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(Samuel Sparrow: ?; Halifax, Nova Scotia: c. 1774; Sydney, Nova Scotia: 
c. 1785-1786 to 1788; London, England, 1788; 
Charleston, South Carolina, d. c. 1799-1803)


Sydney 1784 - 1820 

 From Robert J. Morgan, Orphan Outpost: Cape Breton Colony, 1784-1820 (Ottawa, University of Ottawa Ph.D. Thesis, June 1972), pp. 275-286.


I Primary Sources

(a) Contemporary Books:

Anonymous. Description of the Island of Cape Breton In North America; including A Brief and Accurate Account of Its Constitution Laws and Government. London: T. Taylor, 1818.

--------- The Importance of Cape Breton Considered, In a Letter To A Member of Parliament. From an Inhabitant of New-England. London: Dodsley, 1746.

--------- The Importance of Cape Breton Demonstrated and Exemplified By Extracts from the best Writers, French and English who have treated of that Colony. London: Brindley, 1746.

Bollan, William. The Importance and Advantage of Cape Breton truly stated and impartially considered. London: J. and P. Knopton, 1746.

DesBarres, Joseph Frederick Wallet. Letters to Lord ... On A Caveat against Emigration to America, 1804.

Smith, William. A Caveat against emigration to America with the state of the island of Cape Breton from the year 1784 to the present year; and suggestions for the benefit of British settlements in North America. London: Bentham and Warde, 1803.

Swayne, Hugh. A Sketch of the Etat Major, or General staff Of an army field, as applicable to the British service; illustrated by the practice in other countries. London: Edmund Lloyd, 1810.

(b) Published Documents:

Campbell, George G., ed. Ensign Prentices's Narrative A Castaway On Cape Breton. Toronto: Ryerson, 1968.

Harvey, D.C., ed. Census Rolls of Cape Breton. In Holland' Description of Cape Breton Island and Other Documents. Appendix A, P.A.N.S., 1935. Originals in P.A.N.S., volume 333.

-------- Holland's Description of Cape Breton Island and other Documents. P.A.N.S., 1935.

(c) Official Documents:

Archives des Colonies. Department de la France d'outre-mer, Gl, volumes 466, 467.

---------- C11B, volumes 32, 33, 34, 36.

Audit Office 3. Bundle 140. Cape Breton Accounts, 1763 1789.

Audit Office 12. Volumes 19, 90, 100, 109. Accounts of Abraham Cuyler.

Audit Office 13. Bundles 54, 64, 109. Accounts of Abraham Cuyler; Bundles 13, 70, 95 part 2, Accounts of Jonathan Jones.

Cape Breton A. Dispatches and enclosures from the lieutenant-governors administrators and other public officers of Cape Breton, 1784-1820. This is a composite series transcribed from the various sources in Great Britain as indicated in the 1895 Report of the Public Archives.

Breton B. Executive Council of Cape Breton, Minutes, 1785-1807. A composite series transcribed from the Board of Trade and Colonial Office correspondence. Calendar available at P.A.C., Xavier College.

Colonial Office 217. Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, Original Correspondence, 1603-1867. Dispatches and enclosures from lieutenant-governors. Calendared in Report of P.A.C., 1895.

Colonial Office 218. Cape Breton Entry Books, 1710-1867, Bundles 12-15. Copies of out-going interdepartmental letters, representations, reports, commissions, and instructions from officers of the Board of Trade and Secretary of State. Bundle 16 is a precis of the correspondence between John Despard and the Colonial Office. P.R.O.

Colonial office 219. Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Acts, 1749-1899. Volumes 1-5, 8-21 contain acts of the Cape Breton Council. 1785-1809, and Nova Scotia 1749-1899.

Colonial Office 220. Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Sessional Papers, 1767- 1869. Volume 15 contains Cape Breton manuscripts . 1785 1796, 1807-1817.

Colonial Office 221. Numbers 34, 35. Cape Breton Shipping Returns, 1785,1808; Nova Scotia miscellaneous 1730-1866, vol. 35, Cape Breton Shipping Returns, 1785-1815; Statistical Blue Books, Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, 1821-1866.

Colonial Office 323. Volume 37, page 12. Law Officer's Report on Absconding Debtors in Cape Breton, 1801. Volume 176. Correspondence William Knox, 1804.

Colonial Office 324. Bundle 67, part 1, pages 1-51. Precis of Correspondence between Nicholas Nepean, Hugh Swayne and the Colonial Office. Available at P.R.O.

Colonial Office 325. Returns of Colonial appointments, terms of appointments of colonial officials in Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Cape Breton, 1809-1817.

Customs and Plantations Papers. Volumes 6219-6221, 6223-6224, 6571, 6572.

Home Office 102. Volume 18. List of Scottish Immigrants to Nova Scotia, 1801-1802.

Manuscript Group 11, C 1, I. Ordinances of Cape Breton. 1790-1803. Calendared in Report of P.A.C., pp. 41-42.

---------- Supplementary 1; Miscellaneous, Number 11. Division of  Nova Scotia into two separate governments, 1784.

---------- Supplementary I, Number 14. Instructions to the Governors of Cape Breton, 1784-18l6.

---------- Supplementary I. Miscellaneous Lumber 19. Expenditures on tools, implements of husbandry and building materials, 19 November 1784-13 October 1787.

Minutes of Legislative Council of Nova Scotia, P.A.N.S.

Nova Scotia A. Dispatches and enclosures from the governors, administrators, lieutenant-governors,", and other public officers of Nova Scotia, 1603-1840. These are composite series transcribed from the various sources in Great Britain as indicated in the 1895 Report of the Public Archives.

Privy Council 2. Volume 129, pp. 163-164. M.G. 11, Supplementary 11, November 11.

Public Archives of Nova Scotia. Papers Relating to Cape Breton 1784-1820. Volumes 315-340, Box 7; Land Grants (finding aid available).

Record Group 8, "C" series. Military Dispatches. Numerous volumes contain references to Cape Breton. Series 2. Commissioner's Report on North American Provinces, vol. 6.

Richmond County, Cape Breton. Book A. Register of Deeds of lands and other instruments regarding lands in Richmond County, 1821-1822. P.A.N.S.

Treasury Board 27. (M.G. 12, Vol. 35) Thomas Steele to J.F.W. DesBarres, 21 December 1785.

Treasury Board 28/2, 3, 17. Officers in Cape Breton, 1785, (pages 120 121). Also appropriations for Cape Breton. 1785-1793, pages 128 et seq., Volume 3, pages 10 et seq. Copies of Commission, letters patent and warrants, 1761-1823. Volume 17, page 3. Cape Breton Barracks, 1803.

Treasury Board 64. Volume 91. Cape Breton Establishment 1809.

Trinity House. Registry of Ships, 1818-1820.

War Office I. Volume I. Military Appointments, 1758. Volume 3. J.F.W. DesBarres concerning the settlement of Cape Breton, 1785, and his statement of services.

(d) Private Papers:

Ainslie, Robert. Letter regarding the reduction of the expense of running the government schooner, 1818. M.G. 24, A49.

Amherst Geoffry. Papers. M.G. 18, L4.

Anonymous. Letter written by a soldier newly arrived from England, 5 August 1789. M.G. 23, J 11.

Bentick, Henry Cavendish, Duke of Portland. Papers. University of Nottingham.

Booth, William. Journal on a Tour of Cape Breton July and August, 1785. P.A.N.S.

Brown, Andrew. Letters and Papers gathered about 1791 for a history of Nova Scotia., M.G. 21, E5.

Cruikshank, E.A. Papers. M.G. 30, D 32.

DesBarres, Joseph F.W. Papers. M.G. 23, F 1.

Dodd, Archibald Charles. Papers. P.A.N.S.

Goulburn, Henry,. Papers. Surrey Record Office.

Haldimand, Frederick. Papers. M.G. 21, G 2.

Holland, Samuel. Description of Cape Breton Island. P.A.N.S.

Inglis, Charles. Papers. M.G. 23, C 6.

Kavanagh, Lawrence. Account Books, 1817-1824. P.A.N.S.

Kent, Edward Augustus. Letter of an unknown correspondent regarding fortifications in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Cape Breton, 1802. M.G. 24, C 3.

McEachern, Aeneas. Letter regarding the annexation of Cape Breton to Nova Scotia, 14 November 1823. M.G. 24, J 7.

Macarmick, William. Papers. M.G. 23, F2. 4

Nugent, Patrick Roney. A list of his real and personal estates, 15 December 1797. P.A.N.S.

Plessis, Joseph Octave. Journal de Deux Voyages apostaliques dans le Golfe Saint-Laurent et les Provinces d'en bas en 1811 et 1812. Copy at Xavier College Archives.

------- Journal of the Third Visit of Joseph Octave Plessis to the Maritimes, 1815. M.G. 24, j4.

Prenties, S.N. Narrative containing an account of his voyage on the Saint Lawrence which was wrecked off Cape Breton 1782 . M.G. 23, J6.

Providence, H. M. S. Account of convicts off Main-a-Dieu, 11 December 1788. P.A.N.S.

Robin, Charles. Journal of several voyages from Jersey to North America 1767, 1774. P.A.N.S.

Robin, Jones and Whitman. Papers, 1790-1951. M.G. 28, ill, 8.

Saint George's Church, Sydney, N.S. Church Register. M.G. 9, B8. vol. 28.

Smyth, Peter. Account Books. P.A.N.S.

Society, For the Propagation of the Gospel In Foreign Parts. Papers. M4.G. 17, Bl.

Swayne, Hugh. Papers. M.G. 24, A5.

Townsend, Thomas, Lord Sydney. Papers. M.G. 23, A5.

Ward, Charles R. Letters opposing Cape Breton's Annexation to Nova Scotia, 1823-1838. M.G. 9, B4.

Windham, William. Papers. B.M. Additional Manuscripts, 37890.

(e) Diaries, Reminiscences:

Jeffery, Reginald W., ed. A Selection From The Journal of William Dyott. Sometime General In the British Army and Aide-de-Camp To His Majesty King George III. London: Archibald Constable, 1907.

O'Brian, Cornelius D., ed. Memoirs of the Rt. Honourable Edmund Burke Bishop of Zion First Vicar Apostolic of Nova Scotia. Ottawa: Thoburn, 1894

Johnstone, Caroline B. Memories. Sydney Mines, 1931.

Perkins, Simeon. Diary. M.G. 23, Cl.

(f) Newspapers:

Acadian Recorder, 1813-1820i

Halifax Morning Chronicle, January 1814.

Montreal Gazette, 22 November 1913, 18 February 1918, 20 August 1942.

Nova Scotia Gazette and The Weekly Chronicle, 1784-1801.

Royal Gazette (Halifax), 1789-18oo.

Toronto Mail and Empire, 23 August 1934.

(g) Maps:

Plan of Spanish and Indian Bay in the Island of Cape Breton, 1758. H3/240.

South East Coast of Cape Breton, 1781. By Joseph F.W. DesBarres. X.C., 224.

Chart of the North East coast of Cape Breton Island from St. Ann Bay to Cape Morien, 1781. By Joseph F.W. DesBarres. X.C., 226.

Chart of the Harbour of Louisbourg in the Island of Cape Breton, 1781. By Joseph F.W. DesBarres. X.C., 227.

Plan of Town and Environs of Sydney in the Island of Cape Breton. By Joseph F.W. DesBarres, 1785. Vl/240.

A Plan of the Town of Sydney in the Island. of Cape Breton, 1786. Vl/240.

Plan of the Church Property in Sydney , 8 January 1787. By Alexander Haire. H3/240.

A plan showing land grants and the Church of England in Sydney, 1787. By John Storey and Alexander Haire. H3/240.

Plan of  Sydney River, 1788. H3/240.

Plan of the Isthmus and Harbour of St. Peters in the Island of Cape Breton, 1788. H3/204.

A plan of the Island of Cape Breton divided into counties, 1789. H3/201.

Plan of the Island of Cape Breton and its dependencies, 1790. H3/201.

Plan of the Town of Sydney and its environs, 1792. X.C. 219.

A plan of the two branches of Spanish River, with the Town of Sydney, and settlements adjacent, 1792. H3/240.

Cape Breton, 1794. By James Miller. H3/201.

Map of part of the Town of Sydney showing the military grounds and the buildings thereon, 1794. H3/240.

A Plan of Spanish River Island of Cape Breton, 1794. By John Storey. H3/240.

Plan of Sidney the capital of the Island of Cape Breton. Humbly presented to his Grace the Duke of Portland, 10 July 1795. By James Miller, H3/240.

Coal mines in Spanish River in Cape Breton, 1795. H3/240.

Coal Mines, Sydney, 1797. H3/240.

A New Chart of the Coast of Nova Scotia with the South Coast of New Brunswick; Including also Part of the Islands of St. John and Cape Breton; and the coast of New England. Regulated and Ascertained by Astronomical Observation, 1798. V13/200.

A Survey of Spanish River or Sydney Harbour, 1798. By Thomas Backhouse, Vl/240.

Map of Cape Breton, 1813. By Major General Hugh Swayne. Vl/201.

II Secondary Sources

(a) Books and Theses:

Arsenault, Bona. Histoire et Geneologie Des Acadiens. 2 tomes. Quebec: Le Conseil de la Vie francaise en Amerique, c. 1965.

Bourinot, John George. Historical and Description Account of the Island of Cape Breton and Its Memorials of the French Regime, with Bibliographical, Historical and Critical Notes. Montreal, 1892.

Brown, Richard W. A History of the Island of Cape Breton. London: Sampson Low, 1869.-

---------- The Coal Fields and Coal Trade of the Island of Cape Breton. Stellarton: Maritime Mining Record Office, 1899.

Burt, A.L. The Old Province of Quebec. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1933.

Campbell, George G. The History of Nova Scotia. Toronto: Ryerson, 1948.

Campbell, Duncan. Nova Scotia In Its Historical Mercantile and Industrial Relations. Montreal: John Lovell, 1873.

Chiasson, Anselme. Cheticamp Histoire et Traditions Acadiennes. 2nd ed. Moncton: Editions des Aboiteaux, 1962.

Clark, Andrew Hall. Acadia, The Geography of Early Nova Scotia to 1760. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.

---------- Three Centuries and the Island. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1959.

Courtney, W.M. The Parliamentary History of Cornwall, 1889.

Cuthbertson, Brian Craig Uniacke. The Old Attorney General Richard John Uniacke, 1758-1830. M.A. Thesis, Dalhousie, 1970.

Darry, J, William Pitt. London: B.T. Batsford,, 1962.

Dennis, Clara. Cape Breton Over. Toronto: Ryerson, 1942.

Doull, John. Sketches of Attorney-Generals of Nova Scotia, 1713-1963. Halifax. Canadian Bible Society, 1964.

Downey, Fairfield. Louisbourg: Key To A Continent. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1965.

Dunn, Charles W. Highland Settler: a Portrait of the Scottish Gael in Nova Scotia. University of Toronto Press, 1953.

Easterbrook, William T. and H.J. Aitkin. Canadian Economic History. Toronto: MacMillan, 1956.

Evans, Gerald N.D. Uncommon Obdurate: The Several Public Careers of J.F.W. DesBarres. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.

Ferguson, C. Bruce, ed. Uniacke's Sketches of Cape Breton and Other Papers Relating to Cape Breton Island. Halifax: Public Archives of Nova Scotia, 1958.

Flick, A.C. Loyalism in New York During the American Revolution. New York: Columbia Press, 1901.

Gow, John M. Cape Breton Illustrated Historical, Picturesque, and Descriptive. Toronto, 18 .

Gutsell, John L. British Military Policy and Cappe Breton, 1763-1784. M.A. thesis, Carleton University.

Guttrige, G.W. Colonial Policy of William III in America and the West Indies. Hamden: Anchor Books, 1965.

Hart, John F. History of Northeast Margaree, c. 1963.

Harlow, Vincent T. The Founding of the Second British Empire 1763-1793. vol. 2. London: 1952.

Hotblack, Kate. Chathan's Colonial Policy. London: Ruthledge, 1917.

Jeffries, Sir Charles. The Colonial Office. London: Allen and Unwin, 1956

Johnson, C.G. North-East Margaree. n.d.

Johnstone, Angus Anthony. A History of the Catholic Church in Nova Scotia, vol, 1. Antigonish: St. Francis Xavier University Press, 1960.

Kimble, T. Our American Weather. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1961.

Kincaid, Barbara. Scottish Immigration to Cape Breton, 1758-1838. M.A. Thesis, Dalhousie,

Le Jeune, R.P.L. Dictionnaire General Du Canada. Université d'Ottawa, 1931.

Labaree, L.N. Royal Governement in America A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783. New York: Ungar, 1930.

Lauvriere, Einile. La Tragedie dun Peuple. Paris, 1922.

Lawrence-Archer, J.H. The British Army, its Regimental Records. London: Bell, 1888.

MacDougall, John L. History of Inverness_County Nova Scotia. 1922.

McGregor, J. Historical and Descriptive Sketches of the Maritime Colonies of British America. London; Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1828.

MacKenzie, Archibald J. History of Christmas Island Parish, 1926.

MacKinnon, J.G. Old Sydney. Sydney: MacKinnon, 1918.

McLeod, Robert Randall. The History Natural Resources and Native Beauties of Markland or Nova Scotia. Markland Publishing, 1903.

MacNutt, William S. The Atlantic Provinces, The Emergence of a Colonial Society, 1713-1859. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968.

---------- New Brunswick A History: 1784-1867. Toronto: MacMillan, 1963.

MacRae, Carol Joan. Baddeck Bridge Now end Then, 1963.

Manning, Helen T. British Colonial Government After the American Revolution 1782-1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, c. 1933.

---------- The Revolt of French Canada. Toronto: MacMillan, 1962.

Martin, Robert Montgomery. History of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, the Sable Islands, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the Bermudas, Newfoundland, etc. London: Whittaker, 1837.

Murdock, Beamish. A History of Nova Scotia or Acadie. Halifax: James Barnes, 1866.

Ouellette, Fernand. Histoire Economique Et Sociale Du Quebec, 1760-1850. Montreal: Fides, 1966.

Parker, John P. Cape Breton Ships and Men. Toronto: G.J. McLend, 1967.

Peer-Treach, M.V. Short History of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment. Aldershot: Gale and Phalden, 1922.

Piers, Harry. Evolution of the Halifax Fortress, 1749-1928. Halifax: P.A.N.S., 1947.

Russell, Henry H. Cape Breton Island, the land and the people. Ph.D. thesis, Worcester, Massachussetts, 1926.

Sabine, L. Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. Boston: Little Brown, 1864.

Smith, P. History of Port Hood and Port Hood Island, with the genealogy of the Smith Family 1610-1967. Port Hood, 1967.

Stephen, Sir Leslie and Sir Sydney Lee, eds. The Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1922.

Watson, S. The Reign of George III, 1760-1816. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.

Webster, John Clarence. The Life of Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres. Shediac, 1933.

Vernon, C.W. The Founder of Sydney, a paper prepared for the Nova Scotia Historical Society, 9 April 1907.

Young, Douglas M. The Colonial Office in the Early Nineteenth Century. Toronto: Longmans, 1961,

(b) Articles in Perodicals:

Archibald, Mrs. Charles, "Early Scottish Settlers in Cape Breton". Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. XXXII (1959)

Gilroy, Marion. "The Partition of Nova Scotia, 1784". Canadian Historical Review, XIV, December 1933, 375-392.

Gentleman's Magazin, October, 1829.

Harvey, D.C. "Scottish Immigration to Cape Breton". Dalhousie Review, XXI,  1941-1942, 315-324.

---------- "Uniacke's Memorandum to Windham, 1806". Canadian Historical Review. XVII (1), 1936, 41-58.

Livesay, J. "Cape Breton the Tenth Province". Toronto Saturday Night, 5 November, 1927, 5.

MacDonald, Colin S. "Early Highland emigration to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island from 1770-1853". Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, XXIII, 41.

Morgan, Robert J. "Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres and the Founding of Cape Breton Colony", Revue de l'Université d'Ottawa, XXXIX.

"The Reverend Ranna Cossit". The Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society. vol. 3, September, 1962.

Saunders, A.C. '"Charles Robin, Pioneer of the Gaspé Fisheries", Societe Jersiase Bulletin Annuel, 1929.

Smith, Archdeacon. "The First Seventy Years of Saint George's Parish". The Cape Breton Breton Historical Society, 1932.

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