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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 17 R)
(A) LAFOREST HOUSE AND PROPERTY (c. 1717-23):
The 1717 concessions and 1718 confirmations granted part of what was to become Lot K to a blacksmith, Pierre Spart dit Laforest. The property ran 28 pieds (E. by W.) along the Quay and extended 18 pieds (N. by S.) into the block [NOTE 1]. A building was standing on Lot K by 1717. The early plans show a structure with a hip roof, and two south additions. (See Plans 1717-2 to 1720-4).
In 1719 a soldier, Claude l'Enfant dit Bellegarde, stole a petticoat and a gunlock (platine de fusil) from Lot K. The trial which followed indicates that Laforest was a tavern keeper as well as a blacksmith, for Bellegarde testified that before the theft, he and five or six companions had purchased and consumed a bottle of brandy in Laforest's house. After leaving the building, Bellegarde stole Madame Laforest's petticoat which was drying on Seigneur's garden fence (Lot B). The gunlock was stolen from a location near a porte a terre, which possibly suggests an exterior cellar door [NOTE 2].
In October of 1721, Laforest received a new concession which increased the dimensions of his Block 2 property to 30 pieds by 100 pieds. Conditions in the concession dictated that he not sell the property but maintain and develop it. He was to "put his forge in a state to make use of his trade for the public." The latter condition was probably just a formality for, in 1736, Guion stated that Laforest had built his house and forge before the 1721 concession [NOTE 3]. The town Plans 1717-2 to 1722-1 show only one building in the Lot K area. It is probable that the forge was the addition shown on the south wall of the main building.
Laforest occupied Lot K and operated his forge until 1722, when he decided to move to Niganiche, present-day Ingonish. The house, forge and property were sold to François Cressonet dit Beauséjour. Before the sale [PAGE 35:] was finalized, it was necessary for Laforest and Cressonet to appear before the governor and commissaire-ordonnateur, presumably to obtain an official release from the conditions of Laforest's 1721 concession. A writ authorizing the sale was issued on 29 August and, at some later time, the lot passed into Cressonet's possession [NOTE 4].
When first constructed, the Laforest building was inside the limits of Block 2. After the town blocks were realigned, however, the building straddled the north boundary of the block and extended into the street. (See Plans 1720-2, 1720-4, 1722-1 and 1723-4).
(B) CRESSONET-GUION HOUSE AND PROPERTY (1723-37):
Cressonet, a merchant, fisherman and tavern keeper [NOTE 5], did not find Laforest's house and forge appropriate to his needs. In 1723 he demolished the buildings and replaced them with a house on the north boundary of Block 2. At the same time he finished clearing the property and enclosed it with a fence [NOTE 6].
The north wall of the second Lot K house appears on three views 1731-1, 1731-3-(2) and N.D. 76, the most reliable of which is 1731-3-(2). The 1731 views indicate that the building was of picket construction. A door is centered between two windows on the ground floor, and a dormer and a chimney are situated on the roof. View 1731-3-(2) locates the dormer above the west window, and the chimney on the east wall, while View 1731-1 places the dormer above the center door, and the chimney on a ridge with a N. by S. orientation. View N.D. 76, which is relatively unreliable, shows three windows on the ground floor north wall, a door at a lower elevation between the two more westerly windows, and a hip roof. With the exception of 1731-1 and N.D. 76, all town plans and views show a pitch roof with north and south slopes. All but 1731-1 indicate that the east and west walls abutted against, or were common with, the buildings in Lots I and L.
A picket fence divided the land behind the Lot K house into a garden and a courtyard. (See Plan 1731-1-(1). An opening in the section of fence between the two areas appears on 1731-3-(l) and 1734-4. The garden, [PAGE 36:] located at the south end of the property, varies in size on the plans. (See Plans 1730-2, 1731-3-(1), 1734-4, N.D. 24 and N.D. 105).
On 6 November 1725, Jean Baptiste Guion married Anne LaChaume, the daughter of a local merchant, Louis LaChaume. Guion was the son of Cressonet's wife, Marguerite Dugas, by her first husband, Joseph Guion. At the time of the Guion-LaChaume wedding Cressonet was erecting a new house on his property in Block 3. As an indication of his approval, "pour en temoigner leur Joye," Cressonet gave Lot K of Block 2 to his stepson, with the stipulation that, if necessary, Cressonet and his wife could continue to live in Block 2 without charge until their Block 3 house was completed. If Guion died without children to survive him, Lot K was to revert to Cressonet. It is interesting to note that there were already people related to Guion and Anne LaChaume living in Block 2: Joseph Dugas (Lot B), a relative of the groom, and Pierre Benoist (Lot C) and Jean Seigneur (Lot B), relatives of the bride, were among those who witnessed the marriage contract in which the transferral of Lot K was outlined [NOTE 7].
In fact, Cressonet did not have a clear title to Lot K when he gave it to Guion. In October of 1725 the superior council registered the ordinance of 1723 which decreed that fishermen would have preference over blacksmiths and tavern keepers for Quay-front properties, so that Lots I, K and E were to be divided between Rodrigue (Lot G) and Lartigue (Lot L) [NOTE 8]. The ordinance was not enforced immediately, however, and Baptiste Guion became the new owner of Lot K, even though he was not a fisherman [NOTE 9].
In 1734, Vallée surveyed all the town properties conceded prior to 15 October of that year. Benoist, the owner of Lot C, had encroached into the south end of Guion's property by 1734. Lot K was reported to measure 100 pieds on its east boundary, 98 pieds on its west boundary, and 30 pieds along the Quay. Vallée referred to Guion as "Dyon," a surname sometimes used for the Guion family [NOTE 10]. The 1735 Arret, which confirmed the concession of the properties described in Vallée's Etat, excluded Lot K and ordered the enforcement of the neglected terms of the ordinance of 1723 [NOTE 11].
Guion outlined his plight in the joint representation made with Pugnant dit Destouches and Auger dit Grandchamp to Maurepas in 1736. [PAGE 37:] Because Laforest, Cressonet and Guion had followed the legal procedure necessary in the transfer of property, Guion felt that he should be guaranteed his title to Lot K. The fate of his family was drawn out in exaggerated terms:
qu'elle desolation pour une pauvre femme de Se voir mise hors de Son bien, Jettéé dans La Rue privée de Son douaire de Sa dot et autres conventions matrimonialles: cette Verité Netire telles pas de Larmés du coeur le plus endureye[?] avec quoy faire Subsiter Six petits enfants, Si on les prive des loyes quils Retirent de leur maison qui est leur unique Revenue[?] y auroit-il de Misaire plus Insurpotable que Celle ou Seroit Reduittes cette famille aussy pauvre, que nombreuse.
From the representation it seems that Guion was both occupying and renting, part of the Lot K house [NOTE 12].
When the dispute over the ordinance was settled in 1737, Guion was left in possession of the Lot K house and property [NOTE 13:] By October of 1737, however, his building had been destroyed by the fire which had spread along the Quay front from Lot H [NOTE 14].
After the 1737 fire, St. Ovide and LeNormant recommended that Lots H, I and K be redeveloped with masonry buildings. In 1737 the Rodrigues and Muiron drew up a devis for a large masonry house in Lot H. Pugnant constructed a masonry house in Lot I prior to 1739 [NOTE 15]. Guion did not, however, display an immediate intention to rebuild [NOTE 16].
(C) GUION PROPERTY:
When the governor and commissaire-ordonnateur, Isaac Louis de Forant and François Bigot, arrived in Louisbourg in 1739 they ordered Guion to rebuild within two years or sell his property. In January of 1742, de Forant's successor, Jean-Baptiste-Louis Le Prévost Duquesnel, and Bigot informed Maurepas that Guion had not complied with the order, and requested permission to carry out their threat. They accused Guion of being a loafer who spent his time hunting and who would never be in a position to rebuild. In their opinion it was unacceptable to have such a large, [PAGE 38:] well-situated property remain vacant,
"cet emplacement est considerable et outre le tort qu'il fait a la décoration du port il en fait un pour le commerce celuy qui l'auroit pouroit y faire de beaux magasins et des logemens pour les commerçants ..." [NOTE 17]
Maurepas' answer upheld the original order and a final ultimatum was issued to Guion prior to October of 1742, ordering him to rebuild immediately or forfeit his property, which would be sold at public auction [NOTE 18].
It is not known where Guion lived in the years between the fire in 1737 and the construction of his new house. It is possible that he occupied either the house of his mother and stepfather in Block 3 or the house of his father-in-law, Louis LaChaume, in the Presque'ile du Quay. Guion was residing on the Rue du Quay in 1744, which could indicate either property [NOTE 19]. As seen below, other evidence seems to eliminate the possibility that this was his Block 2 property.
(D) GUION-CLAPAREDE HOUSE AND PROPERTY - CHRONOLOGY (1745-68)
It seems that a house was built on Lot K during the New England occupation. In 1750, when discussing the occupation, Georges Desroches described what seems to have been the Lot K building as "La maison ... Etant aux anglois" [NOTE 20]. Lot K is vacant on View 1745-1, although there is a very faint outline of a roof and two windows. View 1745-la, which is generally accurate in its details, shows a large two-storey building on Lot K. It is conceivable that, to retain ownership of his property, Guion had begun constructing a building between the time the ultimation was issued in 1742 and the 1745 siege.
No reference to the construction of a house in Lot K has been found in the English archives. The building is not included in the outline of official construction either on Plans 1746-8 and 1746-8a or in the report of the state of Louisbourg in 1749, when the town was returned to the French. Given his poor financial condition, as reported by St. Ovide as late as 1742, the construction, or possibly completion, of the Lot K house probably was a private arrangement between Guion and the New Englanders.
The English plans of 1745 to 1748 indicate that Lot K was vacant not only in 1745 but throughout the occupation period. Only one plan shows a building on Lot K; an L-shaped building appears on the north boundaries of Lots K, L and M on Plan 1746-3. Plan 1746-5 shows what seems to be a gate on the north boundaries of both the vacant Lot K and H properties. It is conceivable that the English plans would not have included a building under construction. In general the 1745-48 plans are unreliable for the west end of the Block 2 Quay front, and reliable for the east end. Lot K falls halfway between the two.
Jean Baptiste Guion, his wife and eight children were among the 45 French inhabitants listed in 1749 as having remained in Louisbourg during the 1745-49 occupation. The New Englanders took a more favourable view of Guion's hunting than had the French, and they used him as a guide in the woods. As Guion was a navigateur, he also acted as a pilot at sea [NOTE 21].
In November of 1746, Guion married Gilette Commer (or Commere), widow of Alexandre Diars (Estevin), and daughter of Thomas Commer and Charlotte Vincent, residents of Scatary Island [NOTE 22]. Anne LeChaume, Guion's first wife, apparently died during the early part of the occupation; the last reference to her in the French parish records occurs at the birth of their tenth child in June of 1744 [NOTE 23].
A court case between Jean Baptiste Guion and George Desroches in November of 1750 sheds some light on the 1745-49 period. Desroches, who was a fisherman, and his wife had also remained in Louisbourg with the New Englanders. Guion lodged with Desroches, presumably until Guion's house was built. At some later time, Desroches and his wife became ill and moved in with Guion who seems to have been living in the Lot K house, where Guion's wife cared for them. In the 1750 audience, Guion demanded 150 livres rent, and 110 livres payment for the care of the Desroches family. Then latter refused to pay the rent, stating that Guion's house was English and rent was not charged by the English governor. In addition, Desroches had not charged for Guion's earlier accommodation. Payment of the second account was refused, Desroches claiming that Guion had guaranteed free care. The court decreed that Desroches was to pay the 110 livres for care during their illness, and 50 sols for provisions. A [PAGE 40:] sum of 42 livres 10 sols was to be deducted for the time that Guion had lodged with Desroches [NOTE 24].
When the French reoccupied Louisbourg in 1749, Guion claimed that he had been forced to work with the English, and prepared to remain with the French [NOTE 25]. On 8 September 1749, his marriage to Gilette Commer was rehabilitated in the Roman Catholic Church [NOTE 26]. In October of 1751 guardians were elected for the five minors from his first marriage: Jean Baptiste, aged 19, Josette, aged 16, Anne, aged 14, Louis, aged 12 and Michel, aged eight. Jean Baptiste Guion was elected tuteur with Pierre Belair as subrogé tuteur. Guion's eldest son, François, had married Genevieve Petitpas during the New England occupation [NOTE 27]. By October of 1751, Guion had two children by his second wife, who also had children from her first marriage [NOTE 28].
Guion apparently continued to occupy his Lot K house. In September of 1749, he was living "En Son domicille Rue du quay" when he was made subrogé tuteur of Catherine and Gregoire Koller, the grandchildren of the widow Auger, his neighbour in Lot L [NOTE 29]. When Guion was trying to have Catherine removed from her grandmother's care in 1752, a witness, Marguerite Vincent, testified that she had seen the child in the Lot L yard from Guion's yard in 1751 [NOTE 30].
Jean Claparede, a negoçiant, became the new owner of Lot K by 1756, if not earlier. In a court case in August of 1757, it was stated that Claparede owed a remainder of 750 livres to Guion for the exchange of houses. No indication was given of which houses were meant [NOTE 31]. The house exchanged by Guion seems to have been the Lot K house, since Claparede rented the building to Jacques Brunet in rental agreements of 1756 and 1757 [NOTE 32].
Brunet's lease ran for one year, commencing 1 June 1756. Brunet was to pay Claparede 1,600 livres annual rent in quarterly installments. In December of 1757, the agreement was revised and extended to 1762 at the same rate of payment. In addition to the 1,600 livres rent, Brunet was responsible for repairs. A further stipulation prohibited subletting the building without Claparede's permission [NOTE 33].
Some time after 1757 the Lot K house and the Lot I house were incorporated into one building. In 1757, the Lot I house was described as the [PAGE 41:] east boundary of the Lot K house [NOTE 34]. Town Plans 1767-1 and 1768-1 treat the houses as one building.
When the French population of Louisbourg was evacuated to France in 1758, Baptiste Guion again remained with the English. It seems that his wife, Gilette Commer, had been in France since 1757 with their two children, Marie Guion and Jean Laurent Guion, and a son by her first marriage, Jacques d'Hiarce [NOTE 35].
In 1767 the Lot K and I house was described as a stone building which was "at present inhabited." (See Plan 1767-1.). Plan 1768-1 shows that "Mons. Dion a french pilot" (i.e. Jean Baptiste Guion) was living in the house built by his mother and his step-father, Cressonet, on the northeast corner of Block 3. The Lot K and I house, No. 126, was described as a stone building, in good repair, occupied by Mr. Townsend, the late deputy-paymaster. On both plans, "stone" was the general category for masonry buildings, distinguishing them from buildings of wood. In Franklin's terms, "Those Houses called in Good Repair want much Expence to make them really so" [NOTE 36].
(E) GUION-CLAPAREDE HOUSE - STRUCTURAL DETAILS
The Guion house was an impressive building. It was a brick structure with a basement and three storeys [NOTE 37]. The views agree that it was the same height as the Pugnant dit Destouches house in Lot I, while the town plans agree that it ran the same distance into the block. (See Views 1758-6a, 1758-9 and 1766-1, and town Plans 1767-1, 1768-1 and N.D. 27). It is reasonable to assume that the west wall of the Lot I house served as a common wall. The two houses seem to have filled the north boundaries of their respective properties, both of which measured 30 pieds in 1734 [NOTE 38]. Thus, the Lot I and Lot K houses apparently were the same size.
The 1756 rental agreement included a room-by-room enumeration of windows, doors, shutters and locks. The description is difficult to understand as it is one long list of the features seen by Claparede. "Idem" is used indiscriminately to describe hardware while problematic terms appear, such as chambre à feu and double chassis. It is assumed that [PAGE 42:] 38 chambre à feu indicates a room with a fireplace and a double Chassy et Contrevent is a double-leaf window with a double-leaf shutter. The vagueness of the descriptions makes interpretation of the floor plan difficult [NOTE 39].
The basement was described as small. A trap door and a barred caveau were found there [NOTE 40].
The ground floor consisted of a kitchen, salon, chambre à feu and a corridor. Entrance to the house, presumably from the Rue du Quay, was through a double-leaf door which closed with a lock, latch and two types of bolts (verrouils a Ressort and targette). To the right, presumably to the north-west, was the kitchen which had a door and a double window and shutter. An oven with an iron door and a potager with two iron rings were located here, presumably as well as a fireplace. To the right were the salon and the chambre à feu, which probably were the northeast and southeast rooms on the east side of the corridor. It seems that both rooms had a double window and shutter, and a door. At the end of the corridor was another double-leaf door which locked with a key, and probably led to the yard at the rear of the house. A window was located above this door. It is probable that the first magasin described by Claparede was a southwest room on the ground floor. The small magasin had a double-leaf door and a locked closet under the stairs. Thus, there were probably stairs to the first storey in the kitchen [NOTE 41].
After visiting the magasins, Claparede returned to the house and went upstairs. It seems that two large windows were noted on the way up, and that a double-leaf door without a lock was situated at the top of the stairs. A salle, cabinet, chambre, chambre à feu, latrines and a closet were on the first storey. A door with a lock, latch and bolt led to the salle which had two glass doors leading to the balcony, two double windows, a fireback and therefore a fireplace. It is probable that the salle was located in the northwest part of the house, so that the fireplace shared a chimney with the kitchen fireplace and the balcony overlooked the harbour. A cabinet, which had a door with a transom and no windows, probably was located against an interior partition in the salle. Beside the salle was a chambre with a door and two double windows. Next to the [PAGE 43:] chambre was a chambre with a fireplace and fireback, a double window and two doors; this room was probably above the ground floor chambre à feu and utilized the same chimney. A cabinet which served as a latrine, with a door locked by a key, and two bolts and a window, was noted next. Beside the stairs was a closet with a door which locked with a key. No shutters are mentioned above ground floor level; several windows are described as "garni" which probably meant that they had necessary hardware [NOTE 42].
It is probable that a magasin abutted the south wall of the house. A garde salle, on first-storey level, was located above a magasin. The room had two double windows, one single window, and two doors, one of which had a hook. The second magasin described by Claparede had similar openings - two double shutters, one single shutter and two doors. What seems to be a two-storey extension against the south wall of the Lot K house is shown on View 1758-9. It is also conceivable that the grande salle was in the southwest corner of the first-storey house, over the first magasin [NOTE 43].
When climbing to the second storey, Claparede mentioned a door with a hook, possibly at the bottom of the steps, and one single and two double windows. At the top of the stairs, on the right, were two small cabinets with two doors locking with keys and two small windows. Further along the street were three chambres with three doors with locks and latches, and four double windows. Another double window seems to have been in the corridor; it is likely that the window was in the west wall overlooking the Auger houses since the Lot I house blocked the east wall. Also located in the corridor were six décharges or closets which closed with bolts and a lock. To the left of the stairs was attic space with a door and two double windows. It is probable that the corridor ran east-west with the attic in the southeast corner, the cabinets in the southwest corner, and the three chambres located along the north wall [NOTE 44].
When Brunet renewed his lease in 1757, he agreed to tile the kitchen, "or half of it," and make a drain from the basement to the sea [NOTE 45].
There is no particularly reliable view of the Lot K house. View 1758-6a shows a few windows on the north wall and indicates that the west end of the roof was hipped. The south wall is roughly sketched on View 1758-9. This plan seems quite accurate in its chimney locations, with one [PAGE 44:] chimney on the west wall which might have served the ground floor kitchen fireplace complex and the first-storey salle fireplace. The central chimney shown on the Lot H-I-K-L building may have served either one or both of the Lot I or Lot K houses. The two fireplaces in the chambres à feu could have had flues in this chimney. A ground-floor door, first-storey window and south addition seem to belong to the Lot K house.
View 1766-1 shows the amalgamated Lot I and K buildings. Only one ground-floor window and two first-storey windows appear on the north wall. A center door could have been in either the Lot I or the Lot K half of the combined buildings. Four dormers are situated on the north roof slope, corresponding to the location of the four windows of the three chambres when placed along the north wall. No openings appear in the west gable wall. The balcony on the first storey is not shown on any of the views.
When considering structural details it should be remembered that the Lot K house probably was built during the New England occupation. It is also probable that the house was renovated when it was incorporated with the Lot K house into one building.
(F) OUTBUILDINGS AND YARD:
Claparede described three magasins in Lot K in 1756. The first small magasin probably was located in the southwest room on the ground floor of the house. It had a double-leaf door and a closet under the stairs. Window openings were not indicated, possibly due to the second magasin which seems to have abutted against the west section of the south wall [NOTE 46].
The second magasin had two double shutters, one single shutter and two doors, one of which locked with a key. Apparently there were no window frames in the openings. The magasin was described as non planché, which probably means that it had an earth rather than a plank floor. As previously mentioned, the grande salle on the first storey of the residence seems to have been located over this magasin [NOTE 47]. What seems to be the magasin abuts against the west section of the south wall on View 1758-9.
A third magasin with an addition bordered Benoist's Lot C property. Two shutters and two doors which locked with keys were described on the [PAGE 45:] building [NOTE 48:] The L-shaped building is seen on Plan 1767-1, which labels the structure, "stores and stables occupied at present."
There was a picket fence between the Lot K and Lot L yards in 1751 [NOTE 49]. In 1756 Claparede mentioned a courtyard door which closed with a hook, latrines with a latch and a covered well in the yard [NOTE 50].
I. [NOTE 1:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 2, f. 153v., Toises particuliers des Concessions accordées a chaque habitans du port Louisbourg, 10 novembre 1717; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, ff. 103-03v., Projet de Brevet de confirmation des concessions faits aux habitans de Louisbourg, 22 juin 1718.
[NOTE 2:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 5, ff. 243, 253-57, passim, Procedure Criminelles [faites] al'Encontre du nomme Bellegarde Soldat de la Compagne de Rouville accusé de Vol, 26 janvier 1720.
[NOTE 3:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 83, f. 6, Concessions, 1720-23; A.C., C11B, Vol. 5, f. 27, Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville de louisbourg sous le bon plaisir du Roy par messieurs les gouverneur Et commissaire ordonnateur delisle Royalle jusqu'au 15e. 8bre.1734. et autres dont Sa Majesté a disposé par son mémoire du 31.may.1723, 24 octobre 1734; A.F.O., G1, Vol. 462, ff. 125-25v., tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur et Commissaire ordonnateur de l'Isle Royale. Par Nicolas Pugnan d detouche maitre Boulanger, Jean Baptiste Guyon navigateur, et auger grandchamp aubergiste de cette ville, .
[NOTE 4:] A.F.O., G1, Vol. 462, ff. 125-25v., tres humbles Representations faites a a [sicl Messieurs les Gouverneur..., .
[NOTE 5:] A.C., C11A, Vol. 126, pièce 111, p. 237, Estat des Emplacements concédés a Louisbourg dans l'Enceinte de la Place relatif au plan de 1723, 1723; A.F.O., G3, Carton 2058 (No. 36), np. 1, [untitled] Contract de mariage: Jean Baptiste Guion et Anne LaChaume, 5 novembre 1725.
[NOTE 6:] A.C., C11A, Vol. 126, pièce 111, p. 239, Estat des Emplacements concédés a Louisbourg dans l'Enceinte de la Place... 1723; A.F.0., G1, Vol. 462, f. 125v., tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur ..., .
[NOTE 7:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2058 (No. 36), npp. 1-6, [untitled] Contract de mariage: Jean Baptiste Guion et Anne LaChaume, 5 novembre 1725; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 406, Registre II: mariages 1722-28, f. 6v., Parish Records, 6 novembre 1725; ibid, Vol. 462, ff. 125v.-26, tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur ..., .
[NOTE 8:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 190, No. 3, ff. 64-66, Ordonnance du Roi, 31 mai 1723.
[NOTE 9:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 5, f. 27, Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville de louisbourg sous le bon plaisir du Roy..., 24 octobre 1734.
[NOTE 10:] Ibid.
[NOTE 11:] A.C. B, Vol. 63, ff. 578--78v., Arret du C. eil qui confirme les concessions faites dans la Ville de Louisbourg jusqu'au 15.8bre.1734, 5 avril 1735.
[NOTE 12:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 462, ff. 125-26v., tres humbles Representations faites a a [sic] Messieurs les Gouverneur ..., .
[NOTE 13:] A.C. B, Vol. 65, ff. 445v.-46, Maurepas à de Brouillan et Le Nommant, 16 avril 1737.
[NOTE 14:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 19, ff. 43v.-44, Brouillan et LeNormant à Maurepas, 31 octobre 1737; ibid, Vol. 20, ff. 52-59, debourville et LeNormant à Maurepas, 21 octobre 1738.
[NOTE 15:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 19, ff. 43-44, Brouillan et LeNormant à Maurepas, 31 octobre 1737; A.F.O., G2, Vol. 184, ff. 392-94, Devis des ouvrages de maconnerie charpenterie Couverture ... quil convient faire pour la Construction du Bâtimentque M. Duperrier et Rodrigue veulle faire construire..., Plan 1739-5, 1737.
[NOTE 16:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 24, ff. 4v.-5v., Duquesnel et Bigot à Maurepas, 2 janvier 1742.
[NOTE 17:] Ibid.
[NOTE 18:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 24, f. 30, Duquesnel et Bigot à Maurepas, 17 octobre 1742.
[NOTE 19:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 199 suite (No. 197), pièce 1, Papiers touchant la Succession de feu Jean Seigneur dit LaRiviere aubergiste, 19 mai 1744; Linda Hoad, Report on Lots A and B of Block-3, (unpublished), Fortress of Louisbourg, 1971.
[NOTE 20:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 200, dossier 210, f. 19v., Plumitif Pour Les causes d audiances du bailliage commencé le dix Octobre 1750 et fini le 20 aoust 1751, 30 novembre 1750. [PAGE 190:]
[NOTE 21:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 75, Prevost, Liste des familles qui ont restés a 1 Isle Royalle depuis 1745 jusqu'au mois de septembre 1748, 9 janvier 1749.
[NOTE 22:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2047 (No. 72), [untitled], Contract de mariage: Jean Baptiste Guion et Gillotte LaChapelle veuve Estevin, 4 novembre 1746; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 408, Registre I, f. 114v., Parish Records, 8 septembre 1749; ibid, f. 118, Parish Records, 11 novembre 1749.
[NOTE 23:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 407, Registre II, f. 35v., Parish Records, 26 juin 1744.
[NOTE 24:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 200, dossier 210, ff. 19-20v., Plumitif Pour Les causes d audiances du bailliage commencé..., 30 novembre 1750.
[NOTE 25:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 75, Prevost, Liste des familles qui ont restés a 1 Isle Royalle..., 9 janvier 1749.
[NOTE 26:] Ibid, Vol. 408, Registre I, f. 114v., Parish Records, 8 septembre 1749.
[NOTE 27:] Ibid, f. 114, Parish Records, 20 août 1749; A.F.O., G2, Vol. 209, No. 490, Tutelle des Enfans mineurs de Baptiste Guyon, 26 octobre 1751.
[NOTE 28:] A.F.O.,G 3, Carton 2047 (No. 72), [untitled], Contract de mariage: Jean Raptiste Guion et Gillotte ..., 4 novembre 1746; A.F.O., G1, Vol. 408, Registre I, f. 61v., Parish Records, 15 octobre 1749; ibid, Vol. 84v., Acte de Baptême.
[NOTE 29:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 211, dossier 528B, pièce 3, np. 1, [untitled] Acte de tutelle des enfants de déffunts Jodocus Koller et Catharine Marie Auger, sa femme, 24 septembre 1749.
[NOTE 30:] Ibid, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 4, npp. 3-5, [untitled] "Enquete Civille faitte ... a la Requete de Baptiste Guyon ... contre La veuve De grand Champ auger ...," 10 juin 1752.
[NOTE 31:] Ibid, Vol. 206 suite, No. 469, ff. 1-2, Continuation d audience de vendredy 5 aoust 1757, 5 aoust 1757.
[NOTE 32:] A.F.0., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), npp. 1-2, [untitled] Bail à loyer: Jean Claparede à Jacques Brunet, 1 juin 1756; ibid, Bail. Claparede a Brunet, 22 décembre 1757.
[NOTE 33:] Ibid.
[NOTE 34:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), np. 1.
[NOTE 35:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 38, f. 281v., Liste generalle des familles, ... de la colonie de l'Isle Royale debarqué a la Rochelle ..., 28 avril 1759.
[NOTE 36:] C.O. 217, Vol. 25, ff. 141-41v., Mich. Franklin. The State of the Town of Louisbourg on the 10th of August 1768, september 1768.
[NOTE 37:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), npp. 1-2, [untitled] Bail à loyer: Jean Claparede à Jacques Brunet, 1 juin 1756; ibid, Bail. Claparede a Brunet, 22 décembre 1757.
[NOTE 38:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 5, f. 27, "Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville de louisbourg ..., 24 octobre 1734.
[NOTE 39:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), npp. 1-2, [untitled] Bail à loyer: Jean Claparede à Jacques Brunet, 1 juin 1756.
[NOTE 40:] Ibid.
[NOTE 41:] Ibid.
[NOTE 42:] Ibid.
[NOTE 43:] Ibid.
[NOTE 44:] Ibid.
[NOTE 45:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), np. 2, Bail. Claparede a Brunet, 22 décembre 1757.
[NOTE 46:] Ibid, npp. 1-2, [untitled] Bail à loyer: Jean Claparede à Jacques Brunet, 1 juin 1756.
[NOTE 47:] Ibid.
[NOTE 48:] Ibid.
[NOTE 49:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 201, dossier 242, pièce 4, npp. 3-5, [untitled] "Enquete Civille faitte ..., 10 juin 1752.
[NOTE 50:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045 (No. 67), np. 1, [üntitled] Bail à loyer: Jean Claparede à Jacques Brunet, 1 juin 1756.