29 octobre 1751.
[NOTE 181:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2042, No. 62, Bail d'une maison, Louisbourg, 29 juin 1754.
[NOTE 182:] A.N., Colonies, C11B, Vol. 1, fol. 257, Inventaire des maisons faites en 1713, Louisbourg, 30 septembre 1715.
[NOTE 183:] Ibid. fol. 255, Estimation ... des maisons, Louisbourg, 19 octobre 1715.
[NOTE 184:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2057, No. 1, Vente d'une maison, Louisbourg, 24 fevrier 1720.
[NOTE 185:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 194, dossier 76, fol. 302, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 12 mai 1735.
[NOTE 186:] Ibid., fol. 303.
[NOTE 187:] A.F.L., plans 1717-2, 1720-2, 1730-2, 734-4.
[NOTE 188:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 204, dossier 470, fols. 41-42, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 12 juin 1751; G2, Vol. 200, dossier 210, fols. 68-70, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 21 juin 1751.
[NOTE 189:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 200, dossier 210, fols. 72-82, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 12 juillet 1751; G2, Vol. 209, dossier 494, Procès verbal, Louisbourg, 19 juillet 1751; G2, Vol. 204, dossier 470, fols. 46-47, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 23 juillet 1751.
[NOTE 190:] A.F.L., plan 1752-11.
[NOTE 191:] PAC., MG 11, C.O. 217, Vol. 25, fols. 140-141, Report on the present state of Louisbourg, Louisbourg, 26 septembre 1768, (copy on file at AFL).
[NOTE 192:] A.N., Outre Mer., G2, Vol. 185, fol. 121, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 2 juillet 1738.
[NOTE 193:] A.N., Outre Mer, G, Vol. 190, fols. 41-42, Acte de vente, Louisbourg., 21 fevrier 1731.
[NOTE 194:] A.F.L., plans 1730-2, 1731-3, 1734-4.
[NOTE 195:] A.F.L., plans 1732, 1734-4.
[NOTE 196:] A.F.L., plan 1752-11.
[NOTE 197:] A.N., Colonies, G2, Vol. 185, fol. 121, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 2 juillet 1738.
[NOTE 198:] See above, p. 25.
[NOTE 199:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 122, Laborde notaire, Louisbourg, 28 juin 1750.
[NOTE 200:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047- 1, No. 121, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 10 juillet 1750.
[NOTE 201:] A.N., Outre Mer, G2, Vol. 209, dossier 497, fols. 26-28, plumitif d'audience, Louisbourg, 4 octobre 1751.
[NOTE 202:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2047-1, No. 169, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 29 octobre 1751.
[NOTE 203:] A.N., Outre Mer, G3, Carton 2042, No. 62, Bail à loyer, Louisbourg, 29 juin 1754.
[NOTE 204:] A.F.L., plans 1752-11, ND 89.
[NOTE 205:] PAC, MG11, Vol. 25, fols. 140-141, Report on the present state of Louisbourg, Louisbourg, 26 septembre 1768, (copy on file at AFL).