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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 17 R)
Lot L did not exist in the early history of Block 2. The houses of Pierre Spart dit Laforest (Lot K) and George deLasson (Lot M) stood side by side on the Quay front in 1717. A road 12 pieds wide separated these properties from land owned by Joseph Lartigue in the interior of Block 2 [NOTE 1].
(A) AUGER INN AND PROPERTY - CHRONOLOGY (c. 1717-c.1758):
Jean Rapiot, a sea captain from Marseille, erected a magasin in Block 2 prior to November of 1717. The magasin was located in the interior of the block, behind the houses of Laforest and delasson [NOTE 2]. A garden was situated on the east side of the building. (See Plans 1717-2, 1718-2, 1720-2, 1720-4 and N.D. 6).
On 2 November 1717 Joseph Lartigue, a merchant, acquired the magasin from Rapiot for 600 livres. [NOTE 3]. The land surrounding the building was conceded to Lartigue in November of 1717. The concession defined a property, 50 pieds by 48 toises [probably meant to be 43 pieds], behind the future Lots K and M. Confirmation followed in June of 1718 [NOTE 4].
A room in a magasin rented from Lartigue for storing "les effets du Roy" was inhabited by François Florençeau, ecrivain du roy and garde magasin)in 1718. After Florençeau's death on 4 May 1718, an inventory was taken of his personal effects and official papers, with George deLasson as executor. The sale of his effects amounted to 1,848 livres 10 sols. [NOTE 5]. It is possible that Florençeau's room was the "apartment" in Lot L occupied by Genier in 1719 and 1722.
In 1719 Lartigue was receiving rent for two magasins used to store "les Effets de la Colonie et de fortifications," 500 livres a year per magasin. The first building seems to have been situated in Lot A. The [PAGE 47:] second was quite definitely the magasin in what was to become Lot L. An apartment which housed the offices and clerk (greffier) of the admiralty was located in this magasin [NOTE 6]. DeLasson's concession of Lot M in April of 1722 stated that the magasin was occupied and seems to have given Genier, the greffier, as the occupant [NOTE 7] [The last part of the occupant's name has been obliterated by a tear.]
On 17 June 1722 Lartigue exchanged properties with Antoine Heron dit Parisien. Lartigue's Block 2 building was described as a "house with a magasin" and from this time was referred to principally as a house. Heron received Lartigue's house and property and a barrel of wine in exchange for a house and property, 22 toises by 20 toises, in the Fauxbourg of the Dauphin Bastion [NOTE 8].
Lot L had taken form by June of 1722. The Lartigue-Heron agreement gave Lot K and Lot M as its boundaries. When exchanged, Lartigue's property measured 24 pieds along the Quay and 70 pieds into the block, the same dimensions as those given for Lot L in 1724 and 1734 [NOTE 9]. The lot appears on Plans 1722-1 and 1723-2.
The Lot L building was not put into alignment on the newly-formed property in 1722. Plan 1722-1 shows an aligned building in Lot M and attempts to show the Lot K and L buildings in their original locations. After the Lot M building was realigned, a lane (ruelle) of 6 pieds separated it from the aligned Lot L structure. The lane was described as the east boundary of Lot M in April of 1722 [NOTE 10].
In 1723 Heron's house was moved to the Quay front of the block and placed on Lot L, between Cressonet dit Beausejour (Lot K) and delasson (Lot M) [NOTE 11]. (See Plan 1723-2. Plans 1723-3, 1723-4 and 1724-2 do not record the Block 2 realignment). The 1723 etat classified Heron dit Parisien as a tavern keeper [NOTE 12].
The ordinance of 1723 expropriated Lots H, I, K, L and E and divided them between Rodrigue and Lartigue. Unaware that Lartigue had traded Lot L with Heron in 1722, the ordinance was intended to disturb only the owners of Lots I, K and E. Thus, inadvertently, Heron was ordered to destroy his Lot L buildings and give his land to Lartigue, after having exchanged them with him only the preceding year [NOTE 13].
Before the ordinance of 1723 was registered by the superior council on 23 October 1725, Heron sold his Block 2 property - probably unaware of the threat he was escaping. On 10 November 1724, Julien Auger dit Grandchamp and his wife purchased the Lot L house and property from Heron and his wife for a sum of 2,300 livres [NOTE 14]. Auger made some changes to the house - "Pour Rendre cette Maison logeable et propre au commerce de granchamp" - and established an inn [NOTE 15:]
["Auger dit Grandchamp" was Julien's complete surname. The documents refer to him as "Auger", "Auger dit Grandchamp", "Grandchamp", and a variety of spellings for all three. "Auger" seems to have been most commonly used. His signature was "Julian Ogé". His wife occasionally signed "LaGrandchamp". After his death she was usually referred to as the "widow Auger" and sometimes as the widow "Auger d Grandchamp". Their children used the name "Auger". In this report the name "Auger" will be used, with occasional references to the complete name "Auger dit Grandchamp". The use of any of the three names is not incorrect.]
The section of the 1723 ordinance concerning Block 2 was not immediately enforced and Auger enjoyed peaceful ownership until 1734. In 1728 the house was used as collateral for a business debt [NOTE 16]. In 1729 Auger expanded along the Block 2 Quay front, purchasing the Lot M house and property to his immediate west. Therese Petit, his wife, purchased a turnspit from the blacksmith, Pierre Camino, in 1731 and in June was ordered by the superior council to pay Camino 22 livres, the remainder of the 40 livres price [NOTE 18]. In July of 1733, Sieur Nafrechaus, a merchant, resided in Auger's inn on the Quay [NOTE 19].
In 1734 Vallée surveyed Lot L, which still retained its dimensions of 24 pieds by 70 pieds. The owner was given as "Pierre" rather than "Julien" Auger dit Grandchamp, innkeeper. In his description, Vallée mentioned that the ordinance of 1723 had conceded Lot L to Lartigue as compensation for the loss of his expropriated Block 1 buildings [NOTE 20].
The 1735 arret, which confirmed the concessions listed in Vallée's 1734 etat, excluded Lot L. The neglected terms of the ordinance of 1723 were to be enforced and Auger was faced with the immediate loss of his property [NOTE 21].
Auger joined the representations made by Pugnant dit Destouches and Guion in 1736. According to Auger's account, he was still occupying the former Lartigue house in Lot L. In his appeal he either neglected to mention his Lot M buildings or included it as part of his Lot L house. He stated that if Lot L were taken from him he would be "remit hors de sa maison, exposé aux Rigueurs des Saisons." Claiming to be 75 years old, he pleaded that the implementation of the 1723 ordinance would rob him of a peaceful and secure old age. [In 1736 Auger would have been 65 years of age rather than 75. When he died in 1741, he was almost 70 - A.F.O., G1, Vol. 407, Reg. I, fol. 68, 2 avril 1741.] Paramount [PAGE 49:] in his representation was the idea that Lartigue had relinquished his claim to Lot L by his exchange with Heron in 1722 [NOTE 22]. This argument was supported by LeNormant [NOTE 23].
Maurepas' letter of 16 April 1737 relayed the official decision that the owners of Lots I, K and L were to retain their Block 2 properties [NOTE 24]. Auger and his wife were further confirmed in their possession of Lot L by an act of concession on 18 October 1737 [NOTE 25]. To add to Auger's good fortune, the 1737 fire which destroyed the buildings of Rodrigue, Pugnant dit Destouches and Guion apparently did not seriously affect Lot L [NOTE 26].
Auger was living in the Lot M house by 1741. He died there on 1 April 1741 [NOTE 27]. On 19 April an inventory began to enumerate and evaluate the possessions found in the Lot M dwelling which his widow and presumably his minor daughter were inhabiting, and the Lot L house. (See Appendix II). The two buildings seem to have comprised a single unit, although they are listed as two houses. [After assessing two rooms in Auger's Lot M house, the inventory moved to the Lot L house. The rooms which followed were not specifically located and may have been in either the Lot L or Lot M house. It is assumed that the inventory proceeded through the Lot L house before going outside into the yard and then returned to the Lot M house.]
The Lot L structure seems to have been the main part of the inn. A large room in the front (presumably north) of the building contained two dining room tables (one large and one small) and 18 straw chairs estimated together at 18 livres, a copper beer cauldron, estimated at 75 livres, and a variety of cooking and serving dishes. The sleeping arrangements pose a problem, possibly because the inn might not have been in full operation in April. Eight feather mattresses and bolsters (lits de plume et huit traversins) were estimated at 280 livres, and seven wool blankets and one calico quilt at 95 livres. There is reference to neither bed frames nor other types of mattresses (paliasse or matelas); this possibly suggests that the lits de plume were stacked during the day and spread on the floor at night as required by guests. Another possibility is that during the warmer and busier months of summer, the bedding, feather mattresses and bolsters were transferred to the seven couchettes inventoried [PAGE 50:] in the attic. Further research into the furnishings and operation of inns is required.
The inventory moved from the front room into the kitchen where the only items estimated were fireplace utensils - a pair of andirons, a pair of kitchen andirons, three small spits and a tripod - estimated together at 12 livres. It is possible that the food for the inn was prepared in the Lot M kitchen, and was merely kept warm and served from the Lot L kitchen.
The attic was inventoried next, suggesting that the attic steps were in the kitchen. Seven rough beds (couchettes), estimated at a total of 14 livres, were found in the attic.
From the attic the inventory moved to a magasin and to a small room beside the kitchen in what seems to be the Lot L house. An armoire with a door was built into the partition wall between the small room and the kitchen and contained a pewter platter, which weighed two pounds and was valued at 1 livre 10 sols.
The inventory estimated the value of the Lot L house and property to be 5,000 livres, 1,000 livres more than Lot M [NOTE 28].
It is likely that Louise Therese Petit, Auger's widow, continued to operate the Lot L inn between 1741 and the evacuation of Louisbourg in 1745. She had been actively engaged in business activities before her husband's death. A large percentage of the documentation of Auger's business affairs involves Louise Therese Petit, acting either in the name of or jointly with her husband.
Nothing is known of the history of the Auger property during the New England occupation of the fortress. The English plans of the 1745-49 period are very inaccurate for Lot L. Many plans omit the Lot L building while others situate a vacant property between it and the Lot M house. Two Plans, 1747-1 and 1748-2, show it in its proper location.
In 1749 the widow Auger dit Grandchamp returned to Louisbourg from Rochefort with two grandchildren, Gregoire and Catherine Koller, and a servant, Pierre Lottlelier [NOTE 29]. She reestablished in Block 2 and in September was described as living "En Sa Maison Rue de Quay" [NOTE 30]. In 1751 she was occupying Lot L, next to Jean Baptiste Guion in Lot K [NOTE 31]. It is probable that she had also reoccupied her building in Lot M.
Marie Catherine Auger, the daughter of Julien Auger dit Grandchamp and Marie Therese Petit, and her husband, Jodocus Koller, a sergeant in the Swiss regiment, had died during their exile in Rochefort. Claude Perrin had been elected guardian of their children, and in February and March of 1749 had sold the Koller effects for a total of 866 livres 7 sols. In September of 1749 Gregoire, was about ten years old and Catherine about five [NOTE 32].
When the French returned to Louisbourg in 1749 new guardians were elected for the Koller children - the widow Auger dit Grandchamp as tuteur and Jean Baptiste Guion as subrogé tuteur [NOTE 33]. In October the widow acknowledged receipt from Perrin of 150 livres plus the "Silver, papers, Bed, Linen and clothes" of the minors and "two bills for the English." An additional 95 livres 2 sols 7 deniers was received in March of 1750 [NOTE 34].
Problems over guardianship arose in 1752. On 29 May, Jean Baptiste Guion, the subrogé tuteur, called for the election of a new guardian, charging that the widow Auger dit Grandchamp was neglecting her granddaughter's education and mistreating her - "elle ne luy donne aucune Education et La maltraitte Journellement d'une Viollance Extraordinaire Jusqu'a La brosseur et meurtir." He also recommended placing Catherine in a boarding house [NOTE 35]. [No further mention is made of Gregoire Koller, and Catherine is consistently described as the sole heir to her parent's estate. Later documents also deal specifically only with Catherine, although general references are made to the "enfans mineurs." The Louisbourg parish records do not register Gregoire's death. The fate of four other Koller children, born between 1730 and 1741 is also unknown; it is assumed that they died in Rochefort between 1745 and January of 1749.]
Claude Perrin, the original guardian, was appointed temporarily on 30 May 1752. He was to care for the child, administer her business affairs, and render an account to the widow [NOTE 36].
On 5 June 1752, Jean Baptiste Guion and the widow Auger appeared before what seems to have been the superior council. It was ordered that Guion prove the charges made in the 29 May request. Bertin, the surgeon-major for the town, was to examine the child's body for marks or bruises and to report on their cause [NOTE 37].
Seven witnesses, chosen by Guion's wife (apparently in his absence) and approved by the widow, testified at a civil inquest in June, 1752. Two claimed to know nothing of the facts of the case. Two testified that they had seen the widow Auger dit Grandchamp instructing the child in cathechism and prayer; one said that the child was punished in the usual manner, while the second said that the widow struck the child's fingers with the handle of a fireplace shovel when she missed words. The latter and four other witnesses gave first-hand accounts of mistreatment of the granddaughter. Incidents were reported where the child had been fed only dry bread for dinner and supper, tied to a palisade in the yard, put in a barrel, stabbed with a knife or fork, and beaten (kicked, punched and pinched). In addition, the child had often been seen and heard crying. The widow won the case and remained the guardian but Catherine Koller was removed to a convent school in Quebec [NOTE 38].
An interesting note is given in the testimony of Vital Chevalier dit Grandchamp, who was a maitre d'ecole about 23 years old and no relation to the widow. He visited the Auger house many times during the summer of 1750 and the winter of 1751 to teach arithmetic to a boarder [NOTE 39].
On 7 September 1753, Louise Therese Petit veuve Auger dit Grandchamp died, at the age of about 70 years [NOTE 40}. Left as heirs were a married daughter, "Marie Angelique, who lived in Quebec and the Granddaughter, Catherine Koller, then about ten years old. Joseph Brisson was elected guardian of the child and Pierre Boullot, the curateur of the estate [NOTE 41].
Sale of the goods in the succession of Louise Therese Petit commenced on 20 September 1753. (See Appendix II). Included were her clothes, several aunes of a variety of material, dishes, kitchen utensils, pots and pans and foodstuffs. The furniture seems to have been simple and functional; five tables (a small table and a small set of scales sold for 6 livres, a small table - 6 livres 9 sols, an English table - 15 livres, a table - 3 livres, and another table with a table rug (tapis) - 7 livres), two empty chests sold for 9 and 10 livres, six straw chairs with their cushions for 25 livres, and six chairs and an armchair for 21 livres.
The 1753 sale had fewer beds and mattresses than the 1741 inventory. There were five beds (couchettes), four possibly furnished with feather [PAGE 53:] mattresses (lits de plume) and straw mattresses (palaisses). Sold individually in 1753 were one lit de plume with a pillow for 50 livres, another lit de plume for 55 livres, a matelas and a palaisse for 24 livres, a tour de lit of green serge and a couchette for 15 livres, four couchettes and three palaisses for 28 livres, a lit de plume with its bolster for 47 livres, and another lit de plume with its bolster for 62 livres. Assuming that both the widow and her granddaughter had a bed, only three were left for boarders and servants.
The silver items constituted about one-quarter of the value of the sale and possibly included the silver received from the Koller estate in 1750. A total of 630 livres 10 sols 12 deniers was received for two silver salt shakers, a goblet, four glasses (tinballes), two serving spoons, a tobacco holder, a pair of buckles and 14 place settings (forks and spoons). The total of the sale was 2,391 livres 3 sols 8 deniers [NOTE 42].
At present there is no information on Catherine Koller or Joseph Brisson, her guardian, which deals with Lot L after 1753. Since the documentation connecting Catherine Koller with Block 2 was found only in the final stages of research for Lot L, it is possible that more may yet be found.
The house was owned by the heirs of the widow Auger in 1756 and 1757 [NOTE 43]. It seems that it was no longer in existence by 1758. Plans 1758-6a, 1758-9, 1766-1, 1767-1 and 1768-1 show Lot L to be vacant.
(B) AUGER INN - STRUCTURAL DETAILS:
Many structural changes must have taken place in the Lot L building as it progressed from magasin to inn. The magasin is depicted on early plans as a building with a hip roof, running lengthwise into the block. The roof details of these plans are questionable, however, as hip roofs appear on almost every building. A small structure, possibly an entrance or a latrine, is seen on the center of the north end wall. (See Plans 1717-2, 1718-2, 1720-2, 1720-4 and N.D. 6). A door appears in this location on later views. [NOTE 50].
As there is no documentary description of the Lot L building, the plans and views are the main sources of structural details. Auger's house is seen as a wooden structure of one storey with an attic. (See Views 1731-1 and 1731-3-(2).
The plans and views generally indicate that the building had a pitch roof, with the gable wall facing the Quay. (See Plans 1730-2, 1731-3-(2), 1734-4, 1745-1, 1745-la, N.D. 76 and N.D. 105). Plans 1731-1, N.D. 24 and N.D. 89 show a hip roof, as do the earlier plans.
The Quay façade of the Lot L building varies on the views. Views 1731-3-(2) and N.D. 76 locate a central door flanked on either side by a window on the ground floor, and two windows in the gable section above. View 1745-1 situates one central window in the gable section, repeats the two windows on the ground floor, but omits the door. Two possible explanations for the missing door are that it was an oversight by the cartographer or that the door was removed to route traffic to the Lot L inn through the Lot M residence.
View 1745-1a distorts the height of the house, stretching it to two stories plus an attic, the same elevation as the Pugnant dit Destouches house (Lot I). As a result, the Lot L building is pictured with either a window or a door on the ground floor of the north wall, two windows on the first storey and one window on the attic level, the top storey and attic resembling View 1745-1.
View 1731-1 seems unreliable for Lot L. The north façade of the building has little in common with the other views. Two windows are shown on each side of the central door on the ground floor, with two dormers on a hip roof. The north wall is given approximately the same width as the ordonnateur's house in Lot G, thus making it 12 pieds too wide to fit Lot L's north boundary of 24 pieds.
The 1741 inventory specifically mentioned a large room in the front, presumably the north section, of the Lot L house. The seeming ease with which the inventory proceeded to this room from a room in the back of the Lot M house leads to the suspicion that there was an interior connection between the two buildings [NOTE 44]. As mentioned above, a kitchen and possibly a small room, attic, and a magasin were also located in the Lot L house.
There was a corridor in either the Lot L or Lot M house in 1752. Vital Chevalier dit Grandchamp testified that several times he had seen Catherine Koller crying "Dans Le Coridor de la maison Deladitte grandChamps [NOTE 45].
It seems that the house had one fireplace and one chimney. A chimney is shown on the east slope of the roof on View 1731-3-(2) and possibly 1745-1. View 1731-1 situates one on the center of the ridge. The 1741 inventory gives utensils for two fireplaces - one for the kitchen of the Lot L house and one for the Lot LOT M house. The 1753 sale also had utensils for two fireplaces which presumably were in the 1741 locations [NOTE: 46].
Five curtains (possibly five pairs) were sold in 1753. Four curtains of yellow serge and four iron rods (verge) sold for 9 livres, and a fifth, with an iron rod and two stools (scelleaux), sold for 1 livre 10 sols. It cannot be determined whether the rideaux were from the Lot L house or the Lot M house [NOTE 47].
(C) AUGER BUILDINGS AND YARD:
The plans do not show outbuildings in Lots L and M. A magasin containing one and a-half barrels of wine, evaluated at 120 livres, is mentioned in the 1741 inventory. The magasin seems to have been located at the back of the Lot L house and very possibly was part of the main building [NOTE 48].
A cord of firewood, two sheep and 20 fowl, including hens, turkeys and ducks, were found in Auger's yard at the time of the 1741 inventory [NOTE 49]. They were probably in the Lot L yard since the plans show the Lot M yard to be either very small or non-existent.
Plan 1731-3-(1) shows a picket fence on the boundary between Lots K and L. A picket fence, low enough for an adult to look from the Lot K garden into the Lot L yard, stood on the boundary in 1751. Marguerite Vincent, wife of François Milly, looked over the fence and saw Catherine Koller tied to a palisade. The palisade probably described a fence, although it also may have been a pen for animals. It was not the fence on the Lot K - Lot L boundary, for she could not see how the girl was secured [NOTE 50].
I. [PAGE 191:]
[NOTE 1:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 2, f. 153v., Toises particuliars des Concessions accordées a chaque habitans du port Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1717; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, f. 103v., Projet de Brevet de confirmation des concessions faites aux habitans de Louisbourg, 22 juin 1718: ibid, Vol. 466, pièce 83, ff. 7v.-8, Concessions du Conseil Superieur, 1720-23.
[NOTE 2:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2056, (1717, No. 49), Micoin notaire, [untitled] Vente: Jean Rapiot à Joseph Lartigue, 2 novembre 1717.
[NOTE 3:] Ibid.
[NOTE 4:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 2, f. 153v., Toises particuliars des Concessions accordées a chaque habitans du port Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1717; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, f. 103v., Projet de Brevet de confirmation des concessions faites aux habitans de Louisbourg, 22 juin 1718.
[NOTE 5:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 178, ff. 61-100 passim, "Procedure Touchant la Succession du Sieur Foranceaux Ecrivain Roy, et Garde magasin en ce port," 1718.
[NOTE 6:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 4, f. 201v., Bordereau de la Dépense faite dans les Trois Ports de l'Isle Royalle pendant l'année 1719 avant L'arrivée de M. de Verville, 25 novembre 1719.
[NOTE 7:] A.F.O., G1, Vol. 466, pièce 83, ff. 7v.-8, Concessions du Conseil Superieur, 1720-23.
[NOTE 8:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2057, (1722, No. 7), Micoin notaire [untitled] Titre d'échange: Antoine Heron et Joseph Lartigue, 17 juin 1722; ibid, Carton 2058, (1725, No. 7), Micoin notaire, [untitled] Titre d'échange: Antoine Heron et Joseph Lartigue, 17 juin 1722; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, ff. 126v.-27, tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur et Commissaire ordonnateur de l'Isle Royale. Par Nicolas Pugnan d. detouche maitre Boulanger, Jean Baptiste Guyon navigateur, et auger grandchamp aubergiste de cette ville, .
[NOTE 9:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2057, (1722, No. 7), np. l, Micoin notaire, [untitled] Titre d'échange: Antoine Heron et Joseph Lartigue, 17 juin 1722; ibid, Carton 2058, No. 33, np. 1, Micoin notaire, [untitled] Contract de vente: Antoine Heron à Julien Auge dit Grandchamp, 10 novembre 1724; A.C., C11B, Vol. 5, f. 27, Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville de Louisbourg sous le bon plaisir du Roy par, messieurs les gouverneur Et Commissaire ordonnateur delisle Royalle jusqu'au 15.8. bre 1734 et autres sont Sa Majesté a disposé par son memoire du 31.may.1723, 24 octobre 1734. [PAGE 193:]
[NOTE 10:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 83, ff. 7v.-8, Concessions du Conseil Superieur, 1720-23.
[NOTE 11:] A.C., C11A, Vol. 126, pièce 111, p. 239, Estat des Emplacements concédés a Louisbourg dans l'Enceinte de la Place relatif au plan de 1723, 1723.
[NOTE 12:] Ibid, p. 237.
[NOTE 13:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 190 (No. 3), ff. 64-66, Ordonnance du Roi, 31 mai 1723.
[NOTE 14:] Ibid, f. 66; A.F.O., G3, Carton 2058, No. 32, 10 novembre 1724; ibid, No. 33.
[NOTE 15:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, f. 127, tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur..., .
[NOTE 16:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2037 (No. 61), np. 3, Conventions portant obligation du S. grandchamp et de Son Epouse en faveur du S. beauvais faisant pour le S. Lagorgendiere, 16 août 1728.
[NOTE 17:] Ibid, (No. 55), Contract de vente d'une Maison Passé par le S. delasson aux S. grandchamp et aud. Therese petit Son epouse, 30 août 1729.
[NOTE 18:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 134, f. 68v., [untitled] Plumitif d'audiences du Conseil Supérieur de l'Ile Royale couvrant la période du ler. septembre 1727 à mars 1735, 4 juin 1731.
[NOTE 19:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2038 suite, (No. 17), npp. 4-5, Denonciation de protest d'une lettre dechange de 235#.4l.s6.d fait parlles Srs. barrenche et Naffrechaux au S.Andres Carrerot, 22 juillet 1733.
[NOTE 20:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 5, f. 27, Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville de louisbourg ..., 24 octobre 1734.
[NOTE 21:] A.C. B, Vol. 63, f. 578, Arret de Ceil qui confirme les concessions faites dans la Ville de Louisbourg jusqu'au 15.8bre.1734, 5 avril 1735; ibid, ff. 535-35v., Maurepas a M. de St. Ovide et le Nommant, 25 avril 1735.
[NOTE 22:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, ff. 126v.-27v., tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur ..., [1736-].
[NOTE 23:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 19, ff. 65v., 66v., LeNormant à Maurepas, 30 janvier 1737.
[NOTE 24:] A.C. B, Vol. 65, ff. 445v.-46, Maurepas à debrouillan et lenormant, 16 avril 1736.
[NOTE 25:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 197 suite, dossier 142, No. 5, npp. 9, procés verbal de levée des Scelles, et inventaire de la Succession de feu Sr. Julien Auger, 19 avril 1741.
[NOTE 26:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 19, ff. 43v.-44, Brouillan et Le Nommant à Maurepas, 31 octobre 1737.
[NOTE 27:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 197 suite, dossier 142, No. 1, np. 1, procés verbal de Scellé ches la veuve de Julien auger aubergiste, 1 avril 1741, ibid, No. 5, npp. 1-15 passim, 19 avril 1741.
[NOTE 28:] Ibid, No. 5, np. 11, procés verbal de levée des Scelles ..., 19 avril 1741.
[NOTE 29:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 76, np. 26, Denombrement General des familles, D officiers et habitans Existans dans la colonie De lisle Royale La Presente année 1749, 1749.
[NOTE 30:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 211, dossier 528B, pièce 3, np. 1, [untitled] Acte de tutelle des enfants de deffunts Jodocus Koller et Catherine Marie Auger, sa femme, 24 septembre 1749.
[NOTE 31:] Ibid, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 4, npp. 3-5, [untitled] "Enquete Civil faitte ... a la Requete De Baptiste Guyon ... contre La veuve De grandChamp auger 10 juin 1752.
[NOTE 32:] Ibid, Vol. 200, dossier 216, npp. 1-212, 19 mars 1749; ibid, Vol. 211, dossier 528B, pièce 3, np. 1, [untitled] Acte de tutelle des enfants de deffunts Jodocus Koller et Catherine Marie Auger, sa femme, 24 septembre 1749.
[NOTE 33:] Ibid; A.F.O., G 2, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 2, npp. 1-2, Avis de la nouvelle tutelle des Enfans de Jacob Koller, 30 mai 1752.
[NOTE 34:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2047 (No. 79), 25 octobre 1749; ibid,(No. 80), 12 mars 1750.
[NOTE 35:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 1, npp. 1-4, [untitled] Requete de Baptiste Guion à Monsieur Le Baillif de louisbourg, 29 mai 1752.
[NOTE 36:] Ibid, pièce 2, npp. 1-6, Avis de la nouvelle tutelle ..., 30 mai 1752.
[NOTE 37:] Ibid, Vol. 204, dossier 471, ff. 20-20v., Registre Pour Servir a L'Enregistrement des Sentences d audiance Ord.-et Extraord. Commence le 24 avril 1752 et fini Le 5 avril 1754, 5 juin 1752.
[NOTE 38:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 3, npp. 1-6, 10 juin 1752; ibid, pièce 4, npp. 1-5, [untitled] "Enquete Civil faitte ... a la Requete De Baptiste Guyon ... contre La veuve De grand Champ auger ...," 10 juin 1752.
[NOTE 39:] Ibid, pièce 4, npp. 12-15.
[NOTE 40:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 408, Registre 2, f. 73v., Parish Records, 7 septembre 1753.
[NOTE 41:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 202, dossier 285, pièces 1, 2 and 3, Papiers consernant lacté de tutelle de Catherine Koller faitte a la Requete du S. Joseph Brisson, 15-17 septembre 1753.
[NOTE 42:] Ibid, dossier 286, pp. 1-33, npp. 34-44, Proces verbal de vente des effets provenant de la Succession de la deffunte therese petit faite a la Raquette du Sr. Joseph Brisson, 20 septembre 1753.
[NOTE 43:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), np. 1, [untitled] Bail à loyer: Jean Claparede à Jacques Brunet, 1 juin 1756; ibid, [untitled] Bail: Claparede à Brunet, 22 décembre 1757
[NOTE 44:] A.F.O., G 2, Vol. 197 suite, dossier 142, No. 5, npp. 3-4, procés verbal de levée des Scelles, et inventaire de la Succession de feu Sr. Julien Auger, 19 avril 1741.
[NOTE 45:] Ibid, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 4, np. 14, [untitled] "Enquete Civil faitte ... a la Requete de Baptiste Guyon ... contre La veuve De grand Champ auger ...," 10 juin 1752.
[NOTE 46:] Ibid, Vol. 197 suite, dossier 142, No. 5, npp. 2, 5, procés verbal de levée des Scelles, et inventaire de la Succession de feu Sr. Julien Auger, 19 avril 1741; ibid, Vol. 202, dossier 286, pp. 4, 26-27, Proces verbal de vente des effets provenant de la Succession de la deffunte therese petit .... 20 septembre 1753.
[NOTE 47:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 202, dossier 286, p. 28, np. 42, Proces verbal de vente des effets provenant de la Succession de la deffunte therese petit ..., 20 septembre 1753.
[NOTE 48:] Ibid, np. 5.
[NOTE 49:] Ibid, np. 6.
[NOTE 50:] A.F.O., G 2, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 4, npp. 3-5, [untitled] "Enquete Civil faitte ... a la Requête de Baptiste Guyon ... contre La veuve De grand Champ auger ..., 10 juin 1752.