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A Feasibility Study for A Public Indoor Tennis Facility

Presented By Eric Krause
Krause House Info-Research Solutions

For the Cromarty Tennis Club

Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada
April 11, 2006
January 16, 2009



Some of the recommendations below are now outdated because of later developments.
For example, we have secured a long term lease to property at the Sydney Airport Authority.

Index To The Technical Issues
(Please Click On The Topic Of Your Choice):

(A) Location (B) Land Preparation (C) The Building (D) Thermal Insulation (E) Foundation Work (F) Lighting (G) Ceiling (H) Heating and Cooling
(I) Plumbing (J) Wiring Insulation (K) Fire Suppression (L) Security and Monitoring (M) Cushioned Court Surface (N) Interior Amenities (O) Building Access (P) Landscaping
        (Q) Meeting of Standards      

(A) Location

Proposed Interior (See Bude Cornwall) []


(Closely resembles the proposed facility)

Three locations should be considered:

(i) Cromarty Tennis Club Area

Malcolm Gillis, Planning Department, Cape Breton Regional Municipality, has examined the proposed location and anticipates no problems if the site is properly sited and correctly developed.

The plan is to excavate a site as low and as cost-effective as possible in the ravine to the west northwest, opposite of, and parallel to courts two and three.

(ii) Sydney Area

The possibilities are endless, but any site must be zoned to allow for a public recreational facility of the proposed size and height, with immediate-close proximity to a publicly plowed street or highway. One option would be on CBRM property that allowed the same land leasing arrangement as with the existing Cromarty Tennis Club. To encourage high winter membership numbers, and produce relatively short winter driving distances, the site should be located in the immediate Sydney/Sydney River/Grand Lake area where the greatest population density of the CBRM exists.

(iii) CBU [Cape Breton University

CBU is presently studying the possibility of clustering a number of recreational facilities on its grounds in the interest of promoting health and wellness. By a motion of the Cromarty Tennis Club on June 27, 2006, the executive authorized Eric Krause to sit on a committee struck by CBU to examine the feasibility of this proposal. On June 30, Eric Krause met with Gordon M. MacInnis, Vice-President, Finance & Operations, who invited him to join the committee. Mr. MacInnis will also ask Donnie MacIsaac, Facilities Manager, CBU, to examine  Mr. Krause's report "A Feasibility Study for A Public Indoor Tennis Facility" to determine if such a building could be constructed on the grounds of the university. Presently, the committee is at the visionary stage and no financial commitments have been discussed.

Because the clustering will depend on the strengths of  many organizations, including non-profit societies, the "Cromarty Community Indoor Tennis Centre" will have a key role to play in the raising of funds and the making of operational commitments that will determine whether an indoor tennis facility can be feasibly constructed at CBU.

(B) Land Preparation

(i) Cromarty Tennis Club Area

Access to the work site can be by means of the existing roadway to the south southwest of the present club house. Any initial fill required for site preparation and making it flat and ready to receive a concrete slab on grade will come from excavating the side of the gully itself.

The idea here is to take the sub-grade opposite courts two and three to as low in elevation as is practical and cost effective. To the west northwest, next to the building, a raised tail will remain to maximize the brook's flood plain in keeping with the recommendation of the Planning Department, Cape Breton Regional Municipality.

In the excavation work there will be a need for drainage facilities.

By locating the building where illustrated the idea is to economize on land preparation costs by minimizing the amount of excavation (particularly rock removal) and the extent of an assumed, potentially expensive, retaining wall to the east southeast of the building.

(ii) Sydney Area

A flat site would greatly economize the initial cost of the public facility.

(iii) CBU [Cape Breton University

A flat site would greatly economize the initial cost of the public facility.

(C) The Building

In any location, the building - housing a doubles court measuring 60’x120’ or 7,200 sq. feet - must be secure from vandalism and break-ins (i.e. certainly not of fabric or wood excepting perhaps at a patrolled CBU site), permanent in nature (20-40 years), generally maintenance free, fire-proof, economical, easily accessible, and usable year-round. Without doubt, an insulated pre-engineered steel structure (kit) without windows or skylights, and with as low a pitched roof as possible (or arched roof)  would meet these requirements. At a CBU site, where security would unlikely be an issue, a bubble or a fabric frame structures (tensioned fabric) might become a possibility vis-ΰ-vis that of a pre-engineered steel structure if  their lower capital costs were to trump their problematic shortcomings in the areas of long-term permanency and fireproofing.

At this point, there are many considerations to keep in mind:

(i) Ground Footprint

A court placed in a "minimal-sized" building (outside measurements of 60’x120’ [7,200 sq. feet]) to one located in any size larger is clearly one of choice based on many factors.

Obviously capital and operational economy is the prime consideration when choosing a minimal-sized structure and, if well-planned, could be the best choice. A larger structure, though less economical, would enhance the actual playing area (e.g. more run-off space), and allow for more amenities.

Perhaps the largest footprint for consideration on the Cromarty Tennis Club site ought to be 80'x140' [11,200 sq. feet]. This footprint would allow for an additional area for judges, a safe over-run for players, washroom facilities, storage, benches, water coolers, or trash cans, for example.

(ii) Interior Height

The official recommendation for pre-engineered steel building is for 18 feet high at the eaves, 20-21 feet over the baseline and 35'-38' over the net-line. The standard for a bubble is 36 ft. high with as deep sidewalls as possible to maximize sideline clearance, vertical ball flight, bubble stability (in high wind), insulation values, energy efficiency (easier on air pressure equipment) and snow removal.

(iii) Building Types

(a) Pre-engineered rigid framed [General Building Manual: ]

The traditional pre-engineered steel "wide-span" frame chosen for many tennis facilities around the world would not be the best choice for a minimal-sized public facility [60 feet x 120 feet] since its many multiple spaced interior wall columns would not only intrude into the interior's 12' sideline but also introduce a safety concern here. In contrast, a pre-engineered steel "long-bay" structure would be better, as this type building would reduce costs [less steel], maximize interior space and safety [here wall columns are spaced 50'-60' apart allowing for the two center columns to be located opposite the net posts], and would speed up assembly [lessen labour costs].

On the other hand, a building that measured 80' wide x 140' long could be either "wide-span" or "long-bay" [See also: American Sports Builders Association], with the final purchase and assembly cost perhaps being the only determining factor in choosing between these two types of pre-engineered rigid frame structures.

One style of "wide-span" building allowing for a high ceiling is the Olympia Steel Building System [a rigid frame, plate steel, H or I beam construction]. It is a flexible building design produced from top commercial grade U.S. steel, with a 25-year "Galvalume" roof sheeting warranty and with a company experience of over 30 years of construction history. [ ]. The sides and ends of the building have a 30-year baked on paint warranty. Olympia's Factory, Steel Built Corp. is also CSA-A660 Certified :

On November 24, 2008, I received the following upon a request (60'x120' and 80'x140') which I made to Olympia Buildings:

Hello Eric,

I have attached the quote and drawings you requested. There is not 25’ clearance under the haunch of the rigid frame. The outside walls are 25’, but inside it is lower. If you need 25 and 35 feet clearance, I will have to build them a little bigger. This will still give you a good idea. More detailed drawings are going to arrive by mail. Thank you, Jack Evans

Olympia Steel Buildings 866 479-3292 Toll free office ; 905 479-8099 Local office ;866 479-3293 Toll free fax 

A similar style is produced by American Steel Structures [ without any details regarding an insulation package. It however has a 25 Year "Galvalume"sheeting Warranty.

Whether the rigid-framed building measured 60'x120' or 80'x140', an interior height of 35'-38' can be easily achieved in either the "long-bay" or "wide-span" styles.

The roof of a rigid-framed public tennis facility would ideally be low-pitched, with a ratio of 1:12 (the lowest, and most economical) perhaps being sufficient. Allowing snow to remain on the roof would enhance the insulation values of the structure, though it could obviously introduce other problems (such as threat of collapse from excessive weight or of water leakage) if of a poor design.

However, in actuality, the combination of eave height, size of building footprint, and the need to meet the required interior height dimensions for a tennis court will determine the actual pitch.

  Olympia Specifications on Two Building Sizes

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60'x120'x25 (eave) x34'10 1/8" Interior Clear Plan Frame Elevation End wall Framing Roof Framing  Sidewall Framing End wall Sheeting Sidewall Sheeting
80'x140'x26 (eave) x39'3 15/16" Interior Clear Plan Frame Elevation End wall Framing Roof Framing Sidewall Framing End Wall Sheething Sidewall Sheeting

(b) Pre-Engineered Metal Rib Arch ["Quonset"] Style

This all-steel building style features clear-span, one that maximizes interior space [e.g. Q Model], and can carry a 30-year warranty against perforation [e.g. or or ] with "galvalume" technology, will accept conventional insulation, features a remarkable ease of erection, and is stronger than I-beam buildings. Thus great savings in assembly are possible, and the building is virtually maintenance free when completed, and designed to withstand the harshest weather conditions. End walls have a 25-year paint warranty.

Because the height of such a building is limited to half the span or less, the building need be 70' wide to achieve the minimum recommended height at the centre of the court of 35'.

(c) A Bubble (Air Supported)

An air supported fabric structure is a unique building system that has a proven track record as a venue for indoor winter tennis and is composed of the following building components:

1. Fabric enclosure
2. Building anchorage system
3. Air supply system
4. Controlled means of access and egress
5. Lighting system

At least a 5-year fabrication warranty should be sought, with all seams dielectrically welded to maximize water tightness. One example would be a long wearing vinyl-coated polyester fabric (a weight of 32 oz. per square yard is recommended) so as to provide the necessary tensile and tear strength, fire resistance, adhesion and joint strength for the outer membrane.

The outer membrane (which come in a variety of colours, weights and levels of translucency [Note: opaque is highly recommended for lighting and temperature control considerations]) must be flame retardant, treated for resistance to UV, cold cracks, mildew and chemical pollutants. The warranty for the top finish must be at least in the range of 10 to 15 years.

The inner membranes, including the innermost liner [Note: multiple interior layers can provide added insulation], are made from similar but lighter fabrics (an 18 oz material is recommended) and provide improved insulating and acoustic characteristics.

As with pre-engineered structures, within the bubble there ought to be a contrasting color to a height of 10 to 12 feet to provide a backdrop which improves ball visibility from the court with the remainder above of a highly reflective white color to maximize lighting.

Both a primary and a standby mechanical system ought to be provided with each device capable of providing full inflation pressure to the bubble.

A controlled means of access and egress is a necessity to minimize air pressure loss.

A  system such as designed by the Farley Group specifically for tennis [ ] is highly recommended.

(d) Fabric Frame Structures (tensioned fabric)

These structures, combine a metal frame structure and fabric panels that are stretched to form a rigid building envelope and thus help to eliminate the concern over collapsing under heavy snow or wind loading. They have a life of 15-20 years and cost less than rigid framed buildings. See also:

Their portability, light-weight construction and minimal foundation requirements also make them an excellent choice as a temporary all-weather building where initial cost is a consideration or where short term use is anticipated.

The frame must be corrosion-resisted treated. For example, the steel frame may be coated using shot blasted and epoxy painted or may be hot dip galvanised.

Often the steel frame consists of a latticework superstructure. The building is then covered with a tensioned heavy duty PVC  white translucent roof membrane with an acrylic topcoat cladding that projects against ultra-violet rays, and it’s mildew-resistant and fire retardant.

The latest polyethylene fabric welding technology is a must.

The Rubb Building System (England) is highly recommended. See Technical Specifications (pdf file)

(D) Thermal Insulation

Proper insulation is a critical cost-saving application. A radiant barrier type rather than a traditional form works best in both a winter and summer environment. [For example, see: . See also for tennis insulation: ]

(a) Pre-engineered Steel

Modern pre-engineered buildings have developed insulation systems that cover some or all of the roof structure from below. One type fills the space between the roof deck and the bottom of the purlins with insulation, which in turn is held in place by reflective white fabric with the main beams left exposed. In another system - the better of the two - the entire faced insulation blanket is suspended beneath the bottom of the main frames, so that no roof structural steel is visible.

The Olympia steel building, for example, offers three types of insulation: a vapor-lock composite insulation which consists of polyethylene air bubble pockets sandwiched between thick layers of reflective coating; a traditional WMP-VR fiberglass insulation which comes in a range of "R" values [for example: R-7 = 2" of insulation; R-19 = 6"]; and a premium insulation system designed to fit snugly between roof purlins to remain compression-free. This premium insulation package gives a finished look to the building's ceiling while providing the roof with a high insulation value of R-40 [12 inches].

The wall insulation application will require a vapour barrier [vapour retarder] that complies with fire standards and is puncture-proof from tennis balls. Its colour must contrast with the ball to a height of approximately 12' - 14' directly behind the court, high enough so that the background colour is behind the ball on the service toss. Above these levels [that would include all structural members as well as the vapour barrier], up to the level of the ceiling, it should be of a very light matte finish of uniform colour. On the walls adjacent to the length of the court (at the ends of the building), the contrasting colours should continue to at least the baseline of the court.

The walls of the Olympia steel building can take 9 inches of insulation [R-30].

The fibre fabric over the girts of the Olympia system produces a white finish in the building on the roof and the sides.

Pre-engineered metal rib arch buildings are generally compatible with conventional insulation methods and, if purchased as a kit, the structure must be supplied ready-engineered to receive fiberglass bats.

Because this public facility will have neither windows nor skylights, thermal insulation efficiency will be increased accordingly. Furthermore, the lower the roof pitch the more the amount of snow that would remain on the roof  and the higher the building's insulation values would be.

Finally, an insulation package will also provide condensation control and prevent moisture from dripping onto the court below.

(b) Bubble (Air Supported)

Multiple interior layers provide added insulation through the trapping of air between membranes. An interior lining may also have insulation. Without such precautions, the R-Factor value would be no higher than 4.

(c) Fabric Frame Structures (tensioned fabric)

Translucent fabric allows sunlight to penetrate, which may help light and heat the building, thus reducing utility costs. The fabric does however block harmful ultraviolet rays.

Better though, the roof is able to have an insulation layer between the two layers of premium fabric, which span the inside, and outside. An inner building insulating liner that may be installed would increase the insulation to 3.1 W/m2K [UK R value measure] while also hiding the steel trusses if aesthetic requirements were important.

Profile steel cladding can be specified to the building to ensure the building is protected on non-secure sites. Likewise, the side panels are often removable making these structures ideal for summer play as this creates well-ventilated air without the sun.

(E) Foundation Work

Although the type and cost of foundation work will vary by the type of building required, both the pre-engineered rigid frame and the metal arch style can utilize the floating slab system rather than perimeter foundation walls (frost walls) at great time and labour cost savings.

In this system, the floor will consist of a floating slab (that is, a slab on grade) with a vapour barrier. It can be poured monolithically with the foundation wall, or poured after the foundation wall is in place. In both cases, the concrete slab encases steel serving as reinforcement. This steel reinforcing will reduce the cracking of the floor and help control expansion and contraction. Its thickness will be determined by its use as a tennis court.

Monolithically poured with a continuous grade beam is recommended. The grade beam can be spread under the column or reinforced along the bottom to carry the vertical column loads.

The edge of the slab on grade must be insulated (insulation skirt) to prevent thermal bridging.

Anchor bolts or foundational industrial arch connectors may or may not be included in the frame kit.

(i) Pre-Engineered Rigid Framed

The Olympia style building, for example, is a steel framed building which has point loads at column locations. Because a rigid frame structure is far more affected by horizontal rather than by vertical loads, its footings must incorporate steel tie-bars. If the expected horizontal loads are excessive, the footings may need also to be increased in size (which will increase costs).

(ii) Pre-Engineered Metal Rib Arch ["Quonset"] Style

Ease of construction is the hall-mark of this style: Pour a simple floating foundation, bolt arches together on the ground and simply raise the arches into place and secure with foundational industrial arch connectors.

(iii) Bubble (air supported)

A continuous concrete grade beam around the base of the building is a basic requirement for anchoring the structure, with an additional anchorage system called "stress relief"  strongly recommended.

(iv) Fabric Frame (tensioned fabric)

A full range of  designs are possible from earth anchors to concrete.

(F) Lighting

The goal is for lighting that is uniform and glare free.

Because outside lighting by means of windows in the wall or skylights in the roof is much more intense than indoor lighting, causes an undesirable contrast, varies in intensity, is undependable, and may cause glare, condensation and maintenance problems, none are required.

The lighting system that will be initially installed will take an energy efficient form that can easily be enhanced at a later date if desired. The idea here is to get the most light out of the least number of fixtures with 70 to 100 foot-candles being the standard for recreational play (125 deemed excellent).

"Indirect" lighting (uplighting) aimed at a reflective white surface is preferred. This would rule out the historic use of common fluorescent fixtures 13'-22' over the court surface and outside the alleys parallel with the sidelines of the court even if they were louvered and made use of three phase wiring to eliminate flickering. Ruled out too should be high intensity discharge (H.I.D.) "direct" lighting fixtures.

Metal Halide lamp fixtures have been a traditional feature of indoor tennis for a long time now, but bulb output is yellow light, it depreciates quickly, and lasts 12,000 hours. They also require a warm-up period.

At a considerable cost savings is the T5 fluorescent blue light technology [like the impact resistant Courtlite indirect lighting system] that produces excellent lighting levels without creating shadows on the ball. [ See  also: Courtlite.pdf - ]. Significantly, these lights can be dimmed or switched separately [i.e. capable of producing multiple light levels from a single fixture] to handle non-tennis functions more economically. Bulb output is a more eye friendly blue light, it depreciates slowly, and it lasts 20,000 hours. Strung anywhere from 16' to 26' above the floor and 6' beyond the sidelines, in a 60' x 120' building, lighting location could be problematic though if installed directly on the walls, with the light properly angled towards the centre of the courts ceiling, this system should produce a proper lighting level.

In any chosen lighting system, ease of re-lamping and keeping fixtures clean without any elaborate access system is essential.

In some steel buildings with exposed beams, a suspended ceiling system may be required to increase light efficiency. On the other hand, ceiling reflectance can vary from 60 to 90 percent, depending on whether there is a suspended ceiling, whether the roof steel is painted, or whether the roof steel is covered with an insulation application of highly reflective facing fabrics.

While many control devices are available, it is recommended that lights be placed on a non-cash timer to enhance their cost effectiveness while not encouraging break-ins.

(G) Ceiling

A suspended ceiling would be required in some construction types chosen for a public tennis facility. Consisting of fibreglass insulation with a highly reflective reinforced white fabric which is resistant to ball puncture, a hung ceiling would control condensation (particularly in the winter), provide a vapour barrier that would keep the courts dry and free from discolouration, protect the building's structural steel from deterioration, and improve the lighting of the court itself .

However, a ceiling would not be required in any building type designed to use something like the white Olympia insulation package. [See Thermal Insulation section]

(H) Heating and Cooling (Thermal Energy)

The heating system ought to take a basic form, given the understanding that an enhancement may be desired at a later time [see HVAC below].

(i) High-Intensity Infrared

For certain, a propane gas-fired high-intensity infrared radiant ceramic ["light"] heating system would be an excellent initial choice. Since a radiant system heats objects first and air only secondarily, infrared ceramic heating is a most efficient regime for keeping players warm. [For example - or . Locally, Superior Propane can supply a similar Canadian product (902-539-1061)]

Infrared ceramic heaters also have a very fast warm-up time, and can be switched off and on during a playing session, but must be installed only in a "non-flammable" structure.

The high-intensity type heater is better suited to well-insulated buildings with high ceilings [thus a high air volume] than their low-intensity tube heater cousin.

The ceramic units are compact, operate without noise, and can be located along the ends of courts, where they can effectively heat the public facility without the need for noisy blowers or fans. In heating an entire building, the system is designed to heat the floor, which, in turn, creates convection currents that heat the air above it, which is ideal for tennis players.

The high-intensity ceramic heater will require indirect ventilation through ceiling-mounted exhaust fans or through natural infiltration [minimum of 4.18 CFM per 1000 BTU per hour of total installed heater capacity on propane]. Incidentally, the Metal Rib Arch ["Quonset"] Style is designed to accommodate turbine vents every 20 feet to remove condensation and maximize air circulation.

Ceramic heaters may also require a reverberatory screen to increase overall emissivity of the radiant surface and also serve as a protective barrier against tennis balls.

In a minimal-sized building, which has only a 21' back space, where precisely ceramic heaters might be placed could be an issue, but their compact size and recommended minimum clearances from combustible materials would certainly facilitate matters.

(ii) HVAC

Clearly, the ideal heating system would be a HVAC (Heating/ventilating/Air-conditioning) regime that would heat and cool the building to maximize year round player comfort. An HVAC system capable of holding a building to a temperature ranging between 55 to 62 F degrees [12.7 to 16.6 degrees C] during winter, and 10 to 15 degrees below the outdoor temperature during summer, to a humidity level of 55% to 60%, while changing the air within the building 6 to 8 times per hour at minimal noise levels and without creating a draft on players would be best.

(iii) In-Floor Radiant

A third heating possibility is in-floor radiant heating. In-floor elements that heat the mass of a concrete slab has an almost immediate recovery rate. For a thick concrete slab, hydronic radiant systems are popular. Here warm water circulate through continuous circuits of polymer or synthetic-rubber tubing, with the cold water returning via a manifold back to a boiler to be reheated. The downside is that because of the thickness of the required slab in the case of the proposed public facility and the fact that this thermal mass is slow to respond to thermostat changes, the indoor temperature will need to be kept stable, even when the building is not in use. In other words, prolonged setbacks (overnight or longer) at temperatures lower than playing temperatures may not be desirable.

An option would be to lay the tubes in the matrix of the cushioned floor itself, but here the manufacture of the court surface would need to be consulted to ensure not only that this was possible (i.e. what is the thermal resistance of such a floor), but also that it would not affect the playing characteristics of the floor itself.

A hydronic radiant system would also require a mechanical room to hold all of the equipment: Boiler, pump, valves, manifold, expansion tank, etc.

(I) Plumbing

(i) Wash Room

A basic washroom amenity is recommended.

Clearly, in a minimal-sized all-year round building, a "public" washroom - meeting CBRM Building Code - might need to be in an appendage attached to, or in an outbuilding separate from, the main structure.

If it were desired not to bring water into the main building, or if a minimal-sized building was assembled, a waterless remote electric Envirolet compositing toilet that is ideal for cold temperatures, and need not be emptied all winter, might be a good choice despite its relatively high initial cost. [ ]. This system however requires the building to be above ground or with a basement.

Also, where "green" is preferred in some grants, this amenity could improve the chances of an application being approved.

(a) Cromarty Tennis Club Area

During the summer season, the washroom (and shower) facilities of the Club House are available to both programmes, but in the cold months, its plumbing system must be winterized since the building has neither furnace nor insulation. Located inside or outside the public tennis facility, a basic washroom would also be useful to the summer programme.

(J) Wiring Installation

The highest available service should be chosen to reduce wiring costs. Three phase wiring to eliminate flickering may be required if fluorescent, mercury or high sodium lighting is chosen, with each alternate fixture on a different phase. Such wiring simplifies power distribution, allows court lights to be dimmed or switched separately, and reduces the amount of wiring. Also, should a HVAC heating/cooling system ever be installed, it can be relatively small and light, a distinct advantage in a minimal sized public facility.

(K) Automatic Active Fire Suppression System

Insurance may or may not require an automatic active fire suppression system. Wet and dry pipe and mist sprinkler systems should be avoided if at all possible for all kinds of capital and operating cost reasons, and if building design features (e.g. passive fire suppression and fire proofing materials) can be introduced to ensure that one was not required, this would be best. If a system were however necessary, Halon 1301 is not an option as it is environmentally damaging.

(L) Security and Fire Monitoring; Lock and Key System

The interior of the building must be monitored by an outside security firm with an interior entry /exit security/monitoring system that records every security-on and security-off action, alerts when there is an intrusion, and detects smoke and heat. The phone line should be underground until it is inside the public facility where the main telephone junction box is located so that it cannot be tampered with on the outside.

(i) Cromarty Tennis Club Area

The system should be bundled with a similar one for the summer club house and external gates to maximize savings and maintain consistency.

The club house, external gates, and the public indoor facility should be each fitted with the same lock and key system. Although both a non-mastered lock system (restricted key-blank or "do not duplicate" system) and the master keyed lock systems are vulnerable to duplication, the stamped "restricted key" system combined with a different interior entry /exit security/monitoring system should provide adequate security. In addition - and to keep in mind - some lock manufacturers make their restricted key security service available only to one selected locksmith in an assigned area, and require on file a signature to compare to and verify against before cutting a duplicate.

(M) Court Surface - Cushioned Court

The offering here would produce a 60 foot x 120 foot doubles court dramatically unlike the four existing outside "Tru-Plex" [plexi-pave acrylic] hard courts that would appeal not only to the competitive and recreational player alike, but also to beginners and the older members. It is a fact that today a growing number of people are turning to facilities which feature more friendly court surfaces such as cushioned surface systems to minimize physical effects - i.e. reduce aches and pains - especially to ankles, knees, and hips; and keep one cooler, out of harmful sunlight, and swirling winds. Clearly if the Cromarty Tennis Club were to enter this environment with a cushioned tennis court available to the general public and an aggressive marketing strategy, its appeal to use it rather than other recreational facilities - especially in the winter - with a reasonably priced offering would be quite high.

A cushioned court choice, for example, could be a version of Novacrylic. As described in company literature:

"Ultracushion - The ultimate acrylic shock absorbing surface. Great for indoor and outdoor courts. A combination of various EPDM rubber granules encapsulated in a special super flexible 100% acrylic binder give Ultracushion the ability to provide a high level of comfort to the tennis player. This all-weather system retains the low maintenance, durable features found with all Novacrylic surfaces. Ultracushion courts play slow and the ball bounce is such that longer rallies are possible. This makes the game more pleasant for most players. Many tennis players have said that they were less fatigued and felt better after playing on an Ultracushion court than on other all-weather surfaces." [ ]

See also Plexicusion "Prestige":

In particular, any cushion system will reduce shin splint injuries, provide a sure footing that does not "stick", reduce tennis fatigue, and ensure a better workout than hard courts. And, as a bonus, tennis shoes will last longer.

(N) Interior Amenities

(i) Tennis Court Equipment

Besides a net and posts and associated hardware, little other equipment will be required.

(ii) Miscellaneous

A rigid framed building with interior wall columns will require that they be padded with shock-absorbing foam rubber at least 2 inches thick.

(O) Access to the Building

(i) Cromarty Tennis Club Area

Volunteers will need to maintain a pathway from the Cromarty Street exterior gate (accessed by key) next to the existing summer Club House, to across and down the deck to beside the south southwest end of Court Two and from there over towards Court Three and onto the entrance of the new public facility (opened with the same key as for the Cromarty Tennis Club's exterior gate and Club House).

(P) Landscaping

(i) Cromarty Tennis Club Area

Three walls of the building would form an effective exterior perimeter barrier with the fourth, the east southeast side wall, incorporated into the existing fenced-off summer area of the Cromarty Tennis Club. Here, some minor, additional security fencing will be required to prevent external access to the outdoor courts. Galvanized chain link and post fencing meeting normal industrial security would be acceptable: For example, perhaps 9 gauge 2" mesh with the top rail of 1 5/8" pipe, line post of 2 3/8" pipe, and terminal post of 2 7/8" pipe with at least a 12-year warranty is recommended. The height of the fence need deter intrusion in an area which cannot be observed from Cromarty Street.

(Q) Meeting of Standards