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The Questenbergers have a mean cephalic index of 82.4, which is low for eastern Germany, and the head size is intermediate between that of the South Germans and of those in the northwest. Compared to the southern Germans, these Saxons are very light in skin, hair, and eye color; the predominant hair color is a medium brown while the eyes are mostly pure light or light-mixed, and dark eyes are limited to about 5 per cent. The noses of the Questenbergers are as a rule high and narrow, and frequently convex. These Saxons fall as a group into the Noric racial type; brunet Dinarics are rather uncommon here, as are morphologically typical Alpines. It seems most reasonable to regard these people as the descendants of Iron Age Nordics who have been partially brachycephalized by Alpine and Dinaric admixture ...
To summarize the data on the physical anthropology of Germany it seems necessary to stress the relative absence of conventional Nordics comparable to those found in eastern Norway, in Sweden, and in England. Such Nordics may be seen almost everywhere in Germany as individuals, but nowhere as a large element in the population. The Northwest Germans represent for the most part a reëmergence of Brünn and Borreby types which have absorbed the Iron Age Nordic group almost completely, as well as the old North German Corded concentration. The southwestern Germans are the most nearly Nordic of all, but have strong Brünn and Borreby accretions. The southern Germans, from southern Baden to eastern Bavaria, are basically Alpine, with strong, often predominant, Dinaric tendencies, and a large purely brunet minority. In central Germany an intermediate condition between the North German and the South German extremes is found. In southeastern Germany, from Saxony to Silesia, while the head form is extremely brachycephalic, the pigmentation is usually light, and the head size small in comparison with the northern and western parts of the country. The racial type which is most characteristic here is the Noric, a blond Dinaric form resulting from a brachycephalization of Iron Age Nordics through direct or indirect Alpine admixture. In Silesia, to the same elements may be added a broad-faced, snub-nosed, brachycephalic strain which we have already observed among Finns and Balts, and which will be studied in further detail in Poland and Russia. The northeastern Germans are for the most part blond brachycephals, varying in type from Borreby to East Baltic, and especially the latter.
In 1815 about half of the Saxon territory was annexed by Prussia and incorporated into the Prussian provinces of Brandenburg and Silesia. For many years, Dresden was its capital of Saxony.
The province of Saxony was created in 1816 and was one of the richest regions of Prussia.
Upper Lusatia (Oberlausitz) belongs to Saxony; it consists of hilly countryside rising to the Lausitzer Bergland (Lusatian hills) near the Czech border, which rises even higher to form the Lusatian Mountains (Luické hory/Lausitzer Gebirge) in the Czech Republic.
Upper Lusatia is characterised by fertile soil and soft hills, as well as historic towns and cities such as Bautzen, Görlitz, Zittau, Löbau, Kamenz, Lubań, Bischofswerda, Hoyerswerda, Bad Muskau. A few big villages in the very south of the Upper Lusatia are a typical attraction of the region, the so-called Umgebindehäuser, half-timbered-houses as a mixture between Franconian and Slavic style. Among those villages are Wehrsdorf, Jonsdorf, Sohland an der Spree, Taubenheim, Oppach, Varnsdorf or Ebersbach.
Most of the portion belonging to Brandenburg is called Lower Lusatia (Niederlausitz), and is characterised by forests and meadows. In the course of much of the 19th and the entire 20th century, it was shaped by lignite industry and extensive open-cast mining. Important towns include Cottbus, Lübben, Lübbenau, Spremberg, Finsterwalde, Senftenberg.
Between the Upper and Lower Lusatia is a region called Grenzwall meaning something like "border-wall". This region has been damaged by the coal-industry with small and big villages destroyed. The former open-cast mines are being regenerated by creating artificial lakes under the name of Lausitzer Seenland.
Saxons, Germanic people, first mentioned by Ptolemy in about 150 AD.
Ptolemy says that the Saxons were from lower Jutland and what is now
Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. The "founding tribes" of the Sachsen may have
included the Reudigni and Aviones, mentioned by Tacitus. The theory that the
Saxons were groupings of tribes states that the subgroups of the later
Saxons were very numerous, including:
Agradingun, Angeron, Aringon, Astfalon, Bardongavenses, Derlingun, Firihsetan/Virsedi, Guddingen/Gotingi, Holtsaeten, Nordalbingi, Nordliudi, Nordsuavi, Norththuringun, Sahslingun, Scopingun, Scotelingun, Steoringun, Sturmarii/Sturmera, ThiadmThora, Waldseton, Waledungun, Wigmodia/Wihmodi, Uuestfali.
THE SAXON TRIBE
There arose in Germany during the third and fourth centuries after Christ the great tribal confederations of the Alamanni; Bavarians, Thuringians, Franks, Frisians, and Saxons, which took the place of the numerous petty tribes with their popular tribal form of government. With the exceptions of the Saxons all these confederations were ruled by kings; the Saxons were divided into a number of independent bodies under different chiefs, and in time of war they elected a duke.
The Saxons (Lat., Saxones) were originally a small tribe living on the North Sea between the Elbe and Eider Rivers in the present Holstein. Their name, derived from their weapon called Sax, a stone knife, is first mentioned by the Roman author Claudius Ptolemæus (about 130 A.D.). In the third and fourth centuries the Saxons fought their way victoriously towards the west, and their name was given to the great tribal confederation that stretched towards the west exactly to the former boundary of the Roman Empire, consequently almost to the Rhine. Only a small strip of land on the right bank of the Rhine remained to the Frankish tribe. Towards the south the Saxons pushed as far as the Harz Mountains and the Eichsfeld, and in the succeeding centuries absorbed the greater part of Thuringia. In the east their power extended at first as far as the Elbe and Saale Rivers; in the later centuries it certainly extended much farther. All the coast of the German Ocean belonged to the Saxons excepting that west of the Weser, which the Frisians retained. The history of the powerful Saxon tribe is also the history of the conversion to Christianity of that part of Germany which lies between the Rhine and the Oder, that is of almost the whole of the present Northern Germany. From the eighth century the Saxons were divided into the four sub-divisions: Westphalians, between the Rhine and Weser; the Engern or Angrians, on both sides of the Weser; the Eastphalians, between the Weser and Elbe; the Transalbingians, in the present Holstein. The only one of these names that has been preserved is Westphalians, given to the inhabitants of the Prussian Province of Westphalia ...
With an area of 18,400 sq. km. and a population of 4.6 million, Saxony (German Sachsen) is tenth largest in area but sixth in population among Germany's sixteen federal states. Created upon Germany's reunification in 1990, it occupies the approximate area of the former kingdom (1806-1918) of the same name. The capital is Dresden.
In the early Middle Ages the term "Saxony" referred to a different region, occupying today's states of Lower Saxony and Bremen and the northern (Westphalian) part of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Saxons, after whom the area was named, had migrated from the area of present-day Schleswig-Holstein during the second quarter of the 1st millennium AD. See the history section below for more details ...
Towns of Bishchofswerda, Rothenburg
Oberlausitz - Upper Lusatia [SILESIA]
Please Note that Rosswein [Roßwein] is west of Dresden; That Bischofswerda is north-east of Dresden; That Rothenburg and Lodenau are north-east of Bishofswerda
Dessau - 1910 - [North of Leipzig and in Saxony-Anhault]
[Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/baedeker_n_germany_1910/dessau_1910.jpg ]
Dresden - 1910
[Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/baedeker_n_germany_1910/dresden_1910.jpg ]
About 94% of the inhabitants of Saxony are Protestants; about 12,500 are Jews, and about 4.7%, including the royal family, are Roman Catholics. The Evangelical-Lutheran, or State, church has as its head the minister de evangelicis so long as the king is Roman Catholic; and its management is vested in the Evangelical Consistory at Dresden. Its representative assembly consisting of 35 clergymen and 42 laymen is called a synod (Synode). The Reformed Church has consistories in Dresden and Leipzig. The Roman Catholic Church has enjoyed the patronage of the reigning family since 1697, though it was only the peace of Posen in 1806 which placed it on a level with the Lutherans. By the peace of Prague, which transferred Upper Lusatia to Saxony in 1635, stipulations were made in favour of the Roman Catholics of that region, who are ecclesiastically in the jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter of St Peter at Bautzen, the dean of which has ex-officio a seat in the first chamber' of the diet. The other districts are managed by an apostolic vicar at Dresden, under the direction of the minister of public worship. Two nunneries in Lusatia are the only conventual establishments in Saxony, and no others may be founded. Among the smaller religious sects the Moravian Brethren, whose chief seat is at Herrnhut, are perhaps the most interesting. In 1868 civil rights were declared to be independent of religious confession.
[Source: http://www.worldstatesmen.org/German_States4.html ]
Lodenau/Rothenburg/Bischofswerda/Dresden - Germany