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ERIC KRAUSE REPORTS
MY HISTORICAL REPORTS
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UNITED STATES RESEARCH
November 1, 2002 - March 14, 2003 ~
East of the Mississippi
Historical Society (Newport, Rhode Island) ~
Fortress of Louisbourg Research
TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR UNITED STATES REPORTS
During the period 1 November 2002-14 March 2003 the contractor will research and provide a written report which will outline and summarize the documentation related to 18th century Louisbourg, found in four archives/libraries in the United States, in the following areas:
1. Business and Merchant History with an emphasis on American colonial construction materials shipped/used at Louisbourg (1713-1758)
2. Comparative wooden buildings history, e.g. piquet construction and charpente construction used in former French colonies that are part of the United States
3. Other topics relevant to Louisbourg that the researcher may findThe institutions that will be visited for research will include:
Krause-House Info-Research Solutions,
December 30, 2002
(Revised April 1, 2003)
NEWPORT HISTORICAL SOCIETY
2 Truro St.,
(A) The first use of the term "Boston Boards" in a non-Louisbourg document was identified.
(B) SUGGESTED MICROFILM ORDERS
The Fortress of Louisbourg should obtain on interlibrary loan the 21 reels of microfilm copies [plus the printed guide (ISBN 1-55655-803-1)] of the George P. Wetmore Collection of 18th-century Newport commercial documents which the contractor will later examine in detail at no charge so as to make a determination which reels the Fortress ought to purchase (the reels are commercially available from www.lexis-nexis.com/cispubs). Although the reels were present at the Newport Historical Society, the institution’s single microfilm reader not only was then unavailable to the contractor, but also was deemed impractical given the scope of the collection on film, and the time required to examine the readily available microfilm on ILL at the expense of other on-site research.
However, as indicated below, the contractor was able to examine some printed matter that included parts of this collection (see Printed Manuscripts: Commerce of Rhode Island) that proves its worth. Thus, certainty, significant portions of Part I of the microfilm series (e.g. the Colonial Newport Customs House Letters; The Shipping Papers (1740-1790), the Ships Accounts (1754-1764), and the George Wetmore Collection of Newport Commercial Documents), and Part II of the collection (the Aaron Lopez Collection) will produce some interesting research results.
(C) SUGGESTED PHOTOCOPY ORDERS
(I) The Printed Manuscript Section suggests the following orders:
(i) See Printed Manuscripts: John Russell Bartlett, editor, Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in New England. Volume V, 1741-1756 (Providence: Knowles Anthony & Co., 1860). Note: the copy at the Newport Historical Society is in poor condition and the order should be placed elsewhere. Best would be if a microfilm copy (if available) could be obtained.
(ii) Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, In Two Volumes The Correspondence of The Colonial Governors Of Rhode Island, 1723-1775, Volume 1 (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1902); Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, In Two Volumes The Correspondence of The Colonial Governors Of Rhode Island, 1723-1775, Volume I1 (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1903). Best would be if a microfilm copy (if available) could be obtained.
(II) The Newport Historical Society Card Catalogue Section suggests the following orders:
(i) See the described 5 items which Louisbourg apparently does not hold in any reproduced format. It might be also useful to ask in your written request to the Society to reproduce all manuscript items on Louisbourg of which they may be readily aware outside of their catalogue listing since Louisbourg currently has only one item (the Sloop Tartar). Incidently, the Society holds a least one period object from this ship.
(2) RESEARCH FINDINGS
(A) PRINTED MANUSCRIPTS
(I) Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Seventh Series, Volume X, Commerce of Rhode Island, 1726-1800, Volume I, 1726-1774. (Boston: Published by the Society MDCCCCIV)
(i) Prefactory Note: "The letters and papers printed in these volumes formed a part of the commercial correspondence of four generations of a Newport mercantile house ... The earlier letters were of the Redwood family, originally of Antigua, but later of Newport. The house of Ayrault of Newport entered about the middle of the eighteenth century, as also that of Lopez. To the second half of the century, the firms of Lopez and Champlin contribute the larger part." [pp.v-vi]
(ii) Note: Halifax references: pp. 65 (Henry Lloyd), 150, 194.
(iii) Some building materials are described.
(iv) Some Selections from Commerce of Rhode Island, Volume I, 1726-1774:
(a) Rowland Frye to Abraham Redwood, London, 30 July 1731
[p. 24] "There are 1 M of Bricks more than you order’d but as you did not mention what sort they were to be, I first shipped Grey Stocks. 1 I was afterwards informed that the Coins should be of Red Bricks, and have therefore sent 1 M of them. I hope it will be no loss to you as the Charge of them is not very great ..."
" 1The English brick in 1724 was 9 inches in length, 4 1/4 inches in breadth, and 2 1/4 inches in thickness. London Gazette."
(b) Robert King to Stephen Aycault ... Perth Amboy, May 11th, 1745
[p. 52] "Dear Cuzen Stephen,
We are heartily concern’d to finde that we are not likely to be favoured with Cuzen Susannah’s Company untill that she changes her minde of apprehention of danger. [space] hope you’l send a line on your hereing from the f[orce] on the Expedition. 3 ..."
"... 3 Against Louisbourg."
(c) John Williams to Christopher Champlin, Maidstone 1 at Halifax, 5th September, 1765.
"1 The name of a king’s vessel."
[pp. 120-122] " Dear Sir,
CAPTAIN ALLEN of one of the King’s Schooners sailing for Boston this evening gives me an oppertunity to acquaint you of our save arrival at this place on Sunday last. after a tedious but pleasant passage of twelve days.
The Squirrel has been gone from hence about a Month ago for Louisbourg and Canso, and is expected to return again in about three weeks time ...
The report we heard at Rhoad Island just before we sailed of Captain Smith’s Lady being drown’d is not true, for she is at present with him at Canso ..."
(d) Henry Cruger, Jr. to Aaron Lopez, Bristol, 1st March, 1766
[p. 148] Apparent attachment to the letter:
"When you send any more Plank let the Quality be as follows 2 and 1/2 Inch Plank, full sawed and square edged; 2 Inch Ditto, all the length above 20 feet, and 12 Inches wide.
White Oak, - Red Oak don’t answer ..."
(e) Henry Cruger, Jr. to Aaron Lopez, Bristol, 9th April, 1766
[p. 151] " A small Quality of proper sized White Oak Plank square Edge’d may sell, see my last Letter, tho Sir, it is not an object worth your Notice, a little by way of filling up now and then will do, but at present the Carpenters are all glutted with it ... "
(f) Jeremiah Osborne to Aaron Lopez, Bristoll, June 24, 1766
[p. 160, footnote 1] "Here is a Brigt. from Falmouth loaded with Lumber [space] her Plank are 2 and 2 1/2 and some 1 1/4 youl take notice it is established at London and practised here no Plank or Bords of any Thickness whatsoever Receives any Bounty for what is above 10 Inches wide; so that the Cargo of the Brig will loose half her Bounty, as her Lumber mostly is from 14 to 20 Inches Broad which is a thing in the Opinion of Every one unreasonable. But such is the Determination of the Customs. [space] for your Regulation: your Long Plank from 26 to 36, 2, 2 1/2 and 3 is much more valuable than that of 10 and 15 feet Long: as plenty of this comes from Norway. [space] But the other sort is scarce, and fetches 6d per foot 3 Inch and in proportion."
(g) Henry Cruger, Jr. to Aaron Lopez, Bristol, 28th July, 1766.
[p. 164] "I suppose, Sir, you are impatient to know how stand your several Adventures in my hands; it is with pleasure I inform you every thing is sold ..."
[p. 167] Apparent attachment to the letter:
"NB. Proper Sizes for all kinds of Boards
2 Inch ten to 20 ft. long, ten to 12 Inches broad
2 1/2 Do. .... Do. ....
1 1/2 Do. ... Do. ..."
(h) Henry Cruger, Jr. to Aaron Lopez, Bristol, 20th February, 1767.
[p. 186] " The Pine Plank looks very well, but still remains the great Deficiency of squaring the Edges; this will depreciate them some Shillings per Ct ..."
(i) Henry Cruger, Jr. to Aaron Lopez
[p. 193] "Dear Sir,
By this conveyance of your Ship America, go duplicates of my last Respects to you.
none of the Pine Plank would pass for 2 1/2 inches, was oblig’d therefore to mingle all together and sell them for 2 inches only. [space] this have done at 18/ per 100 feet. [space] 2 1/2 inches would have sold for 3 or 4/ per Ct. higher. [space] pray attend to the inclosed hints touching Plank; they will prove of advantages ..."
(j) Abraham Pereira Mendes to Aaron Lopez, Kingston, 28th September, 1767
[p. 204] "Common Board £ 5 to £ 5.10; Pine Do. £ 7 to £ 8 ..."
(k) Benjamin Wright to Aaron Lopez and Co, Savanna Lamarr, Jamaica, 2d January, 1768
[p. 217] "Gentlemen
This serves to advise and acquaint you of my safe arrival. I made this Island in Nineteen days ... I have disposed of all my Dry Fish except about 20 hhds ... My Shad am selling at 18/9 per bll., Sup. flour 35/, Tarr at 25/, Philadelphia Staves at 12 £ per M, Rh’d Isl’d Staves at 9 £ per M, Egg harbour Shingles at 40/ M, Boston Boards f’m 6 to 7 £ M. All the Ports on the North Side are glutted with Northern Goods. I can’t give any encouragement to send any more Vessels to this Island this Year ..."
(l) Ben Wright to Aaron Lopez, Savanna la mar, January, 1769
[p. 260] "... the pine boards receiv’d from Capt. Andrews sold at £ 10 per M, the Boston boards at £ 8 per M ..."
(II) Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Seventh Series, Volume X, Commerce of Rhode Island, 1726-1800, Volume II, 1775-1800. (Boston: Published by the Society MDCCCCXV)
(i) Prefactory Note: "The mercantile correspondence belonging to Hon. George Peabody Wetmore, selected documents from which have formed volumes LXIX and LXX of the printed COLLECTIONS of this society [the Massachusetts Historical Society], comprised more than three thousand pieces. Other known portions of the same records, located in the Newport Historical Society and in private collections of manuscripts, would bring the total to about four thousand five hundred pieces. It is believed that what has been printed is sufficient to indicate the character of the papers and their value for the study of colonial commerce in one of the most important of the trading ports of New England." [p. v]
(ii) Note: Halifax references: p. 47.
(iii) Some building materials are described.
(iv) Some Selections from Commerce of Rhode Island, Volume II, 1775-1800:
(a) DeBauque Brothers to Christopher Champlin, Dunkirk, 5 October, 1786.
[p. 290, Apparent attachment to the letter]
["... sundry articles the produce of America ..."]
"2000 feet of three inch Oak plank for doubling the Ship under her Wales
20 thousand inch pine boards half eastern and half Other kinds ...
10000 feet of best white oak plank from 2 1/2 to three inches ..."
(b) Joseph Lawrence to Christopher Champlin, Providence, August 19th 1788
[p. 386] " Sir,
I HAVE been apply’d to by one of the Committee for Building a Meeting house in Franklin (State of Massachusetts) ... for 10 Boxes of 8 by 10 Window Glass, and Painters Colours sufficient to paint the same for which he offers to pay in good merchantable Flaxseed at the going price when he receives the Glass which he wants in September [space] if you have the Glass and Painters Colours and the pay will suit please to let me know by the boats ..."
(III) Hough Charles Merrill, Reports of Cases in the Vice Admiralty of the Province of New York and In the Court of the Admiralty of the State of New York 1715-1788. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1925.)
(i) Reports of Cases in the Vice-Admiralty of the Province of New York
(a) James Troy et al. Vs Snow Halifax Packet
[pp. 188-189] "The Halifax Packet (or Nova Scotia Packet) as she is called by all the witnesses) was originally The Polly, built and owned by Troy of Dublin, Ireland. On Dec. 25, 1757, while on a voyage from Philadelphia to Dublin she was captured by a French privateer, taken to Louisbourg and condemned. As a French vessel she was (semble) in 1758 captured by H.M.S. Terrible, taken to Halifax, condemned and sold to one Franklin of that place, who in turn sold to Ball of the same city ..."
(b) John Wentworth Qui Tam vs William Dean; Same vs William Dean Junr; same vs Willard Dean
Our Lord the king vs three white Pine trees, April, 1769
In the County of Cumberland in the Province of New York, white pine trees, of a diameter of more than 24 inches at a point three feet from the ground, and thus fit as masts for the Royal Navy were cut contrary to the Statutes:
[p. 230] "... that none of the said [white pine] Trees were Cut Nearer than Twelve Inches to the Ground if so near and none of them so high as three feet from the Ground. That he the Depondent was Present when the Diameter of the stumps or Blocks of the said Trees remaining on the Ground were Measured and also the length of three of them. That two of the said Stumps were forty two Inches in Diameter One forty Inches and None under Twenty four Inches Diameter ..."
(IV) Henry R, Stiles, M.D., The History of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut, including East Windsor, South Windsor, and Ellington, Prior to 1768, The Date of Their Separation from the Old Town, And Windsor, Bloomfield and Windsor Locks, To the Present Time. Also the Genealogies and Genealogical Notes of Those Families Which Settled Within The Limits of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut, Prior to 1800. (New York: Charles B. Norton, 1859).
(i) [pp. 333-334] "Windsor contributed many of her best citizens to this [Louisbourg] enterprise, but it is impossible to ascertain the names of all.
ALEXANDER (afterwards Dr.) WOLCOTT accompanied the Connecticut troops as surgeon’s mate
Capt. DAVID ELLSWORTH (E.W.)
JOHN WARHAM STRONG, was a first lieutenant in service.
JAMES EGGLESTON, Jr. (Wby), was impressed into the service.
EZRA LOOMIS (Wby) died at Louisbourg aged about 24 years, Dec. 18, 1745,
THOMAS BARBER (Wby) died at Louisbourg, aged about 24 years, 1745.
STEPHEN GILLET (Wby) died at Louisbourg aged about 34 years, Feb. 1746.
CALEB CASE (Wby) died at Louisbourg, aged about 34 years, May 10, 1746.
JAMES BARNETT (Wby) died at Louisourg, aged about 22 years, April 24, 1746.
JEREMY ALFORD (who lived on Cook’s Hill) distinguished himself by his bravery at Louisbourg ..."
(V) John Russell Bartlett, editor, Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in New England. Volume V, 1741-1756 (Providence: Knowles Anthony & Co., 1860).
(i) The Louisbourg Archives holds hand-transcribed index cards of this volume. The contractor will need to examine these cards at first hand to see if they touch upon the following pages which deal with Louisbourg according to the index to this volume: pp. 74, 117, 124, 127, 133-151, 154-155, 157-158, 161-162, 201, 229. However, three points need to be made:
(a) There are more period references to Louisbourg in the text than indicated by the index.
(b) In principle, the Fortress should attempt to obtain a microfilm or photocopy of any source which reproduces 18th century manuscripts that contain numerous period references to Louisbourg.
(c) The book did not contain building material details of use to the Louisbourg reconstruction.
(VI) John Russell Bartlett, editor, Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in New England. Volume VI, 1757 to 1769 (Providence: Knowles Anthony & Co., 1861)
(i) The Louisbourg Archives holds hand-transcribed index cards of this volume. The contractor will need to examine these cards at first hand to see if they touch upon the following pages which deal with Louisbourg according to the index to this volume: p. 208.
(VII) Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, In Two Volumes The Correspondence of The Colonial Governors Of Rhode Island, 1723-1775, Volume 1 (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1902); Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, In Two Volumes The Correspondence of The Colonial Governors Of Rhode Island, 1723-1775, Volume I1 (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1903). The Louisbourg Archives/Library does not hold this work in any format. Three points:
(i) There are numerous period references to Louisbourg.
(ii) In principle, the Fortress should attempt to obtain a microfilm or photocopy of any source which reproduces 18th century manuscripts that contain numerous period references to Louisbourg.
(iii) The book did not contain building material details of use to the Louisbourg reconstruction
(B) THE NEWPORT HISTORICAL SOCIETY CARD CATALOGUE
(I) Louisbourg (Vernon Papers) French and Indian War
- Sept.1745, Oct. 1745
- (Vault A, Box 115, Folder 5)
- Letter from Wn.[sic] Vernon to brother from Louisbourg describing conditions at the Garrison. Letter from Wm. Winslow to Wm. Vernon with Capt. Daniel Fones. Bill of exchange Oct. 31, 1745. Also Bill of exchange for wages paid men on Tartar.
- Louisbourg, Aug. 30, 1745
- William Williams on years half pay as Enseign of American Reg.
- (Box 63, Folder 8)
- arrival of miners to destroy the fortification
- Boston June 1760 letter from Stephen Greenleaf
- Masons Enlarged Edition Reminiscences of Newport
- (Box 2, pg. 71A, # 1241B)
- Boston July 27, 1761
- letter of Stephen Greenleaf - fitting out of transports for Louisbourg
- Masons Enlarged Reminiscences of Newport
- (Box 3, p. 152 A, # 1241C)
- also letter Jan 11, 1755, (p. 179A)
- Letter June 16, 1745 from Annapolis Fort
- Mason’s Enlarged Reminiscences
- (Vol. 3. p. 180A, # 1241C)