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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
(Fortress of Louisbourg
Report Number H D 17 R)
(A) SABATIER - CARREROT HOUSE AND PROPERTY - CHRONOLOGY (1721-68):
Antoine Sabatier owned Lot D, the property in the southwest corner of Block 2, from 1721 to 1733. The property was conceded to him on 30 April 1721 [NOTE 1], and remained vacant until at least 1724. (See Plans 1717-2 to 1724-4). In 1726 Sabatier stated that he had contributed to the establishment of the colony by building a house facing the king's magasins, undoubtedly in Lot D [NOTE 2]. A building first appears on Lot D on Plan 1725-9a, although certain inaccuracies in this otherwise reliable plan suggest that the structure had not been completed when the plan was drawn.
In December of 1733, Sabatier, by then attorney general of the superior council, sold his Block 2 property with house, garden and courtyard, to André Carrerot, garde magasin, for 6,500 livres. The property was mortgaged at the time of the sale. Sabatier had used his Block 2 property and one in Block 4 for collateral when he bought an additional property in Block 4 from the succession of Pierre Allain de la Motte. The Sabatier-Carrerot contract of sale stipulated that Sabatier would remove the lien and give a clear title to Carrerot [NOTE 3]. In fact, Sabatier had already sold the Block 4 property, which Surgere, a gardener, was renting, to Maurice Santier on 1 August 1733 for 9,000 livres [NOTE 4].
The 1721 concession granted 90 pieds on the Rue Royalle and 60 pieds on the Rue Toulouse [NOTE 5]. When sold in 1733, the property measured 90 pieds on the Rue Royalle and 56 pieds on the Rue Toulouse. Sabatier claimed that he had not received 4 pieds of the conceded boundary on the Rue Toulouse because it had been given to Benoist in Lot C [NOTE 6]. Lot D's dimensions changed again by 1734; the 1734 etat and 1735 confirmations described the property as 96 pieds on the Rue Royalle and 55 pieds on the Rue Toulouse [NOTE 7].
References to unspecified properties and unspecified members of the Carrerot family make the interpretation of many documents difficult. André Carrerot, his brother, Philippe, and their father, Pierre Carrerot, owned many properties in the town of Louisbourg and surrounding area. Several cryptic references to the rent of Carrerot houses have been found in the bordereaux. André Carrerot received 200 livres for the rent of a house in 1735 and 300 livres for the rent of a house to lodge Prevost (the écrivain principal) and the bureaux de classes et des trouppes in 1741 [NOTE 8].
It seems unlikely that Carrerot would have been renting his house on the corner of the Rue Royalle and the Rue Toulouse. His house on one of these two streets is given as his place of residence in 1735, 1736, 1737 and 1743 [NOTE 9]. A further point of consideration is the space which would have been required to accommodate his large family. Fifteen children were born to André Carrerot and his wife, Marie Joseph Cheron, between 1726 and 1746. Twelve of them probably were living with their parents at the time of the 1745 siege, three having died, and Marguerite having married Jacques Prevost in February. (See Appendix I).
The Lot D house seems to have been damaged in the siege. Girard LaCroix reported that two bombs fell "dans la maison de M. Carrerot" on 30 May 1745; other houses which seem to have been in neighbouring blocks were hit at the same time [NOTE 10]. When pleading the widow Carrerot's case for a pension in 1751, Jean-Louis de Raymond claimed that she had lost everything in the fall of Louisbourg [NOTE 11].
André Carrerot returned to Louisbourg in 1749 and was promoted to écrivain principal at the request of his son-in-law, Jacques Prevost, who had risen from écrivain principal to the position of commissaire-ordonnateur [NOTE 12]. As enumerated in 1749, Carrerot's household consisted of his wife, his sister (the widow LaSalle), a clerk (S. Ferriere), three servants (Nanette, Martin and Françoise Goupy) and seven children (Louise, Josephe, Charles, André, Renotte, Barbe and Pennou) [NOTE 13]. Carrerot was ill when he returned and died on 21 November 1749 [NOTE 14].
Prevost and de Raymond both sought a pension for Carrerot's widow, Marie Cheron, on the basis of her large family, and the heavy losses which [PAGE 88:] the Carrerots had suffered during the siege. De Raymond emphasized the fact that she was Prevost's mother-in-law - "elle est belle mere de M. Prevost à qui Je Serois aise de faire plaisir." Prevost supplemented his request with the gift of a black fox pelt, which the new minister of the Marine, Rouille, answered with a reprimand and refusal in 1750. De Raymond was more successful and gained an annual pension of 250 livres commencing 1 April 1752. The minister stated that the widow's case was exceptional, as it was not usual to grant a pension to the widow of an écrivain principal [NOTE 15].
The history of Lot D for the second French occupation (1749-58) remains largely a mystery. Carrerot may not have reoccupied the property immediately on his return from France; the list of expenses for the period between the reoccupation of the fortress and October of 1749 included 166 livres 13 sols 4 deniers for the use of S. Perriere's house to lodge "M. Carrerot Ecrivain principal [NOTE 16]. This may have been for office space, however. By September, Carrerot was living on the Rue Royalle, presumably in Lot D [NOTE 17]. Marie Cheron was elected guardian of her minor children and remained in Louisbourg until at least 1758 [NOTE 18]. No reference has been found to where she was living, beyond the fact that she was in the town. Further research into the properties owned by the extended Carrerot family and heirs may yield more information on this Block 2 property.
The house on the corner of the Rue Royalle and the Rue Toulouse was still inhabited in 1767. (See Plan 1767-1). In 1768 Franklin's report and Plan (1768-1) described it as a wooden structure, in good repair, formerly occupied by the French as a private dwelling. It should be remembered that to Franklin, "Those Houses called in Good Repair want much Expense to make them really so." No occupant is listed for the building in 1768 [NOTE 19].
(B) CARREROT HOUSE - STRUCTURAL DETAILS:
The only description of the Lot D house was given in the contract of sale in 1733:
Lequel emplacement contient Cinquante Six pieds de face Sur la Rue Toulouse,* laquelle face Est remplie par la Maison, dont [PAGE 89:] les fondemens jusqu'au premier etage Sont de Maconnerie et font une Cave ou Celier, audessus dequel est une charpente a un etage et un Revalement avec une cheminée double ... [NOTE 20].
In this case, premier étage probably means the first occupied floor or ground floor. In Louisbourg domestic architecture, a ravallement generally means an occupied room or rooms under the roof, with a knee-wall, and a deck-type ceiling on the underside of the rafters and tie beams. Thus the Lot D house seems to have been a charpente building on a masonry foundation, with one and a-half storeys and a basement.
The Carrerot house measured 56 pieds by about 22 or 25 pieds. Its dimension (E. by W.) into the block is shown on the plans to be either the same as the Lot C house, which was 22 pieds, or slightly larger; the more detailed plans tend to show the latter. (See Plans 1731-3-(l), 1734-4, N.D. 89 and N.D. 105). The 56 pieds boundary on the Rue Toulouse constituted the N. by S. dimension of the Lot D building [NOTE 21].
The masonry walls of the cellar seem to have been higher than normal house foundations, possibly the height of half a storey. Plans 1731-3-(l), 1734-4 and N.D. 105 show a flight of stairs leading to an entrance, which presumably was on the ground floor, in the south section of the east wall. The extra height of the foundation would account for the dominance of the Carrerot house over its Block 2 neighbours, as revealed by the plotting of known points on town views.
View 1731-1 is probably the most reliable view of the Lot D house. The house is seen directly behind the buildings in Lots I and K. Two dormer windows appear high on the east slope of the roof while a single window is located under the eaves in the north gable wall. A large chimney appears on the center of the ridge of the building. The chimney on the Lot K house blends with faint lines, which possibly are ground floor windows, on the north wall of the Lot D house.
The building appears on two views, 1758-9 and N.D. 76, which are generally unreliable but worthy of consideration in the absence of better evidence. View 1758-9 seems to locate the house diagonally in the southwest corner of Block 2 and shows a dormer on the west roof slope, two windows in a south gable wall, a window on the north section of the west wall, and [PAGE 90:] either one or two chimneys. The house is clearly located on N.D. 76; this plan shows the east slope of the roof and what seems to be a window on the north gable wall.
The Lot D roof seems to be on two other views. It is shown on 1745-1 at the end of the Lot A building, with the ridge having the same orientation, but at a higher elevation. On Wright's east view, 1766-1, only the ridge and a chimney are visible above the Block 1 artillery storehouse; the roof is seen to the immediate left of the hospital tower (No. 6).
A door which may have been the main entrance was located in the east wall of the house, facing the yard. Plans 1731-3-(l), 1734-4 and N.D. 105 show a flight of stairs on the south section of the east wall, while Plan 1767-1 places one of the small structures which are assumed to be storm porches in this approximate location. The absence of stairs on the Rue Toulouse, which would seem to have been necessary to reach the ground floor, suggests that there was no door in the west wall and that the main entrance was in the east wall, through the courtyard,as in the neighbouring engineer's house in Block 1.
The Lot D house would have had an unobstructed view of the Rue Royalle, Rue Toulouse and the courtyard. Benoist's buildings in Lot C would have blocked the north wall. Benoist's picket house probably affected only the ground floor and permitted a possible window under the eaves as shown on 1731-1 and N.D. 76. The second house in Lot C had two storeys and probably blocked all of the north wall.
There was one chimney with two flues (une chimnée double) on the Lot 22 D house in 1733 [NOTE 22]. One chimney appears on 1731-1 and 1766-1, while either one or two are shown on 1758-9. View 1731-1, which situates a large chimney on the center of the ridge, seems most acceptable.
Plan 1725-9a apparently was drawn before the Lot D building was completed. Usually reliable in its details for Block 2, 1725-9a differs from other town plans by showing the Lot D house to be smaller than the Lot C house, and to turn the corner and extend along the Rue Royalle. Shingles are shown on the 1725-9a version of the house.
The other plans and views agree that the roof of the Lot D house had a ridge with a north-south orientation. The north end terminated in a [PAGE 91:] straight gable. The south end seems to have terminated in a hip; Plans 1730-2, 1734-4, N.D. 24 and N.D. 105 show a hip while N.D. 89 shows a straight gable. The views help very little in determining whether the south end was a straight gable or a hip. The only south view is 1758-9 which shows a straight gable. The slope of the roof on 1731-1 indicates that if there was a south hip, it would have been very steep.
(C) CARREROT OUTBUILDINGS AND YARD:
A building on the north boundary of Lot D appears intermittently on both the French and English plans. (See Plans 1731-3-(l), 1745-24, 1746-1, 1746-4, 1746-5, 1746-6, 1746-8, 1747-1, 1748-2, 1767-1 and N.D. 89). With the exception of four English plans, the building is shown abutting the house. No specific documentary reference to the building, which probably was a magasin, has been found.
After having been granted Lot D, Sabatier cleared the property and enclosed a courtyard and garden with a picket fence [NOTE 23]. The courtyard was situated directly behind the house, with the garden at the east end of the property. As seen on 1731-3-(1), the picket fence ran along the east boundary to the Lot E building, along the north and south boundaries, and between the courtyard and garden. An opening in the center of the latter section provided access between the two parts of the yard while an opening on the south boundary, near the house, gave access to the property from the Rue Royalle. (See Plans 1731-3-(1), 1734-4, 1746-8 and N.D. 105).
The only well indicated in the private Block 2 properties is in Lot D. Plans 1731-3-(l), 1734-4 and N.D. 105 center a well on the east boundary of Lot D, at the rear of the garden. An oval-shaped feature, possibly a pond, appears in the southeast corner of the courtyard on 731-3-(l).
Plan 1767-1 shows a small feature, which looks like a well but is not labelled as such, at the rear of the north magasin. A small square, which also is not labelled, is shown on the northwest corner of the second house on the Rue Royalle.
Lot D Building On The Rue Royalle A building in the southeast corner of Lot D on the Rue Royalle first appears on the English plans. There is no evidence to indicate whether it was built before or after 1745. It is not shown on the town plans to 1734 and Lot D is not included on the plans between 1734 and 1745. As previously stated, the English plans usually stretch the E. by W. dimensions of Block 2 and are unreliable for large segments of the block. Plan 1745-17 fills-the west half of the block's south boundary with one long building while Plan 1745-24 seems to show the southeast corner of Lot D to be vacant. The first definite appearance of the second Lot D building is on the 1746 plans.
The English plans show the building on the Rue Royalle to be an extension of the Lot E structure. It is attached to and has the same width as the Lot E building. (See Plans 1746-1 to 1747-1). Plans N.D. 27 and 1768-1 show similar details, although Plan 1767-1 decreases the size of the building in Lot E.
In 1767 the building was being utilized as a house, for 1767-1 labels it "v" - "Houses at present Inhabited." Franklin described it (No. 120) in 1768 as a wooden building, in tolerable repair., occupied by the French as a private building. Tolerable was defined as "much out of repair" and no occupant was named [NOTE 24]. (See Plan 1768-1). No other documentary reference to this building has been found.
I. [PAGE 206:]
[NOTE 1:] A.F.O., G1, Vol. 466, pièce 83, f.5, Concessions, 1720-1723; A.F.O., G3, Carton 2038 suite (No. 53), np. 4, [untitled] Contract de vente: Antoine Sabatier à Andres Carrerot, 23 décembre 1733; A.C., C11B, [PAGE 207:] Vol. 15, f.26v., Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville delouisbourg sous le bon plaisir du Roy par messieurs les gouverneur Et comnissaire ordonnateur delisle Royalle jusqutau 15.8.bre.1734 et autres dont Sa Majesté a disposé par Son memoire du 31.may.1723, 24 octobre 1734.
[NOTE 2:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 8, ff. 128v.-29, Sabatier, 4 décembre 1726.
[NOTE 3:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2038 suite (No. 53), npp. 1-5, [untitled] Contract de vente: Antoine Sabatier à Andres Carrerot, 23 décembre 1733.
[NOTE 4:] Ibid, npp. 1-8, [untitled] Vente d'une maison, cour, et jardin: Antoine Sabatier à Maurice Santier, 1 août 1733.
[NOTE 5:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 83, f. 5, Concessions, 1720-1723.
[NOTE 6:] A.F.0., G3, carton 2038 suite (No. 53), npp. 1-5 passim, [untitled] Contract de vente: Antoine Sabatier à Andres Carrerot, 23 décembre 1733.
[NOTE 7:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 15, f. 26v., Etat des terrains concédé dans la ville delouisbourg ..., 24 octobre 1734; A.C. B, Vol, 63, f. 567v., Arret du C.cil qui confirme les concessions faites dans la Ville de Louisbourg Jusqu'au 15.gbre.1734, 5 avril 1735.
[NOTE 8:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 17, f. 100, Bordereau des Payements qui ont été faits Sur les 20,000" ordonnés La Present année 1735 Pour les Depenses extra-ordinnaires et Pour les achapts dans la colonie, 12 décembre 1735; ibid, Vol. 23, f. 174v., Bordereau des Payements qui ont été faittes sur les 20,000" ordonnés, La présente année mvii quarente un pour Les Dépenses Extraordinaires et Pour les achapts dans la colonie, 18 octobre 1741.
[NOTE 9:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 194, pièce 280, Bailliage de Louisbourg, 10 mai 1735; ibid, Vol. 184, f. 315, Procés Entre Led S. André Carrerot et Martin Benoit cap.ne denavire, 1737, A.F.O., G3, Carton 2047 (no. 62), [untitled] Vente de goélette, 29 mai 1743.
[NOTE 10:] A.F.O., D.F.C., No. d'ordre 217, np. 21, "Raport du nommé Girard LaCroix de ce qui S'est passé d'Interessant a Louisbourg avant Et pendant Le Siège de cette place S'Est rendue au Roy d'Angleterre par Capitulation Le 28 Juin 1745," 1745.
[NOTE 11:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 31, ff. 58-58v., Lettre de Cte de Raymond Maurepas, 4 novembre 1751.
[NOTE 12:] A.C. B, Vol. 39, p. 315, Maurepas à Prévost, 28 mars 1749; A.C., C11B, Vol. 28, ff. 134-37, Bigot à Maurepas, 16 août 1749.
[NOTE 13:] A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 466, pièce 76, np. 3, Denombrement General des familles, D officers et habitans Existans dans la colonie De lisle Royale La Presente année vll quarante neuf, 1749.
[NOTE 14:] A.C., C11B, Vol. 27, f. 305, Prevost, 20 avril 1748; A.F.O., Gl, Vol. 408, Registre I, f. 152, Parish Records, 21 novembre 1749.
[NOTE 15:] A.C. B, Vol. 91, p. 350,Ministre à Prévost, 14 juin 1750; A.C., C11B, Vol. 31, ff. 58-58v., Lettre de Cte de Raymond à Maurepas, 4 novembre 1751 ibid, Vol. 32, f. 152, Extrait de la lettre de Monseigneur à M. leCte.deRaymond, 21 juillet 1752; A.C. B, Vol. 95, p. 296 (31), Rouille à Raymond, 21 juillet 1752.
[NOTE 16:] A.C., C11C, Vol. 13, f. 61v., Bordereau des dépenses faites a l'Isle Royalle depuis la prise de possetion de Louisbourg jusques au vingt Octobre de l'année 1749, 24 octobre 1749.
[NOTE 17:] A.F.O., G2, Vol. 211, No. 522, No. 11, 30 septembre 1749.
[NOTE 18:] Ibid, Vol. 212, No. 566, ff. 1-5v., "Enfants Carrerot," 27-29 aoust 1750; A.F.O., G3, Carton 2045, No. 92, Contract de mariage entre Mathieu Dupont Duvivier de Dumaine et Barbe Blanche Carrerot, 1 avril 1758.
[NOTE 19:] C.O. 217, Vol. 25, ff. 141-41v., The State of the Town of Louisbourg on the 10th of August 1768, 26 September 1768.
[NOTE 20:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2038 suite (No. 53), np. 2, [untitled] Contract de vente: Antoine Sabatier à Andres Carrerot, 23 décembre 1733.
[NOTE 21:] Ibid; A.F.O., G2, Vol. 182 suite, pp. 1006-07, 19 décembre 1733.
[NOTE 22:] A.F.O., G3, Carton 2038 suite (No. 53), np. 4 [untitled] Contract de vente: Antoine Sabatier à Andres Carrerot, 23 décembre 1733.
[NOTE 23:] Ibid, np. 1. [NOTE 24:] C.O. 217, Vol. 25, ff. 141-41v., The State of the Town of Louisbourg on the 10th of August 1768, 26 September 1768.