FORTRESS OF LOUISBOURG
HISTORICAL TECHNICAL NOTES SERIES
A Work in Progress (1977 ‑ present)
(Krause House Info Research Solutions)
(A) Primary Evidence
(B) Secondary Evidence
According to Naudin:
Devis des Ouvrages de ... à faire aux Arsenaux, Cazernes, Corps de garde, & autres Bastimens concernant les Fortifications ... 
Les petites portes, dépuis 2. pieds 1/2 jusqu'à 4. pieds 1/2 de large, seront de planches de bon bois de chêne, d'un pouce 1/2 d'épaisseur bien rabotté, colé, goujoné, & emboëstez haut & bas. Celles de dehors auront des croix saint André par derriere, cloüées sur les planches: chaque porte payée au prix de la piece ... 
Chaque petite porte sera garnie de deux pentures de deux pieds de long chaucune avec un clou rivé au colet, deux verrous sur platine, une serrure à double tour, avec sa gache & un loquet, le tout limé proprement: & sera payé la fermeture de chaque porte à la piece ... 
La peinture de toutes les portes & croisées dudit Arcenal sera faite d'huile de noix, avec jaune ou rouge, de deux couches tant en dehors au'en dedans, qui sera payée á la toise quarrée pour chacune face ... 
. .. laver la façade de sa maison rue Guillaume en couleur de pierre en détachent d'une couleur plus foncée les portes et croisées de ladite façade ... [elle s'oppose ... badigeonnent leur façade en] bleu cru et rouge ...[la ville impose la] couleur de pierre] ...
Paroisse du Frène Camilly
In the construction of the Presbytère, the following paint was used:
Lesdittes croisées seront peintes en blanc à huille de deux couches; les contrevents seront peints en couleur d'olive par les deux cottés à deux couches; la porte d'entrée de la maison et celle de la cuisine allant au jardin sera peinte comme cy dessus; en dehors la porte de la cave et écurie avec les petits vanteaux des croisées qui seront peintes comme cy dessus ....
La seconde et petite porte d'entrée de la cour seront peinte en dehors et en dedans à deux couches à l'huile couleur d'olive ...
Pour les vanteaux de la grande porte d'entrée de la cour tous ferrés ... la peinture ...
Pour les vanteaux de la petite porte d'entrée ferrés et peints ...
Pour les vanteaux de la porte de l'écurie et cave ainsy que les vanteaux de la petite croisée et de la lucarne, le tout ferré et peint ...
Pour les vanteaux de la porte de la maison avec son gasonneau dessus le tout ferré et peint ...
Pour la porte de la cuisine allant au jardin, toute ferrée avec son gason, et peinture ...
Pour le vantail de la porte de la cour au jardin, avec sa ferrure et peinture ...
Pour les grandes croisées de la maison au nombre de huit avec leurs contrevents, ferrures, peinture et vitrage ...
Pour les trois petits vanteaux des croisées des cabinets, avec leurs contrevents, ferrures et peinture et vitrage ...
Devis et détail estimatif des aouvrages ...
Les croisées en menuiserie ... portes en menuiserie ... Sera fait ... feuilles de contrevent .... ferrés chacun ... Peints de deux couches de peinture à l'huille ainsi que toutes les croisées et portes extérieures de couleur à volonté ...
Devis et détail estimatif des ouvrages ...
Les planchers dont est ci‑devant parlé seront faits en pierre à plastre crépis en terre par dessus les soliveaux et recontrés en plastre par dessous et blanchis, le tout de deux couches de blanc à la colle, c'est à dire les sommiers et soliveaux de chaque plancher, sera fait pareillement .... 
Les entrevous de tous les planchers seront enduits en plâtre de bonne qualité et lorsqu'ils seront bien secs, on mettra sur tous les dits planchers trois couches de bon blanc à la colle.
Devis et détail estimatif des ouvrages ...
Peinture ... Toutes les portes, contrevents et croisées seront empreints sur les deux faces de trois couches à l'huile bien conditionnée ...
Cave ou celier ... La porte, les volots de la croisée et de la lucarne seront de chêne de quinze lignes d'épaisseur barrées à queue, le tout garni de ferrures nécessaires bien conditionnées et les dites fermetures empreintes de trois couches de peinture à l'huile ...
Murs de clôture ... Cette grande porte fermera au moyen d'un fléau en fer, crampons, tourillon, branche, moraillon et serrure à bosse; on pratiquera dans l'un des dits ventails une petite porte ou guichet ... garnis de ses pentures, gonds, une forte serrure en bois ... et une clanche à poignée, le tout peint trois couches d'impression d'huille.
According to Monroy:
On fait encore des couvertures en bardeaux ou de petites douves de tonneaux en chêne, que l'on coupe de douze pouces de longueur sur cinq & six pouces de largeur, toujours en oeuvre; fixer le pureau au tiers de sa longueur aminci, du côté des clous ou recouvrement, attaché de deux clous chaque sur même lattis que l'ardoise, pour le plus solidee, ou sur volice. Il faut qu'elles soient peintes en grosse couleur à l'huile ou autre couleur pour les garantir de la chaleur & des pluies. Il est même nécessaire de les faire peindre tous les deux ans. Cette couverture se fait & se toise comme la tuile & l'ardoise, & se paie à proportion du prix des matériaux ... pour la volice [i.e. lattis] ... pour les plâtres ... Clous ... pour la volice ... Ces sortes de couvertures ne se sont sur les maisons qu'à défaut de la tuile, & se sont cependant pour les moulins à vent, étant plus légeres, ainsi que sur les bateaux des moulins à eau ... La peinture sur ces sortes de couvertures ... à une ou deux couches ... 
According to Wood, in noting home improvements over the years, declared:
About the Year 1727, the Boards of the Dining Room and other Floors were made of a Brown colour, with Scot and Small Beer, to hide the Dirt, as well as their Imperfections; and if the walls of any of the Rooms were covered with Wainscott, it was with such as was mean, and never Painted; the Chimney Pieces, Hearths and Slabbs were all of Free Stone, and they were daily cleaned with a particular White‑Wash, which, by paying Tribute to everthing that touched it, soon made the brown Floors like the Starry Firmament; the doors were slight and thin, and the best locks had only Iron Coverings Varbnished ... As the new Building advanced, Carpets were introduced to cover the Floors though laid with the finest clean Deals, or Dutch Oak Boards; the Rooms were all Wainscoted and painted in a costly hansome Manner; Marble Slabs and even Chimney Pieces became common; the Doors in general were not only made thick and substantial, but had the best kind of Brass Locks put on them ...
According to Rouquet: [Check the original in French]
The London shops ... Everthing is rubb'd clean and neat; everything is enclosed in large glass show cases, whose frames, as well as all the wainscot in the shop are generally fresh painted ... The signs to their houses are very large, well‑painted, and richly gilt, but the costly iron work they hang by is so clumsy and heavy that their weight seems to threaten the thin brick wall to which they are fastened ... And yet they are not satisfied with all this decoration of merchandises, with these show cases, with these paintings and gaudy signs. Within these few years the custom has been introduced of dressing the front of the shop, especially the mercers, with some order of architecture. The columns, the pilaster, the freeze, the cornice, every part in fine preserves its proportion, and bears as great a resemblance to the gate of a little temple as a warehouse. These shops they make as deep as possibly they can; the further end is generally lighted from above ... 
According to Kenyon, who was moving into a house:
The entrance is a broad lobby well lighted by a window over the door, and a staircase window. It is wainscot, painted white as far as the arch turned at the bottom of the staircase. On the lefthand is a sweet, pretty parlour, stuccoed and painted white ‑ marble chimney‑piece and hearth; two windows, and at the lower end of the room, two pillars ...On the side, where the door opens, which is a long way from the window ... Between the windows ... The back room has only one window, which looks into a flagged court, twelve of my steps long and six steps broad, but quite entire, and not overlooked by any window but our own, a marble chimney piece and hearth, a stove grate, the same to the parlour is wainscot, painted white ... a little closet, dark shelved conveniently .... The room behind that is white wainscot, has two windows, is as large as the little drawing room ... There is a fireplace with a marble chimney piece; but that and all the back rooms are common fireplaces. Behind that is the backstaircase, and beyond that a butler's pantry .... So much for that floor. The front staircase is a very good one, with a neat mahogany rail to the top of the house ... in the passage ... the landing ... The dining room is twenty one feet and a half long, and seventeen feet wide, has a marble chimney piece and hearth, a handsome steel grate etc., it is to be papared ... The paper is to be a blue, small patterned flock ... The back room ... [has] ... blue flock wallpaper ... will not that be a nice breakfast room? ... In the little room behind that, which is wainscoted and painted white ... then comes my little store‑room, which is about as large as half the drawing room, has two rows of shelves ... Through this closet is the water‑closet, very convenient and sweet; it is over the stable ... Up the next storey is our lodging room, over the dining room. It is hung with a green flock paper ... window ... The back room is wainscoted, and is to have my bed from Chambers in. A maid's room behind that, and over my my own store room, another pretty closet ... and a light, large cupboard or small closet through it. The two back garrets have servant's beds in. The front is a landing. All the garrets have flat roofs, and are in every respect as good rooms as those below.
NORTH AMERICA - FRENCH
(A) KING'S STOREHOUSE ACCOUNTS
The inventories of the King's Magasin are important to an understanding of the consumption of construction materials in that these items were procured to meet specific military and government needs. In particular, their consumption did not generally reflect the activities of the various fortification contractors (1719 ‑ 1758) in meeting their obligations. On the other hand, the Storehouse did sell inventoried items, from time to time, for one reason or another.
Whitewash, which necessarily must be created the same day it is to be used) would not have, of course, appeared, either consumed or on hand, in the large number of King's Magasin Stores lists which have fortuitously survived to this day. More surprisingly, perhaps, are the few colour pigments which the lists do record, and which might have been available for use as a paint pigment or colouring agent.
Spanish white (whiting) is available from 1714 onwards, red and yellow ochre perhaps become available, no earlier than 1719 but certainly before 1724. Lamp‑black does not surface until 1733, or, most surprising, white lead not until 1742. The lists also record the arrival of linseed oil sometime after 1719, but before 1724, with nut oil being first recorded on hand in 1733
In addition, these inventories also recorded the procurement of various other colour pigments which clearly, because of their small quantities, or by statement, were required for other than building trade purposes. Into the small category fell vermilion, assorted greens, and indigo (all for stationary use) or, when in large quantities, vermilion again, but this time for trade with the Micmacs.
Far more surprising was the fact that the Storehouse was, apparently, not procuring whiting (Blanc d'Espagne, as well as Craye Blanche as ordered in 1750) or glue as the base and sizing for distemper paint. As subsequent lists progressively suggested, its general lack of use (with some notable exceptions), even while more was being imported, pointed to another need. In 1716, at Port Dauphin, for instance, the list noted 31 1/2 livres of whiting as consumed without using any of 12 livres of glue procured that year.
In 1719, the Governor and Commissaire‑Ordonnateur placed a King's Storehouse order which, for the first time ‑ no doubt, because of the newly awarded contract with Isabeau, Louisbourg's first Fortification Contractor ‑ rather than being a charge against the fortification funds, was a charge against a food and munitions fund. Of interest, under the section, merchandises and munitions for the storehouses, the two Louisbourg authorities did not place an order for any building paint products.
In an account of 1724, it was stated that 26 livres of whiting had been consumed, in part, by the carpenter and wet coopers. Later, in the 1750's, the authorities again made their intention clear: they were reserving whiting for the wet cooperage trade (tonnelier). Likewise, they wanted glue for the gluing of gun‑stocks.
In one instance, in 1733, lamp‑black, whiting and nut oil, along with carriages for example, were related, specifically, to artillery use, while the inventory placed the on‑hand red ochre under the more diverse heading of munitions (which in 1736 becomes munitions and merchandise) Since linseed oil, yellow ochre, and white lead were not on‑hand or procured in 1733, and hence not inventoried, it is not clear where the inventory would have placed them that year in the accounts. However, in 1757, a commodity order clearly designated both lamp‑black ground in oil and linseed oil for the needs of the Artillery and School of Cannoneers along with brushes for painting the carriages. Similarly, the same 1757 account identified white lead ground in oil, red ochre ground in oil, linseed oil, paint brushes, and whitewash brushes, for the more general service or needs of the Louisbourg and Isle Royale.
According to the controller, the practice in 1739 was to tar the carriages, ‑ perhaps in the fall ‑ but, according to experience, the tar barely lasted until the following spring. Indeed, tarring seems to have been the practice since at least 1733, by order of the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur. At the time, Le Normant felt that the tar held fairly well. The decision to tar, and its continued practice at least into the 1740's, is interesting when compared against the inventoried amounts of paint supplies in the Stores accounts, both before, during, and after the decision.
(B) SOURCES: FORTIFICATION CONTRACTOR
Until 1742, no one, including the Fortification Contractor had been directed to paint (other than to whitewash certain) military and government assets. However, in the fall of 1739, Louisbourg's civilian controller, Sabatier, began to lobby for une adjudication pour peinturer of all exposed, exterior wood [belonging to the King], In particular, ‑ besides doors, shutters, military gates, guard houses and sentry boxes ‑ , the controller stressed the need to paint the gun carriages and even the iron cannons themselves (both of which the King's Storehouse inventoried each year).
(C) KING'S STOREHOUSE: PROCUREMENT AND CONSUMPTION CHRONOLOGY
On August 1, 1724, for the first time, the King's Storehouse inventoried 159 livres of linseed oil and 209 livres of yellow and red ochre (only 131 livres according to another source: 45 livres of red ochre and 86 livres of yellow ochre) as on‑hand, and received sometime since 1719. In addition, another 33 livres of linseed oil had leaked away and 206 livres of the red and yellow ochre had gone missing since 1719.
Between August 1, 1724 and September 31, 1725, the King's Storehouse consumed not a pound of the on‑hand and a newly procured amount of linseed oil (it, however, sold 10 livres), nor any of the on‑hand red or yellow ochre. As a result, while the red and yellow ochre quantities remained the same as one year earlier, the white lead had increased to 227 livres by October 1, 1725.
Perhaps then it was not surprising, then, that for 1726, the local authorities did not include paint products in a proposed order for, among other things, munitions for the colony. On the other hand, they would order such building materials as glass panes and nails, it did not include any paint products.
By year's end, 1730, all three materials in the inventory of 1724 had been entirely exhausted. By inventory end 1731, these painting supplies had not been replenished.
In 1732, a newly procured (25 livres) store of linseed oil was entirely consumed by year's end without the consumption of any of a newly procured (50 livres) batch of red ochre (or of any other pigment as none were available in stores that year). More understandable was the year 1733, (given that there was no linseed oil either on hand or procured) the on‑hand red ochre, as well as a newly procured (57 livres) quantity of nut oil, remained unconsumed. Then in 1734, some nut oil, some red ochre, but perhaps, as none may have been procured that year, neither linseed oil nor white lead, was either sold or consumed.
The surprise of 1735 was not that the order of 1734 apparently went unfilled (at least in the quantities submitted), nor that the on‑hand (45 livres of) red ochre went unconsumed, but that newly procured quantities of white lead (18 livres) and vert de grec (4 1/2 livres of verdigris) were entirely consumed (along with a substantial (37 1/2 livres) quantity of the on‑hand nut oil), even though there was no linseed oil in stores that year. The year 1736 was even stranger, however, for despite the fact that linseed oil (and white lead) was still unavailable, a (20 livre) quantity of the on‑hand red ochre and a complete (3 livres) inventory of a newly procured amount of verdigris was consumed without any resort to the (21 1/2 livres of) on‑hand nut oil.
However, in 1737, just about the opposite occurred when all the on‑hand nut oil was consumed while none of the (25 livres of) on‑hand red ochre was touched (neither white lead nor linseed oil was available). Then, in 1738, a large (303 livres) locally procured quantity of linseed oil was entirely consumed, but, as was the case in 1732, there wasn't any consumption of the on‑hand red ochre, or of any other pigment (they, like white lead, not on‑hand) other than an equally enormous (202 livres) amount of whiting ‑ and, incidentally, a small quantity of glue. Completing the decade in an understandable fashion, the entire stock of 1739 on‑hand red ochre remained unconsumed (when neither linseed oil, nor nut oil, or white lead were either on‑hand nor newly procured).
Although the Storehouse lists of 1740 and 1741 are, unfortunately, incomplete, certain procurement (but not consumption) facts for this period nevertheless emerge. For example, while the storehouse began the 1740 season with only 25 livres of red ochre on hand, between then and the end of the 1741 season, it received substantial quantities of white lead, linseed oil, red ochre ground in oil, and a black pigment, ground in oil (noir broyé a l'huille. Also received between the beginning of 1740 and the end of 1741 was an amount of litharge dor.
The ground‑in‑oil black pigment contrasted significantly with the small amounts of the generally unconsumed, likely powdered, lamp‑black (noir de fumée) which the Storehouse had been inventorying since 1733 (for artillery use). In the case of the white lead and linseed oil, at least a part was purchased in August of 1741 from a local inhabitant. The cost to the storehouse was 275 livres (note: not weight).
Consequently, the King's Storehouse began the 1742 season with the following paints and amounts on‑hand: white lead ‑ 472 livres; linseed oil ‑ 155 livres; red ochre ground in oil ‑ 29 livres; black ground in oil ‑ 109 livres (as well as powdered lamp‑black ‑ 9 ounces); and litharge dor ‑ 8 livres.
In 1742, the storehouse consumed a substantial (239 livres) quantity of the on‑hand white lead, a lesser (173 livres) of the on‑hand and newly procured quantity of linseed oil, the entire (6 livres) quantity of powdered yellow ochre bought locally, all the bottled verdigris (4 vials), an insignificant (1/2 livre) quantity of the ground‑in‑oil black pigment, the entire 2 1/2 bottles of turpentine spirits (first time indicated in the Stores Lists), bought locally that year, and all of an insignificant amount of powdered lamp‑black. In contrast, the King's Magasin consumed none of on‑hand litharge dor, nor any of the on‑hand and newly procured red ochre ground in oil.
Although, in 1742, the Storehouse did not receive any new supplies of white lead, it did procure not only significant amounts of ground‑in‑oil red ochre (900 livres) and but also linseed oil as well (1216 livres).
As a result, the Storehouse began the 1743 season with a relatively good store of paint on‑hand. For example: white lead ‑ 179 livres; linseed oil ‑ 1198 livres; a black pigment ground in oil ‑ 108 1/2 livres; red ochre ground in oil ‑ 929 livres; litharge dor ‑ 8 livres. Not available for the season, unlike in some others, were powdered yellow ochre, powdered lamp‑black, nut oil, spirits of turpentine, or verdigris.
Unfortunately, the Stores list for the 1743 and 1744 seasons were incomplete. However, on November 21, 1743, Bigot, the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur, complained to Maurepas, in France, about the cargo which the King's ship, the Gironde, had delivered into the King's Storehouse. Not only were the food items of a poor quality, but the oil which Louisbourg had ordered for painting the gun carriages had all leaked away in transit. Finally, in March of 1744, the Storehouse paid Cournoyer, a local supplier, 60 livres 12 sols for linseed oil and white lead.
The 1749 King's Magasin inventory revealed that a small amount of Linseed oil (1 pot) and a green pigment ground in oil (1 livre), on hand as of July 23, had been entirely consumed by year's end. While the account revealed no ground‑in‑oil red ochre at inventory beginning, it did indicate a significant (124 livre) local purchase but no consumption during the year. 10 livres of ordinary vermilion went for the use of the Micmacs.
During 1750, for the King's Storehouse, significant quantities of white lead ground in oil (425 livres) as well as in cakes (76 livres), yellow ochre ground in oil (571 1/2 livres) as well as red ochre in powdered form (452 livres), lamp‑black ground in oil (noir de fumée broyé a l'huile ‑ 713 livres), linseed oil (1365 livres 4 ounces), nut oil (560 livres), and paint brushes (24), and an enormous (600 livres) amount of whiting were also procured (the source whether France, Canada, or local is unknown), but consumption amounts, if any, are unknown. In contrast, an unspecified (at the least, 12 livre,) amount of red ochre ground in oil was consumed, but it was impossible to determine if any additional supplies had been procured or consumed. During the same period, a small (1 livre 7 ounce) amount of [powdered] lamp black was also procured.
The Stores Lists of 1751 indicate that despite a substantial consumption that year of both the ground‑in‑oil white‑lead (118 livres) and red ochre (40 livres of a 112 livres on‑hand quantity), as well as of powdered red ochre (209 livres), linseed oil (712 livres), and paint brushes (10), in each case, these levels were less than the amounts inventoried as being on‑hand at year's end (due, in part, to new procurement in the case of the white lead (218 livres), linseed oil (568 livres), and powdered red ochre (200 livres)). Small consumptions of nut oil (12 livres), of ground‑in‑oil lamp black (18 livres), of ground‑in‑oil yellow ochre (2 livres), and the absence of any consumption, at all, of white lead, in cakes, or of the whiting (50 livres more was even procured), also ensured that there would be a large quantity of these items on‑hand for the next year. In contrast, entirely exhausted went the entire inventory of 24 livres of bleu d'azure, newly procured that year. Finally, only a small amount of a small quantity of [powdered] lamp‑black went consumed.
In 1752, the last year for which a complete King's Magasin balance sheet has been found, 911 livres of imported linseed oil was added to the 1221 livres 4 ounce quantity on‑hand, but only 60 livres was consumed and 4 livres was sold. Similarly, of 548 livres of nut oil on hand, only 12 livres was consumed.
Likewise in 1752, of the 204 livres of imported ground‑in‑oil white‑lead added to the 525 livres on‑hand, only 91 livres was consumed and 4 livres was sold. Similarly, of 67 livres of white‑lead in cakes on hand, only 6 was consumed.
Also in 1752, of the 569 1/2 livres of yellow ochre ground‑in‑oil, and of the 443 livres of powdered red ochre, only 12 1/2 and 13 livres, respectively, were consumed. In contrast, of the 567 livres of imported red ochre ground‑in‑oil added to the 72 livres on hand, none was consumed.
Finally in that year, while none of a small quantity of a [powdered] lamp‑black or of the 650 livre quantity of on‑hand whiting was consumed, 1/2 livre of a local purchase of cendre bleue was entirely consumed as were 6 of 14 on‑hand paint brushes.
(D) PAINTING AND WHITEWASHING: CHRONOLOGY
From the summer of 1713 until the awarding of a contract in 1719 to a Fortification Contractor for the building of the King's Bastion and its Barracks, local personnel undertook the military and government constructions of Isle Royale. At this time, the crown turned over to him all previously stock‑piled materials.
Between 1713 and 1725, the known historical record detailed numerous actual and proposed constructions, including the building types known as piquet, piece‑sur‑piece, charpente and masonry. None alluded to either painting or whitewashing, despite the fact that some descriptions were particularly illuminating on other building components (doors, windows, partitions, etc.). Until 1726 as well, the Fortification Contractor had been working without any monetary allowance for the rendering applications of crepis or enduit for the finishing off of rough rubblestone walls (mur en moelons le parement brut).
In 1726, a proposed agreement with the contractor, supplementary to that of 1725 then in force, included allowances for 3 types of lime mortar [exterior] re‑pointing renderings. For some time now, the contractor had been pointing and repairing, i.e., repenting, masonry joints even though his contract did not identify payment for this work. In addition, the Contractor wanted an allowance for the use of gypsum plaster, as well as, for the first time, payment for whitewashing (3 coats thick) at the rate of 50 sols per square toise.
In October of 1727, the Fortification Contractor and the Crown finally reached an understanding on an agreement supplementary to the general one of 1725. In it, the Contractor agreed to charge back only 15 sols for every square toise of 2 coats of whitewash, in a good white colour (un lait de chaux bien blanche). The charge‑back clearly applied to mortar finishes, both interior and exterior, and not to wooden materials, whose final finish, other than planing, the supplement entirely ignored:
si l'on blanchir les superficies des murs aux Endroits qui seront Indiquez ce blanchissage sera de deux couches de Laittance de chaux vive, Enteinte du Jour qu'on s'est servira ou tout au plus de la Veille, mais avant de la pratiquer sur les murs, on bouchera Trous, et lon Enduira les parties dégradées, ce qui sera payé a la Toise quarrée tant plein que vuide.
General and supplementary agreements, such as these with the Fortification Contractor, while not often referring directly to any specific project, could, particularly when they were supplemental, be associated with the developmental stage of a certain project then under‑way. For example, in 1725,plans had been afoot to enduit (render) the rough (brut) walls of the soldier's rooms in the King's Bastion. The idea was then to finish them off, at least as early as 1727, with whitewash.
In the spring of 1730, the Fortification Contractor and the Crown signed a new contract, to replace the 1727 agreement, for the continuation of the work on the fortifications. In it, they agreed to continue with the same 15 sols whitewashing charge, without reference to any other paint charges. Apparently, this was to be a 6 year agreement.
The first recorded reference to oil painting, as opposed to the mention of ingredients only, occurred in September of 1730, when the Engineer Verrier issued a construction contract for a proposed Lighthouse. In it, he directed the Fortification Contractor to install oak sashes set in dormant frames, with les dts. chassis avec jette d'eau par le bas et arrestée sur les dormants avec vis et escrous de cuivre peintes of an unspecified colour, twice in oil. 
Interestingly, the fact that paint was not a charge in the 1730 general agreement with the Fortification Contractor, may explain the reason why it was not until 1731, during construction, that the Engineer was able to determined that the contractor could charge 20 sols per pound (livres) of paint. However, at both times, he neglected to include a payment for a drying oil, like linseed for example.
Sometime in 1730, construction on the Lieutenant‑General of the Admiralty's palatial, masonry residence and office complex was begun. However, the Fortification Contractor was not involved as he was, in say, the building of Verrier's "magnificent" Engineer's House, work on which (1731‑1732) ended even as that on Admiral LeVasseur's house continued. Also, unlike Verrier, LeVasseur accounts would indicate a payment (100 livres in 1731 for painting (la peinture), as well as for some nut oil. 
In the same year, he also engaged Charles Yves Duval, a joiner by profession, who subsequently died in 1733 while still in his employ. Among his paint effects, most of which he had ordered from France, there included quantities of white lead (15 livres), linseed oil (perhaps 2 small barrels), and powdered yellow (14 livres) and red ochre (13 livres), were green (6 livres), blue (6 livres of bleu d1azur), lamp‑black (1 barrel of noir de fumée) and red lead (6 livres) pigments (as well as a small amount of unspecified colours). The inventory also mentioned the drying agent, litharge (4 1/2 livres). Interestingly, in 1733, LeVasseur appears to have bought Duval's pigments and oils, from his estate.
Duval's estate would suggest that LeVasseur may have persuaded Duvalto come from France to work on his house. Also, Duval appears to have imported a certain grouping of paints from France, again with perhaps the LeVasseur house directly in mind. For example (the prices shown are what Duval paid in France without attached freight charges to Isle Royale):
(1) 12 livres of white lead: 6 sols 6 deniers per pound;
(2) 12 livres of red ochre: 2 sols 6 deniers per pound;
(3) 6 livres of yellow ochre: 2 sols 6 deniers per pound;
(4) 6 livres of azure blue: 21 sols 0 deniers per pound;
(5) 6 livres of red lead: 6 sols 6 deniers per pound;
(6) 2 livres of litharge: 3 sols 0 deniers per pound;
(7) 1 small barrel (11 pots
and pintes) of linseed
oil (without the barrel) Approx. 23 sols 9 deniers per pot
(8) 1 small barrel 32 sols 6 deniers [Check if this is the correct figure]
In 1733, Verrier detailed the construction of 1/2 timber (charpente) buildings on Isle St. Jean (PEI) and rubblestone masonry buildings at Port Toulouse (St. Peters). In both cases, he directed the whitewashing of their interior mortar wall renderings (enduits), but not likely the exterior enduits of the Isle St. Jean buildings. of interest, in both cases, the whitewash cost was not isolated, but rather included as part of the rendering cost itself.
By 1734, the Salle D'Armes above the bakery was in use, with its arms racks in place. Perhaps then it was no coincidence then that in late 1734, as well, the local authorities indicated that the Salle D'Armes, under the King's Storehouse categories of artillery and munitions, etc., was in need of paint supplies requiring purchase [that year for the next]. The items were 50 pots of nut oil, 10 livres of yellow ochre, 50 livres of white [lead], 10 livres of lamp‑black, 1/2 livre of vermilion and 6 large and 6 small paint brushes (Brosses a couleur) .
Interestingly, the Salle D'Armes order did not include linseed oil which was apparently not available in stores that year ‑, but did specify nut oil, of which a relatively high amount (57 livres and 37 1/2 livres respectively) was inventoried at both year's beginning and end.
Until this time, except in the gravest of situations (disintegrating building and fortification walls for example), the Engineer Verrier had generally placed maintenance concerns on the back burner, so as not to hinder an ambitious public construction programme whose end was yet no where in sight. At the same time, new initiatives, such as the construction of an eastern enceinte, threatened to add even more assets, and tax further the time of the Fortification Contractor and Engineer alike. No doubt too, the existence of an unstable labour force well into the 1720's, and a general level of demand which persistently outstripped the labour supply, had also dictated the emphases upon new construction rather than maintenance.
However, in 1734, Engineer Verrier noted that many buildings [he was not addressing the question of fortifications] had been constructed in the last 10 years, that the people occupying them felt no responsibility towards their upkeep ‑ of windows, doors and hardware and that their maintenance was now becoming considerable. As was the practice in France, Verrier wanted permission to award a contract of a set amount to a person who would replace broken window panes and lost keys, who would repair roofs and broken windows and doors, and who would clean out chimneys.
Significantly, Verrier recommended neither the need to paint, nor the contracting out of the work to the Fortification Contractor. Nor did the Crown, in 1735, when it agreed that Louisbourg ought to address its maintenance concerns in a more formal, yearly way.
In October of 1736, the local Louisbourg authorities reached 6‑year agreements with 4 civilian master tradesmen for the maintenance of government and military buildings, prisons, gates, barriers, and draw‑bridges. In particular, these men were to administer to the needs of roofs; chimneys; roof and chimney flashings; door, window and shutter hardware, ironwork (crampons, chains, prison bars, etc.), fine joinery: doors, windows, armoires, tables, gates, barriers; window glass; and carpentry: floors, stairs, partitions, beds, joists, guerites, palisades.
For their work, the roofer was to be paid 1200 livres per year, the locksmith 530 livres, the joiner and glazier 1050 livres, and the [carpenter] 600 livres, with these maintenance of building (l'entretien des Batimens du Roy) charges to be applied against Louisbourg's fortification account. To place these maintenance expenditures in perspective, the 3380 livres allocated that year represented but .026 % of total government sending on Louisbourg in 1736 (128,900 livres).
In November of 1736, Muiron tendered upon a new contract to replace the one to which the current Fortification Contractor, Ganet, had been adhering since 1730. once again, whitewashing (Muiron suggested 20 sols, Louisbourg was countering with 10 sols)), but not paint, was a contemplated charge. If anything, the omission of paint might suggest that, excepting the lighthouse charge‑back of 1730 (and 1736 below), the Fortification Contractor was not generally expected to paint new or old work.
Notwithstanding, in December of 1736, a proposal was brought forward to rebuild the lantern portion of the Louisbourg lighthouse burned off in a fire the previous September. In it, a major change suggested the use of 3 pouce wide, 5 lignes thick iron window dormant frames (les battes des croiseés), and 2 pouce wide, 4 lignes thick sashes and glazing bars (croisillons) in place of the earlier wooden ones, with the [presumably wooden] window sills (apuis des croisées) covered in lead. Aux chassis, presumably meaning in this case, the dormant frames, sashes and glazing bars (i.e. everything being iron, and thus susceptible to rust?), two coats of red ochre were to be applied.
In total iron, the dormant frames consumed 246 running pieds, and the sashes and glazing bars another 1152 running pieds. Accordingly, this proposal would estimate that 40 livres of oil and 20 livres of red ochre would adequately protect the quantity of iron required. Interestingly, following a new contract of November 22, 1737, Ganet, the Fortification Contractor, carried out the work in 1737 and 1738, but it was the local Louisbourg authorities who were ordering the paint supplies.
Although Ganet would be awarded a specific Lighthouse contract in 1737 (as he had in 1731 and 1735), it was Muiron, who, earlier, on May 10, 1737, would capture the next 6 year general fortification contract. In it, his charge‑back for whitewashing, 2 coats at different times, would be 12 sols per square toise. Apparently, the whitewashing charge covered both old and new work.
In 1737, a partial listing of ships arriving in Louisbourg recorded that French imports included 433 livres of white lead, 690 livres of linseed oil and 200 barrels of lampblack.
In 1738, the local authorities authorized payment to two individuals, one of 9 livres for whitewashing the rooms and the chapel within the Louisbourg hospital, and another of 31 livres 10 sols for 21 days (i.e. 30 sols per day) that he had spent in painting (a peindre) two rooms in residence of the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur. Of interest, for comparison purposes, the same accounts recorded labour payments of 60 sols per day to carpenters, and 20 sols per day for guarding a prisoner.
In November of 1739, Louisbourg officials, for the first time, began to lobby for the awarding of a contract for the painting of all exposed wood ‑ such as doors, window sashes, shutters, barrier gates, guard houses, sentry boxes, gun and mortar carriages ‑ and exposed iron work ‑ including the iron cannons themselves if necessary. For example, they could continue to tar gun carriages, as even at that m moment they were doing, but, as the years had proven, the tar did not last from one autumn until the following spring without scaling off.
In 1740, Bigot reported that he wished to paint the gun carriages en gros rouge, as paint would last better than tar. Then in October of 1741, he reported that the Engineer Verrier had added a paint clause to the contract with the Fortification Contractor pour l'interprise des travaux des fortifications due for renewal January 1, 1743. According to Bigot, this would obligate the Fortification Contractor to paint exposed wood en gros rouge.
On January 23, 1740, Engineer Jean‑Baptiste de Couagne died in his Block 17, lot A house. Although his personal inventory did not reveal the presence of painting supplies, a bill of Claparede indicated him supplying 24 livres of of an unspecified type of oil (d'huille) costing 15 livres 12 Sols.
Also in October of 1741, the bordereau of that year listed 12 livres as payment for the hiring of'a man for a number of days to paint the house of the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur, and 4 livres 4 sols the purchase of 2 livres of cendre bleue (i.e., if so, at 42 sols per livre) for the painting of drummers' drums. Also reported that month was the fact that, although Bigot had previously ordered paint for the gun carriages, almost all of the 900 livres of gros rouge and 300 livres of oil had leaked away (in transit?].
In 1742, surviving shipping lists for Louisbourg recorded the arrival, from Acadia, of 40 bottles of the thinner and drying agent, turpentine.
In the fall of 1742, Bigot reported that the new 1743 contract with Muiron, the Fortification Contractor, would include only two new items: paint and sodding. According to a surviving copy, Muiron offered to charge‑back the same 12 sols per square toise, as in 1737, for whitewashing, but, unfortunately, in the only existing version, the paint charge was not added . Notwithstanding, by June of 1743, the Minister had approved the supplying of paint and sod in a new 6‑year agreement with Muiron.
In 1743, the surviving shipping lists of that year recorded the arrival of 36 bottles of turpentine from Acadia and 12 barrels from New England.
Incredibly, Louisbourg, in November of 1743, again reported the maddening loss of paint supplies ‑ the oil in this case ‑ sent from Rochefort, for the King's Storehouse, for the painting of the gun carriages. Noting the new contract which now obliged the Fortification Contractor to paint all exposed wood, (preferably every year), Bigot placed a paint and cutstone order on his behalf, for the travaux des fortifications. Apparently, the contractor had no idea where to purchase paint in France, and was stymied by the fact that none was to be found locally (this comment is interesting in that the King's Storehouse held a reasonable supply of paint supplies as of January 1743, although this amount may have either been consumed or designated for another use).
At any rate, in February of 1744, Rochefort reported its success in filling Bigot's cutstone and other merchandise order for the fortifications, and Engineer's Office of Isle Royale. Accordingly, Maisonneuve, a French supplier, provided 600 livres of red ochre ground in oil at 4 livres 9 sols per pound; 200 livres of yellow ochre, equally ground in oil, also at 4 livres 9 sols; and 600 livres (circa 5.7 gallons) of linseed oil at 38 livres 10 sols (another source listed 36 livres 10 sols) per gallon (circa 7 sols 4 deniers per livre). Completing the order, Monsieur Priou supplied 200 livres (2 gallons) of white lead ground in oil at 50 livres per gallon (10 sols per livre), while LeTourneur provided 20 barrels of lampblack at 3 sols 6 deniers per barrel, and Menier 6 large brushes (pinceaux), at 3 sols each, to paint in oil.
When placed aboard the private ship Atlas for shipment to Isle Royale, the paint order was converted into tonneau in order to determine freight charges. Accordingly, this record revealed 582 livres of linseed in one barrel; 629 livres of red ochre ground in oil in 2 barrels; 203 livres of yellow ochre ground in oil [was] 1 quart; 205 livres of white lead ground in oil [was] 1 quart; 20 large barrels of lampblack [was] part of a barrique, and 6 large brushes (pinceaux) for painting with oil. On September 28, 1744, the complete cargo was noted as received in Louisbourg, and entered in the books as war munitions, fortification materials, and for the King's Buildings and Engineer's Office.
Although in 1744, the contract with the Fortification Contractor now obligated him to paint wood exposed [to the elements], the local authorities continued to pay certain painting charges out of their own munitions and merchandising account. For example, in November they paid 18 livres to one man for a marble muller and 3 stone pestles for grinding paint, and another 60 livres 12 sols for linseed oil and white lead destined for the King's Storehouse. As well they employed a number of men, at least three of which were painters (peintre) two of which were grinders of the paint, and numerous others of which were day labourers. They were working within the Salles D'Armes (for the needs of the artillery) and perhaps elsewhere as well. In all, their labour may have cost the government as much as 252 livres. Interestingly, 7 days later, the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur reported that he had painted all the new gun carriages recently made and placed in the Artillery Hangard.
In October of 1744, Governor DuQuesnel died, and an extensive inventory resulted, which ultimately realized 22,610 livres. Of interest, neither the attic nor the two basement storage rooms revealed any private stock of painting materials. Neither did an assortment of bills suggest that he had authorized any paint work since his arrival in 1740.
In January of 1745, a ship left Louisbourg for France with 4 barrels of turpentine on board. On 22 March, 1745, according to a financial statements issued by Rochefort authorities, payment (on Louisbourg's fortification funds for the King's Building, and for the paper and utensils required for the Engineer's office) was to be made to a Monsieur Priou for 150 livres of white lead in cakes used in the production of mastic (a type of putty) at 6 sols per livre (or 30 livres per gallon), and for 400 livres of linseed oil at 8 sols per livre (or 40 livres per gallon). Other paint supplies to the charge of Monsieur Messier, for small quantities of vermilion, carmine, indigo, and green pigments, as well as for 24 large and small brushes, appear required for the Engineer's Office.
On the same March date, these Rochefort authorities also requested payment against Louisbourg's munitions and merchandise account for paint materials supplied by Monsieur Priou. Sent to meet Louisbourg's artillery, batteries and platforms requirements, they consisted of 100 livres of a black pigment ground in oil at 20 sols per livre and 200 livres of red ochre ground in oil at circa 5 sols 7 deniers per livre (or 28 livres per gallon). Listed immediately next, and completing the Priou charge, were 24 paint brushes, priced at 17 sols per brush, for painting the cannon carriages.
Probably, Rochefort would have received word of the siege of Louisbourg before it shipped this cargo. Notwithstanding this possibility, as late as 27 April, 1745, in Rochefort, a discussion centered upon a cargo which Muiron, the Fortification Contractor, wanted sent to [Louisbourg] upon a King's ship. Included in the merchandise was an amount of ochre and oil pour les coleurs.
Like the French, the English occupational forces (1745‑1749), painted their gun carriages. As well, in 1746, they built "a large commodious House built in the [Block 16] yard of two stories, for the Carpenters to work in, with Shops for the Glaziers and the Painters."As did Bastide, others too might have requested the services of painters, or used whitewash, as for example did some masons who, between September 19th and 30th, 1747, were plastering and whitewashing all the guard rooms.
In February of 1748, while Louisbourg was still under English occupation, Louis XV issued an edict imposing tariff duties on a wide list of merchandise entering and leaving Canada (Quebec). While there were some notable exceptions, paint was not one of them. Accordingly, the following tariffs were to be collected on the following apparent paint products:
Canadian Imports Tariff Rate
Alum (of all types) 9 sols per 100 livres of weight
White Lead 12 sols per 100 livres of weight
Spanish White 6 sols per 100 livres of weight
Copperas 8 sols per 100 livres of weight
Nut Oil 6 deniers per 1 livre
Linseed Oil 4 deniers per 1 livre
Indigo 8 deniers per 1 livre
Azur 8 deniers per 1 livre
Noir a Noircir 4 deniers per 1 barrel
Ochres (of all colours) 3 sols per 100 livres of weight
Vermilion 3 sols per 1 livre
Upon the return of Louisbourg to the French, Prevost, the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur directed Court, the new Fortification Contractor to undertake an extensive repair of King's buildings. In all, between July 23 and December 31, 1749, Coeuret's work amounted to a charge in excess of 22,000 livres. Yet, of this amount, whitewash comprised but 27 livres for 2 coats to 36 square toise in the sanctuary of the chapel of the King's Bastion Barracks (at 15 sols per square toise), and 197 livres 5 sols for 2 coats to 263 square toise of walls in the hospital.
In March of 1750, Bottereau and Le Moyne, Rouen merchants, were directed to supply the following:
(1) 500 livres of white lead (ceruze broyee);
(2) 3 barrels of linseed oil (barriques, huille de lin).
Later in the same spring of 1750, Rochefort officials discussed filling a Louisbourg order that included 600 livres of red ochre ground in oil, 2 barriques of linseed oil, [130 livres] of white lead, and 400 livres of lamp black. Interestingly, an extensive shipping list for that year would suggest that the order was not sent. Indeed, later in October of the same year, Rochefort was again discussing the provisions, munitions, and merchandise required for Isle Royale in 1751. Among the items that the French suppliers, Botteau and Lemoine, were to supply was a barrique of linseed oil and 200 livres of white lead ground in oil. 
Later, in November 1750, it was reported that all the gun carriages newly received from France would require a coat of paint before their issue the following spring as a conservation measure. At the same time, accounts of the same month recorded a 13 livres 12 sols payment to La Peinture for painting work pour le service, and another 14 livres to Jacques Doblin, also a painter, for the 7 days (hence at 40 sols per day) he had worked on the residence of the Commissaire‑Ordonnateur.
Between August 15, 1750, and December 31, 1750, the Fortification Contractor once again conducted considerable repairs of the King's Buildings. Interestingly, while his charge would amount to 17,000 livres, it did not describe any direct charges for whitewashing or painting.
In September of 1751, the Bordereau of that year recorded a 90 livre payment, against Louisbourg's fortification funds, for 200 livres of red ochre, purchased (hence, at 9 sols per livre), from a local supplier. The paint was required for the Artillery Service.
According to the shipping records of 1752, Brisson of Dunkirk, Le Brun of Bordeaux, Soubat Contis of Bayonne, and Beaumont of St. Malo were suppliers of paint materials to Louisbourg. In that year, they provided 150 livres of ochre at 10 sols per livre, 100 livres of white lead at 15 sols per livre, 170 barrels (170 livres) of lamp‑black at 20 sols per livre, an interesting 1500 livres of Spanish whiting at circa 4 deniers per livre, 24 livre of linseed oil at 12 sols per livre, 18 livres of verdigris at 30 sols per livre, and 1035 livres of copperas at circa 7 deniers per livre.
In April 1753, the new contract with Coeuret, the Fortification Contractor, for undertakings concerning the fortifications and the King's buildings, included a 15 sols per square toise whitewash charge. Not only was this price to cover a 2 coat application, but also the tubs, buckets, brushes, scaffolding and tools which the contractor might find necessary. Significantly, however, the contract did not provide for a charge‑back for any other type of paint work.
Of the numerous private construction, rental, sale, and repair documents of Louisbourg, other than for the palatial mansion of Louis LeVasseur of the 1730's, not until July of 1753 did one refer to either the painting or whitewashing of a privately owned building, even when such might cost as much as 10,000 livres.
At any rate, in July of 1753, Robert Duhaget rented out his Block 17 house to Daniel Augier, for 6 years, at 1200 livres per year. In the rental agreement, they each agreed to paint (peindre) its [wooden] exterior: the owner would apply the first coat dans les dehors de la dte maison in the first year, and the tenant the second in the second year of the agreement. Of interest, when Duhaget later, in 1757, again rented out his house, for 6 years, at 1200 livres per year, this time he did not oblige himself or Morin, the new tenant, to any painting requirement, even though many of the other clauses remained similar.
In 1753, the incomplete shipping lists of that year recorded the import from France of at least 148 livres of linseed oil costing 15 sols per livre, and, for the first time described as so, 100 livres of peinture at 16 sols per livre. Interestingly, Louisbourg also exported 14 barrels of lamp‑black (10 sols per barrel) to Quebec, while importing 348 livres of indigo (at an expensive 7 livres per livre) from the Isles.
In July of 1754, a contract for the construction of a new piquet house contained the first reference to the use of whitewash in a private building. Accordingly, the carpenter was to raise an exterior boarded house, at a cost of 4000 livres, that included the whitewashing of its ground‑floor, roughcast interior finish.
Later that year, the Bordereau recorded the purchase of 240 livres of white lead ground in oil, a substantial quantity of linseed oil (428 livres 10 sols in cost) for painting the King's buildings, and a number of large brushes of an unknown use. Also purchased that year was 250 livres of [either ochre? or acier?]. 
In 1754, the incomplete shipping lists of that year recorded Louisbourg exporting 20 barrels of turpentine (at 10 livres per barrel) to the Isles; and 400 livres of indigo (at 5 livres per livre) to France. In return, Louisbourg imported 500 livres of ochre, at 8 sols per livre; 200 livres of litharge, at 12 sols per livre; 1700 livres of linseed oil, at 15 sols per livres; and, for the first time, 3320 livres of common paint (peinture commun) at a low 6 sols per livre. 
In circa April of 1756, a Versailles‑dated document discussed an order that Rochefort was to send to Isle Royale that year. For the troupes ‑ including for the barracks, guard houses, etc. ‑ the order specified 500 livres of white lead ground in oil, 200 livres of a black [pigment] ground in oil, 1000 livres of red ochre ground in oil, 600 livres of linseed oil, and 40 large paint brushes (gros pinceaux ou brosses a peindre). For the needs of the artillery and Cannoneers School, it indicated 250 livres of linseed oil, and, for the gun carriages, 500 livres of red ochre ground in oil [note: 85 carriages had arrived].
In 1756, the carpenter Dubenca agreed to raise an English prefabricated frame of a 1/2 timber house‑storehouse complex for Beaubassin, and finish off the boarded building with extensive work that included a whitewashed roughcast interior finish.
[Note: Check which of the lines below belongs to this quote:au nommé forrêt pour avoir blanchi et racommodé 2 pavillons ...]
[Check if this is a paint reference: C11B, Volume 36, December 20, 1756, f. 228v]
In that year too, the bordereau recorded the purchase of 22 1/2 livres of litharge at 32 sols per livre, for adding to the paint that was being applied in the King's buildings. In addition, a man was paid for 10 days work (at 40 sols per day) in the above buildings, both for the grinding of the pigments and for the painting itself. Finally, others (perhaps at 60 sols per day) were paid for painting cannon and mortar carriages. Of interest, that same year, boat caulkers, by trade, would have received 60 sols per day for their labour, while a person simply distributing food would have received 30 sols per day. In contrast, a surveyor would have received 120 sols, while a census taker would have asked 100 sols per day for his labour.
In November of 1756, Louisbourg placed the following non‑artillery order for 1757: 500 livres of white lead ground in oil, 400 livres of linseed oil, and 24 large paint brushes. For the needs of the artillery, it ordered 200 livres of linseed oil (in air tight barrels), 200 livres of a black [pigment] ground in oil, 500 livres of red ochre, and 20 large paint brushes.
In 1757, Pierre Poisson, a peintre by trade, was paid for 5 days work, at 30 sols per day, for painting the apartments [of the south wing of the King's Bastion Barracks] occupied by the Governor. In the same year, yet another painter by trade, Monsieur Michel, was paid the same diem rate for painting gun carriages. As a point of interest, an armourer, for days worked in the forge, in 1757, received 60 sols per day, while a guard placed upon a ship would draw 30 sols per day.
In September of 1757, a food, munitions, and merchandise order was placed for the year 1758. Accordingly, the non‑artillery portion specified the need for 1000 livres of white lead ground in oil, 1000 livres of red ochre ground in oil, 600 livres of linseed oil (in air tight barrels), 24 large paint brushes, and 24 large whitewashing brushes. For the artillery and Cannoneer's School, it specified 50 pots of linseed oil, and 200 livres of a black [pigment] ground in oil, 600 livres of red ochre ground in oil, and 20 large paint brushes for painting the gun carriages.
Fort Charlotte, Mobile
A description of Fort Charlotte and the Public Buildings at Mobile noted:
... the Barracks are composed of upright posts put into the ground with some framing to the Windows and Doors. The Vacancies of which are filled up with Clay and Spanish Beard, and White wash'd over ... the Guard Room on the right ... Some holes in the Wall repaird and Whitewash'd ...
The next Room to the Guard Room wants a new floor and three Sash Lights ... Room No 22 Wants Plastering and Whitewashing ... ditto ... 19 Wants three Windows to be Glaz'd, and Whitewashd ... 
According to Mark Twain, in speaking of the Louisiana State Capitol, built in the Gothic style in 1849:
It is pathetic enough that a whitewashed castle, with turrets and things ‑ materials all ungenuine within and without, pretending to be what they are not ‑ should ever have been built in this otherwise honorable place; but it is much more pathetic to see this architectural falsehood undergoing restoration and perpetuation in our day ...
Digori Heart description of the Castle and Fort Plancentia included the following:
.. a large white house ... shows it self plaine ...
A 3 year marché (with Denis La fontaine, vitrier) for maintaining the King's buildings noted:
... pour entretenue toutes les vitres de Batimens du Roy ... les laver deux fois tous les an, en remettre ou il en sera necessre; les mastiques aux nouvelles croisées que l on sera, les garnie de vitre bien mastiquées, coller tous les ans toutes les Croisées et cloisons, Blanchie avec deux couches de chaux les appartemens toutes les fois qu'on le demandera, Blanchie aussy toutes les Cheminés en platre avec Blanc d espagne, faire les Impretions des croisées et poser les couleurs Broyés avec huille de noix ou de lein, tant de vielles Croisées et portes que des neuves que l on fera dans la suitte, aux conditions qu il sera fourny au d La fontaine des magasins de sa mate Les vitres masticq, pointes, papier à col[les], farines, chaux, Blanc d espagnes et les Couleurs et huille pour les impretions ... la somme de quatre cents livres par chacun année ... 
The agreement ( A 3 year marché , with Denis La fontaine, vitrier, for maintaining the King's buildings) was the same as that of December 15, 1729 with the added information:
... toutes les vitres, qui Seront necessaire, La chaux, Blanc d'Espagne, et huille de noix ou de lin, et qu'il fera payé au d. La fontaine ... 
According to a construction contract (marché), Cliche agreed to undertake joinery work for Philibert which included: [Check if this is an exact quote]
la menuiserie d'une chambre avec chiminée; 1 porte d'entrée, 4 autres portes, le tout en bois de pin coloré par la couleur fournie par l'écorce de pruche ou de noyer, à la maison qu'il habite. 
... Inventaire General ... apartenats a la flute du Roy Le Canada en Construction ... 1741 ...
480.L£ Ochre Jaune ...
145.£ Ochre Rouge ...
17.£1/2 de Litarge ...
300.£ Blanc de Seruze ...
50.£ mine de Plomb ...
2.£ couperose Blanche ...
20.£ noir de fumée ...
2.£ vert de gris ...
60.£ mail ...
2 £ einable en Roche pour vermillon ...
12. Brosses agol dronner ...
18. Brosses de Differantes grosseurs ...
30. Pinceaux assortis ...
298.£ D'huille de Lin ...
45.£ fil a voile ...
... Etat des dépansons faits ...
... peintre pour les ouvrages qu'il a fait a la batterie Royalle ... avoir Imprimé la barriere en Ocre la première couche et envers la Secondes ... 2 £ docre ... 4 £ de Blanc de ceruse ... Imprimé la piece de la genouillere et le heurtoir de la d batterie en Ocre ... 50 £ d'Ocre ... fourni le noir pour le quart derond ... Imprimé la Balustrade du pont ... 5 L** de Litarge ....
... Peintre ... Imprimé 38. Affuts a 2 Couches d'Ocre dcre brûlé avec les plateaux ... 20 £ d'Ocre fin ... Imprimé 8 Caissons a 2 Couches d'Ocre brûlé ... Imprimé dix chasses de la Chambre des Artifficers ... Imprimé lr Reron ... foreini pour les affuts ... 4 £ de litarge ... 37 Plateaux fourni bois et cloux ....
According to Peter Kalm, in the area of the city of Quebec, the houses "sont généralement bâties en pierre à chaux noire et blanchies à l'extérieur."
According to the following:
... Observations Sur les Envoyes des ... Marchandise qui fait ordinairement le Port de Rochefort a celuy de Quebec ... 1749 par le Navire Landromede ...
... Le Blanc d'Espagne Blanc de Ceruze et la Litarge ont Eté mis Ensemble dans les memes futailles, ce qui par Se melange fait tomber En pure perte L'un et L'Autrte des ses articles ...
... La Taire sur les Barils d'huille d'Olive, huille de Lin, Bray, Blanc d'Espagne, et autres marchandises du poids n'est Jamais marquée Sur la futaille ny Sur la facture ...
... Estimate and nature of Military Stores necessary for any Country or Post ... with a few Stores of general use, proposed for Halifax ...
... whiting ...
... Oil ... Linseed ... Sweet ...
... Brushes ... Whitewash ...
... Paint of sorts ...
... Paint ... White ... Black ... Spanish Brown ... 
According to Lambert, who was touring Quebec, "the interstices [of the walls] are filled with clay or mud, and the side of the building washed outside and in with lime dissolved in water. This, they say, de poursuivre le voyageur, has the property of preserving the wood better than paint from the effects of the weather and vermin; at all events it has the property of being cheaper which is a consideration of more importance to them than weather or vermin."
A formula for Ground in oil paint was revealed
in the following discussion:
... 21,216 pounds of Paint ... ground in Oil ... would require 663 Gallons of Spirits of Turpentine in proportion of 1/4 of a pint to each Pound ... the Paints required for this Year are of Colors not in Store ... 
... Estimate of Repairing the House Lately Occupied as a Military Hospital ..
Present House as [Sic] been in Government Employ Since the year 1808 to ... 1815 and Find that the Repairs and [Remakes?], though the Frequent Whitewashing with Lime on all parts of the House while Occupied as an Hospital, both on Doors, Partitions And Ceilings &c have very much Injoured [Sic] the Inside of the Building, which have been formerly Oil Paint and Water Colours ... To Repairing the West front, Such as Sundry patchies of plastering also to Scrape off the Old Whitewash on the Inside of the two Gable Ends, in the three Storys, as also to paint in oil And Re'Colour them as formerly ...
According to Dainville, who was touring Quebec,
Les maisons, écrit‑il, sont presque toutes construites avec des branches darbres équarries et posées les unes sur les autres; ces troncs bien façonnés et joints avec soin, sont couverts d'une couche de blanc en dedans et de planches de sapin en dehors, ce qui leur donne a la fois propreté et solidité ....
Lac St. Pierre
Sansom, an English traveller passing through the lac St. Pierre area, noted the following:
... we were still tantalized with the perpetual repetition of house after house, or rather hut after hut for the log hovels of the inhabitants, square hewn and neatly white‑washed as they are, even to the roofs, which are clap‑boarded and sometimes thatched with a species of long grass, which grows on some of these islands, called "l'herbe‑au‑lieu" [herbe‑à‑lien] or wild grass ....
On October 15, 1755, an accounting was taken to determine what was required to put the artillery of Montreal in a good state (metter l'artillerie ... en bon état). Accordingly, it was established that 300 livre of linseed oil (huile de lin) was required for the light signals? (pour artifices) and to paint the [cannon] carriages (peindre les affuts).
ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON
... Etat des Effets ... objets destinés pour la Construction des Bâtimens ...
... huile ne noir ... huile de Lin ... Ocre jaune ... Ocre Rouge ... Peinture Broyée à l'huile, Rouge ... verte ... Bleue ... jaune ... grise ...
... La peinture de Ceruse employé jusqu'a présent dans la colonie est remplacée par le blanc de zinc qui arrive en poudre pour être preparé sur les lieux. Les autres couleurs sont toutes melangées sur la base du blanc de zinc ...
NORTH AMERICA - ENGLISH
Repairs & Additions made to Fort Nassau ...
... the North and south Pile of Officers and Soldiers Barracks within Fort Nassau ... Officers and Soldiers Barracks ... the whole painted as also the several Roofs for their preservation ... The Walls Underpinned, pointed and whitewashed within and without ...
... Powder Magazine ... this work is pointed & Whitewashed, .. and one new Door painted, with Fastnings ...
... Bog‑House both for Officers and men repaired by supports and Braces of Cedar Scantling: One new Door, Lock Hinges & Bolt, the Whole painted and the Roof Tarred ...
... A new Flag Staff fifty feet in heighth With a Truck, the whole hooped with Iron and proper cordage, and twice painted .... 
... The Pallisades which are respectable and advantageously disposed of are entirely repaired and covered with two Coats of a Composition of Turpentine, Pitch, Tar, Spanish Brown Lamp‑Black and Lynseed Oil. A double course of cedar Ribbands drove with seven inch spikes ...
HUDSON BAY COMPANY
PAINTER &C., WORK.‑‑ Doors and Windows both sides, together with their frames or linings to be painted 3 coats good oil paint, tops and sides of Platforms to be also painted.
The whole of the external and internal wood work of all the buildings seen, to be whitewashed or colored, 2 coats good work; for outside work, salt and umber to be mixed in.
According to John Reynolds, French houses were:
... generally one story high, and made of wood ... These houses formed of large posts or timbers [set into ... a sill]; the posts being three or four feet apart in many of them. In others the posts [set into ... a sill] are closer together, and the intervals filled up with mortar, made of common clay and cut straw ... Over the while [sic: check this word] walls, outside and inside it was generally whitewashed with fine white lime, so that these houses presented a clean, neat appearance ... 
According to a carpenters contract, a masons contract and various discussions, the Latin Schoolmaster's house was to be built as follows:
... Shall Erect a House ... to Inclose Sd house & to do and compleat all carpenters worke and to finde all timber boards, Clapboards, nayles, glass and Glaziers worke & Iron worke... to fill Lath and plaster all the walls under the plate of Said House and Kitchen, to Ceile two floors through out the Sd House and plaster the Gable ends and under the Staires within Sight, and to plaster the Clossets and all the brickworke as high up as the Garrett... to plaster the coveing, and to point the garret and Purge the Chimnyes with good Lime morter ...
take the Care of geting a Sufficient fence & gate made ... [Painter to undertake the] following work ... vizt finish the Gate & prime the fence, finish the Out side work of the house. And to prime the Inside worke of the Same ... 
According to a sale:
HOUSE LAID IN OIL ‑ To be sold a large Dwelling House and Land, well finished and laid in Oil ... standing in Charter Street, Boston ...
HOUSE FOR SALE.‑ ... the House thereon is a well built brick House, double Boarded and Slated ... the Upper Chambers well Plaistered and white wash'd, a good Garret over the House 10 Foot high ... 
HOUSE FOR SALE. ‑ A Large new Dwelling House, very handsomely finished, with a fine stair case of 9 feet in the Middle ... painted throughout both within and on the outside ...
PAINTED HOUSE. ‑ ...the opening of a school ..."in the white House nigh ...
HOUSE FOR SALE. ‑ ... all finished and painted within and without ...
... Estimate of Repairs ... for the Barracks ... 1 August 1794 ...
Materials ... [MORE, MORE] 30 lb yellow Ochre ... 8 lb Lamp Black ... 24 lb Glue ... 12 lb white paint ... 2 Gallons Oil ... [MORE, MORE] ...
Five barrels ochre weighing 50 lb each
Two barrels green paint weighing 56 lb
Three do white paint weighing 28 lb
2/3 do red paint weighing 18 lb
14 lb ivory black
2 1/2 lb black paint
7 small jugs containing paint
1 barrel red paint
125 lbred colour in three barrels
10 lb green paint
6 lb white do
Shultz wrote that St. Louis contained:
.... about two hundred houses, which, from the whiteness of a considerable number of them, as they are rough‑cast and white‑washed, appear to great advantage as you approach the town ... 
The house of M. Beauvais was a long, low building, with a porch or shed in front, and another in the rear; the chimney occupied the centre, dividing the house into two parts, with each a fireplace. One of these served for a dining‑room, parlor and principal bedroom; the other was the kitchen, and each had a small room taken off at the end for private chambers or cabinets. There was no garret, a pair of stairs being a rare thing in the village ...The house was a ponderous wooden frame, which, instead of being weather‑boarded, was filled in with clay, and then whitewashed.
A new hotel has lately been erected ... The house is of the conglomerate style of architecture; slabs, boards, and logs being put together and rubbed with red ochre in the most artistic manner ...
NEW ENGLAND, Etc
17th and 18th Cenury
New Englanders rarely painted inside work during the 17th century, and into the early 18th century, as they found imported pigments and medias to be quite expensive. 
According to Walker:
The plastering of the Guard Room at Signal Hill having for some time past required constant repairs, owing to its proximity to the Battery ... Salutes are fired ... the whole of the plastering much Shaken ... ... I have caused the interior of the Building to be lined with inch boards grooved and tongued ... Limewashing the Privates Barracks ... the Department finding the Limes and Brushes.
1839 ‑ 1840
Fishermen houses were described as less elaborate than the painted white merchant's house in the following manner:
... often being little more than unpainted cottages scattered everywhere, at all possible angles with each other perched upon rocks or hidden in nooks.
I desire therefore that a proper kind of Plank may bespoke to shingle upon ‑ the thinner, provided the Nails do not draw, the better; as I am afraid of so heavy a weight on a slight foundation; for it is to be remembered that the frame was for a one Story House and that every thing greater than that exceeds the original design. If New shingles are to be used , write to Mr. Newton to bespeak them; and let them be got full two feet in length, but I would submit to the workman if he has any skill in his profession, & the old shingles can be ripped off without Injury, whether shewing less of them will not supply the defect of their shortness ‑ If it will, the Paint and Oil which has been expended on them will, in a great measure be preserved ... 
... Prices of Materials ... at Halifax ... at the Beginning of the present War ...
Painting ... Outside with two Coats ... Inside, Sizing priming & finishing ...
According to John Robinson, a Yorkshire man:
... town of Halifax .. has a very good appearance, though the houses are all built of wood. They are painted to look like freestone, and are covered with blue slate.
Wednesday, 12 June, 1793 ...
Although stone is a superabundant material, in the vicinity of Halifax, as well as throughout Nova Scotia, it is of such a hard and refactory nature that it is found more economical to build there with wood. Outside of Canada, this type of construction is employed in the greater part of North America. It promises neither lasting quality nor security in case of fire, but it has its advantages by the ease in which a nice house can be completely built in six weeks and that of living in it the moment it is finished. Besides, they [wooden houses] have a pleasing appearance to the eye. Their lines and the colours they are painted are varied. In all , they have appeared to me to have more cleanliness, lightness and less monotony than our stone houses, if we except those of ours which merit being singled out because of their fine architecture, but of which we only have an extremely limited number ...
... Point Pleasant Tower ... Paint the Fence and Stairs inside and out, to Whitewash the inside of the inner Tower ...
According to work accounts for St. Paul's Anglican Church, indicated that the roof, probably completely replaced in 1797, was not to be painted:
... shall paint the whole of the outside of the Church of St. Paul's, (except the Roof) including the steeple, porches, Vestry Room, Stove pipes and steps ...
JOHN MERRICK & CO have on hand from England ... 3000 gallons raw and boiled Linseed oil, first quality Pale boiled oil, in jugs, so as not to discolor paint ...
According to John MacGregor:
Micmac Indians ... Chapel Island ... On this island they have a chapel and burying‑ground ... They received a present of some red paint for the former, I believe from the provincial government; but the colour, which, in most cases, the Indians admire, did not please in this instance; their objection, as they expressed it in English was, "Because certain make chapel look all same as one store, " warehouses in America being usually painted with red ochre and oil.
According to Charles Dickens:
Every little colony of houses has its church and schoolhouse peeping from among the white roofs and shady trees; every house is the whitest of the white; every Venetian blind the greenest of the green; every fine day's sky the bluest of the blue .... All the buildings looked as if they had been built and painted that morning, and could be taken down on Monday with very little trouble. [Check - Source required]
According to the newspaper, whitewash was:
... one of the finest things in the world to promote cleanliness and health ....
A report on constructing a permanent roof for the Cavalier included the following specification:
To scrape, brush, clean and lime whiten two coats, the whole of the walls, cielings [sic] & arches of the Casemates ... the lower floor walls ... cieling [sic] or underside of floors ... sides of joists ... Walls upper floor... arches ... add Window jambs & soffits ... door jambs and soffits ... from which deduct windows ... Doors ... and fire places .... To paint 2 coats, common colours in Oil on doors ... do_ frames ... musket band rails ... sash frames inside & out ... sash squares both sides ... whitewashing and painting ... not being of a nature to be advantageously executed during the winter ... and to be executed early in the ensuing year, by which time the walls and arches in the interior will have become sufficiently dry ... 
According to John Bourinot:
The houses on the street fronting the harbour are, for the most part, very dilapidated and sadly in want of paint and whitewash.
According to Charles Warner:
When we land, and take up our bags to ascend the hill to the white tavern of Port Hastings ... Plaster Cove Hotel ... A dirty modern house, just built, a house smelling of poor whiskey and vile tobacco, its white paint grimy, its floors unclean ... At Whykokomaugh, a neat fishing village of white houses, we stopped for dinner ...I could not but notice that Baddeck was a clean‑looking village of white wooden houses ... Upon the principal street or road of Baddeck stands the dreadful prison‑house. It is a storey and a quarter edifice, built of stone and substantially whitewashed ...
According to John Knight:
Landing opposite Man o' War Point, I sought a small white cottage.
The Louisbourg: Museum‑Caretaker Building Complex revealed the following:
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS, CANADA. MUSEUM AND CARETAKER'S QUARTERS. FORT LOUISBOURG, N.S. SPECIFICATIONS FOR ALL TRADES ...T.W. FULLER, Chief Architect, Ottawa, March 1935 ... #4969
PAINTING MORE, MORE. MORE. THIS INFORMATION DEALS MAINLY WITH THE PAINTING OF DOORS.
1. PAINTING REQUIRED:‑ ...
2. INSPECTION:‑ ...
3. TEMPERATURE:‑ ...
4. MATERIALS:‑ ...
5. LINSEED OIL:‑ ... [Note: A recipe is given]
6. WHITE LEAD:‑ ... [Note: A recipe is given]
7. FILLER: ‑ ...
8. SHELLAC:‑ ... [Note: A recipe is given]
9. PUTTY:‑ ... [Note: A recipe is given]
10. WORKMANSHIP: ‑ ...
11. STOPPING: ‑ ... [Note: a recipe is given]
12. NUMBER OF COATS:‑ ...
13. EXTERIOR WOODWORK:‑ Cover all sap, knots and defects in woodwork with a good coat of shellac before priming. All exterior woodwork except hardwood shall be primed as soon as erected ...
All exterior woodwork except hardwood shall be painted with three coats of boiled linseed oil, white lead and colour to approval. This shall include ... screen ... doors. All exterior hardwood doors ... shall be sand‑papered smooth, filled, stained and varnished three coats with best quality spar‑varnish rubbed after each coat and the last coat to a dull gloss ...
15. INTERIOR WOODWORK:‑ All woodwork must be smooth, clean and dry and properly prepared to receive the finish. All necessary puttying of nail holes, cracks, etc., shall be done after the first coating, with putty of a colour to match that of the finish.
All painting must be well rubbed down between each coat with No. 00 sand‑pape. Brushwork to be even and free from brush markings.
All interior woodwork in Caretaker's Quarters not other‑wise specified, including doors ... shall be primed and painted three coats of linseed oil, white lead and colour to approval.
All interior hardwood in Museum Building shall be given one coat of filler and approved stain and then three coats of best quality approved interior elastic rubbing varnish well rubbed down between each coat and the last coat rubbed down with pumice stone and oil to a dull gloss ...
17. DRYING BETWEEN COATS:‑ ...
18. SAMPLES OF FINISH:‑ The Contractor shall make up samples in colours and stains ... One‑half of each sample will be retained ... for future comparison ...
[23. or 24.] GENERALLY:‑ ...
25. SEPARATE PRICE: ‑ The contractor ... kalamein doors to stairway and tunnels and other work required to be painted shall be painted as specified for similar work in the Caretaker's Quarters ... [END OF SPECIFICATIONS]
Museum Building ... In reply to your recent request for the colour scheme for the above building, I am listing below the various items together with their colour finishes, the numbers of which correspond to the "chips" on the enclosed card.
Exterior Woodwork: (except hardwood) ... Sash, storm sash and screens. Colour No. 5 ...
Exterior & Interior Hardwood: Very light stain ...
Caretaker's Quarters, except hardwood. Colour No. 7 ...
Kalamein Iron work:
Basement door to Museum:both [sic] sides. Colour No. 8.
Interior Basement doors:both [sic] sides. * No. 8 ...
... and Steel Toilet doors ...Colour No. 5.
[According to the enclosed colour chips which the NAC has retained ] Colour No. 5 Pale Green ... Colour No. 7. Ivory White ... Colour No. 8. Apple Green ... S‑W ‑"Family Paint" Colour Card ...
... Estimate ... Painting the sides, Ends and Cielings of two front Rooms of the Commanding Officers Quarters ...
28 lbs White Paint
7 lbs Wellow Do
4 lbs Red Do
4 lbs Black Do
5 1/2 Gallons Linseed Oil
1 Quart Spirits Turpentine
8 Paint Brushes of sorts 
... Painting The Outside of different Buildings on Point Frederick [:]
... Transport Store 60 feet long 30 feet wide, Story & half high. Painting Sides, Ends, Windows and Window shutters with one Coat ...
7 lbs Black Paint
42 lbs Red ditto
21 lbs White ditto
9 Gallons Linseed Oil
1 Quart Spirits Turpentine
10 lb Putty
... Naval Store 80 feet long 26 wide two stories high. Painting the sides, Ends, Doors, Windows and window Shutters With two Coats ...
14 lbs Black Paint
98 lbs Red Do
28 lbs White Do
18 Gallons Linseed Oil
2 Quarts Spirits Turpentine
14 lbs Putty
... Deputy Commissary and Store Keepers House 55 feet long 19 wide two stories high Painting Sides, Ends, Doors, Windowa and window shutters with two Coats ...
4 lbs Black Paint
7 lbs Red Do
35 lbs White Do
70 lbs Yellow Do
15 Gallons Linseed Oil
3 Pints Spirits Turpentine
14 lbs Putty
... Work Shade [sic] and Sail Loft 80 feet long 35 wide Story and half high. Painting Sides, Doors, Ends, Windows, window shutters with two Coats and Paying [sic] the Roof with a Coat of Coal Tar ...
12 lbs Black Paint
98 lbs Red Do
42 lbs White Do
19 Gallons Linseed oil
3 Do Train Do
2 Quarts Spirits Turpentine
14 lbs Putty
96 Gallons Coal Tar
4 Brushes dor Do
12 Do Paint of sorts for the whole Paints
Blockhouse No. 1 ... It will also be necessary to paint the weather‑boarding to preserve it ...
The upper part of the Blockhouse ... will require to be Weatherboarded and painted to preserve the Building ... 
The Four Blockhouses in the Fort all require to be Weatherboarded, to preserve the Buildings and to make them more secure against the weather they should also be painted. 
Concerning Government House, the following details were revealed:
Estimate of the expense ... Painting ... white washing and colouring the Rooms ...
300 [lbs?] white paint ...
94 lbs of red paint ...
28 lbs black paint ...
50 Gallons of oil ...
4 Gallons Spirits of Turpentine ...
30 lbs yellow Oker ...
6 Paint Brushes ... 
Fort St. Joseph
According to Bruyeres report:
The Blockhouse in the centre of the Fort is an excellent framed Building, but will soonbe destroyed unless it is Weatherboarded to preserve it besides the Logs are so open, the Weather penetrates it every part of it ... Above the upper plate of the Roof should be Beam filled to prevent the Rain and Snow beating in. The Shingles of the Roof are made of dry Cedar very dangerous in case of Fire, should be painted or covered with any cheap Composition ... 
Block House ... of Hewn pine timber, white washed on the outside ...
According to Fowler, travelling then through British America:
A handsome frame building, such as is common among farmers, has a sunk flat for cellars built with stones to the level of the ground .... The frame work commences immediately above ground ... the outside is done with fine dressed boards, and painted white or yellow. the window shutters are generally grass green and varnished, and the roof slate [shingles] coloured. one of these fine frame buildings will cost from ten to fifteen hundred dollars.
According to William Dunlop, in describing an American Loyalist's home:
A house larger than either, chiefly built of wood, and painted white ... the blinds painted green ... 
Repair work to Avery's quarters provided the following information:
The ceiling of the kitchen being found very defective provision is taken to put up a new one of rough Boards battoned on joints and white‑washed with two coats ... [i.e.] 2 Coats whitewashing with lime white ... Provision is also made for painting with three Coats all the new wood work ... [i.e.] painting on Windows, Eaves, etc. ... excepting the ... new Shingle[d] ... roof
Estimate for repairs included:
The ceiling of the kitchen [of the old engineers quarters occupied by Lt. Col. Airey] being found very defective provision is taken to put up a new one of rough Boards battoned on joints and white‑washed with two coats ... Provision is also made for painting with three Coats all the new wood [being installed were new window sashes, window frames, kitchen ceiling boards, dormer weather boarding, roof shingles, and an eaves trough] excepting the roof .... pine window frames with Sills Stops painting Slips ... 3 Coats painting on Windows, Eaves, etc., ... 2 Coats whitewashing with lime white ...
Bay of Quinte Region
The old homes ... as compared to the old log houses ... were with very few exceptions, wooden structures, clap‑boarded, and painted yellow or red. The majority, however, never received any touching up from the painter's brush, and as the years rolled on became rusty and gray ... 
According to an insurance survey of the John Philips house:
... Back Rooms in first & 2d story have been painted ... old shingling parged with Tarr & Spanish Brown ... 
The estimate for constructing a Barrier and Blockhouse (Porte Prescott) included a possible paint recipe as follows:
Materials ... One hundred and sixty eight pounds of white paint ... Twenty Gallons of Linseed oil ... One Gallon of spirits turpentine ...
In the stone barracks:
Provision is like‑wise made for limewashing the walls and ceilings ... for destroying the vermin ... which will be necessary when these ... double births ... are removed ... [and] the necessary repairs to the floors, walls, and ceilings consequent on their removal [are made] ...118 squares 2 coats lime white ... 16 feet cubic hair mortar ... 2 ft. cubic fine stuff ... 200 ft. supl. 2" Pine ... 500 4d row nails ...
1811 ‑ 1813
According to Svinin, who may have been speaking of either oil paint or tar, the roofs of houses in the United States were, generally:
covered with pine or oak shingles ... painted with black oil paint ...
According to Jones:
Here as in other parts, they build with brick, but most commonly with timber lined with cieling, and cased with feather‑edged plank, painted with white lead and oil.
According to the newly arrrived Scott, John Harrower, the roofs in the town were:
all covered with wood made in the form of slates about four Inches broad, which when painted blew you wou'd not know it from a house sclated with Isedell sclate.
According to the following agreement, in St. George Tucker's hand:
Memorandum of an Agreement made the thirtieth day of August 1798, between St George Tucker and Jeremiah Satterwhite, both of Williamsburg.
The said Jeremiah Satterwhite agrees & undertakes to paint the Outside of the dwelling house, & part of the inside, together with the Kitchen & Dairy, belonging to the said St George Tucker in the City of Williamsburg, as herein after mentioned, & in the most compleat, & workmanlike manner; taking Care never to paint but in dry Weather, nor at any time when the part to be painted is not perfectly dry.‑ The tops of the House, Kitchen & dairy are to be painted with Fish‑oil mixt in the paint, the oil to be well boiled Linseed Oil, but if it should not be sufficiently boiled, it is to be boiled to a proper Consistency. Every part that is to be painted is to have two good Coats well laid on, in the best Manner. St George Tucker hath provided about 240‑pounds of best white Lead; half an hundred weight of Spanish brown; and the like Quantity of yellow Ochre, all ground in oil, and about sixteen Gallons of boiled Linseed Oil; he is further to provide as much fish‑oil as will be sufficient to paint the roofs, & sheds, as hereafter mentioned. He has also provided eleven bottles of Spirits of Turpentine, and a sufficient Quantity of Tar, and the said Satterwhite agrees to keep an exact Account of the Quantity of each of these Articles that he may expend in painting the House. The said Satterwhite is to find his own Brushes and a pot to boil the oil, and paint. St George Tucker will provide ladders, & furnish every necessary Assistance to him.
The top of the House, the roof of the Shed, and of the covered Way are to be painted with Spanish brown, somewhat enlivened, if necessary, with red Lead, or other proper paint.
The sides of the House, and of the covered way, & the Ends of the house are to be painted a pure White. The outer doors a chocolate colour ‑ the brick underpinning and the other parts of the house below the floor of a dark brick Colour, nearly approaching to a Chocolate colour. The Chair boards, picture slips, Windows, & other parts of the front & back passage (except the doors & door Cases, which are to be of Chocolate Colour) are to be of a pale Stone colour, or straw Colour. The two small side passages of a Mahogany Colour, except the part leading in the dining room, which is to be of a stone colour.‑ The platform for the Steps, in front of the house, when finished, is also to be painted of a light stone colour.
The top of the Kitchen, and of the shed leading from the Cellar to the Kitchen yard, are to be painted with Spanish brown, mixed with Tar, & fish oil, & well boiled together. The sides of the Kitchen of yellow Ochre, with a very small mixture of White Lead: the window frames & Sashes of straw‑colour, or white: the sliders to the windows in Imitation of the Sashes.
The dairy is to be painted as the Kitchen; the open work under the Eaves white.
When the work is compleated St George Tucker agrees to pay fifty dollars for the same ...
NB. The boiled Linseed Oil is not to be used for the Kitchen, the Dairy, or the top of the House.
LOCATIONS TO BE DETERMINED
William Beverley ordered the following paint materials from England:
10 gals. Linseed Oyl in a jar
1/2 qt. Wte Lead
1/4 qt. Red Lead
1/2 qt. Spa Blue
As much paint of a deep olive colr ready ground with linseed oil as will paint 200 yds. wainscott.
According to Miss Leslie, on whitewash:
put lumps of quick‑lime into a bucket of cold water and stir it about till it is all dissolved and mixed. It should be about as thick as cream. A pint of common varnish (which can be procured at a cabinetmakers for a trifle) ‑‑ will make it stick like paint. Instead of water to mix the lime with, skim milk (which must be perfectly sweet) will make the whitewash very white and smooth, and prevent it rubbing off easily. ‑‑ put on ‑with a very long‑handled brush made for the purpose ‑‑ When it is quite dry, it must be gone over with a second coat, and if the wall is very dirty or has been coloured with yellow ochre, a third coat ‑‑ may be necessary.
According to the house painter, Hay:  [Check for additional details]
According to Loudon: [Check for additional details]
On painting the woodwork of the outside of cottages little need here be said ... The larger outside timbers in cottages, especially those built of studwork and nogging, in countries where labour is abundant and paint dear, may be charred by the application of fire before being put up. We have seen buildings, the timbers of which had been treated in this manner, in France and Germany; and in Switzerland we have seen cottages in which the timbers had been charred, after having been put up, by the application of red‑hot iron. The practice is not uncommon in some parts of Russia, not with a view to preservation, but for the purpose of ornamenting the very curious barge boards and gable ends which are sometimes seen on the cottages of enfranchised serfs in that country ... 
 N[audin], L'Ingenieur Francois (Paris, 1695), pp. 257 ‑ ,273.
 N[audin], L'Ingenieur Francois (Paris, 1695), p. 267.
 N[audin], L'Ingenieur Francois (Paris, 1695), p. 270.
 N[audin], L'Ingenieur Francois (Paris, 1695), p. 271.
A. M. Dijon ‑ J. 50, 1763.
Arch. Départ. Calvados, C 1335, April 15, 1778 as quoted in J.‑P. Bardet, Le Bâtiment (Paris, 1971), pp. 153 ‑ 160.
Archives du Calvados, Devis et détail estimatif des ouvrages, dressé le 21 avril 1785 as quoted in J.‑P. Bardet, Le Bâtiment (Paris, 1971), pp. 163 ‑ 169.
Archives du Calvados, Devis et détail estimatif des ouvrages, dressé le 21 avril 1785 as quoted in J.‑P. Bardet, Le Bâtiment (Paris, 1971), p. 168.
Archives du Calvados, Devis et détail estimatif des ouvrages: dressé le 21 avril 1785 as quoted in J.‑P. Bardet, Le Bâtiment (Paris, 1971), p. 174.
Archives du Calvados, Devis et détail estimatif des ouvrages, dressé le 21 avril 1785 as quoted in J.‑P. Bardet, Le Bâtiment (Paris, 1971), pp. 174 ‑ 175.
J. F. Monroy, Traité d'Architecture Pratique (Paris, 1789), pp. 164 ‑ 165.
 John Wood, An Essay Towards a Description of Bath (1749), pp. ???
André Rouquet, The Present State of the Arts in England (1755), pp. ??
 Historical MSS Commission Reports: Fourteenth Report (1924), Appendix IX, part iv.
 C11B, Volume 11, f. 201v, 205v, 207v; C11B Volume 14, f. 250; C11B, Volume 241v; C11B, Volume 19, f. 179, May 10, 1737.
 F1A, Port Dauphin Stores List for 1716, f. 181v‑181 bis (Vert de Montaigne); CllB, Volume 18, Storehouse List for 1736, f. ? (Vermillion); C11B, Volume 28, Storehouse List 1749, f. 264v (Vermillion); F1A, Vol. 31, July 12, 1733, f. 39 (35) (Indigo); CllB, Volume 17, Stores List for 1735, f. 225v (Vert de Grec); C11B, Volume 24, Stores List for 1742, f. 253v (Couperose Verte).
 F1A, Stores List for 1716, f. 158v‑159, 165v‑166; Port de Rochefort, Series 5E 2 ‑ 3, item 6, October 25, 1750.
 Archives de la Marine, Series B1, No. 41, January 9, 1719.
 C11B, Volume 12, November 28, 1731, f. 66v; See also, C11B, Volume 7, f. 306v, Stores List for August 1, 1724 to September 31, 1725.
 Port de Rochefort, Series 5E, 2‑2, item 6, Ocotober 25, 1750; Port de Rochefort, Series 1E, Vol 155, circa April 13, 1756; C11B, Volume 37, November 29, 1756, f. 207v, 212v; C11B, Volume 37, September 30, 1757, ff. 119v, 126 ‑ 126v; C11B, Volume 37, November 29, 1756, f. 207v; C11B, Volume 37, September 30, 1757, f. 119v.
 C11B, Volume 14, Stores List for 1733, f. 249; C11B, Volume 18, Stores list for 1736, f. 202v
C11B, Volume 15, October 31, 1734, f. 199; C11B, Volume 18, Stores List for 1736, ff. ??????.
 C11B, Volume 37, September 30, 1757, ff. 123v ‑ 124.
 C11B, Volume 37, September 30, 1757, ff. 119v, 120v, 123v‑124.
 C11B, Volume 21, November 12, 1739, f. 179v ‑ 180.
 C11B, Volume 14, October 22, 1733, f. 165v.
 C11B, Volume 21, November 12, 1739, ff. 179v ‑ 180.
 C11B, Volume 7, 1730, ff. 205v, 207v; C11B, Volume 7, October 1, 1725, f. 309v; C11B, Volume 12, [July 31, 1724], ff. 66v, 67v.
 C11B, Volume 7, October 1, 1725, f. 309v.
 F1A, Volume 25, December 10, 1726, ff. 28 ‑ 30.
 C11B, Volume 11, , ff. 205v, 207; C11B, Volume 12, October 1732, ff. 73v ‑ 83.
ff. 73v ‑ 83.
 C11B, Volume 13, December 31, 1732, ff. 167, 168; C11B, Volume 14, December 31, 1733, ff. 248, 255; C11B, Volume, 17, October 1, 1736, ff. 216v, 219v.
 C11B, Volume 17, October 1, 1736, ff. 209v, 216v, 219v, 225v; C11B, Volume 18, December 15, 1737, ff. 211v, 214v, 222v
 C11B, Volume 20, October 1, 1738, ff. 182v, 184v; C11B, Volume 21, November 2, 1739, ff. 195v, 199v, 204v, 207v; C11B, Volume 21, 1740, ff. 255v.
 C11B, Volume 21, 1740, ff. f. 225v, C11B, Volume 24, [1742?], ff. 241v, 260v, 261v, 264v, 265v.
 C11B, Volume 24, [1742?], f. 264v; C11B, Volume 14, December 31, 1733, f. 249; CllC, Volume 12, 1741, ff. 65v, 77v.
 C11B, Volume 24, [1742?], ff. 241v, 260v, 261v, 264 ‑ 264v, 265v.
 C11B, Volume 24, [1742?], ff. 241v, 256v, 260v, 261v, 264v, 265v, 278v.
 C11B, Volume 24, [1742?], ff. 260v, 265v.
 C11B, Volume 24, [1742?], ff. 241v, 260v, 261v, 264v, 265v.
 C11B, Volume 25, November 21, 1743, 150 ‑ 150v, f. 154v.
 C11C, Volume 12, 1744, f. 138. See also, C11B, Volume 26, November 6, 1744, f. 175.
 C11B, Volume 28, 30 [?], 1750, ff. 240v, 246, 264v, 265v.
 C11B, Volume 31, December 31, 1751, ff. 282v, 283v, 302v, 306v, 307v.
 C11B, Volume 31, December 31, 1751, ff. 282v, 283v, 284v, 302v, 306v, 307v.
 C11B, Volume 33, December 1752, 396v.
 C11B, Volume 33, December 1752, ff. 382v.
 C11B, Volume 33, December 1752, ff. 400v, 401v.
 C11B, Volume 33, December 1752, ff. 382v, 391v, 400v.
 Frederick John Thorpe, The Politics Of French Public ConstructionIn The Islands Of The Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1695 ‑ 1758 (Ottawa, September 1973), pp. 22 ‑ 33, 199 ‑ 201; Archives de la Marine, Series B1, No. 50, October 23 1719, f. 3.
 F3, Volume 51, June 10, 1718, pp. 193 ‑ 250; C11B, Volume 3, folios 121v ‑ 126v, December 30, 1718; C11B, Volume 4, March 7, 1719, ff. 278 ‑ 282; C11B, Volume 6, August 8, 1723, ff. 299 ‑ 308v; C11B, Volume 6, November 25, 1723, ff. 164 ‑ 167v.
 C11B, Volume 6, November 25, 172(3), f. 164.
 C11B, Volume 8, November 12, 1726, 165.
 C11B, Volume 9, October 7, 1727, f. 128; C11B, Volume 14,ff. 357v‑358, September 10, 1733; C11B, Volume 14, f. 345v, September 18, 1733; C11B, Volume 14, f. 311v, September 28, 1733.
 C11B, Volume 27, 1727, f. 315 ‑ 315v; See also, Blaine Adams, The Construction and Occupation of the King's Bastion Barracks (July 1971, pp. 35, 37.
 CllB, Volume 18, November 14, 1736, f. 103.
C11B, Volume 12, December 3, 1731, ff. 167v; C11B, Volume 11, September 18, 1730, f. 166v.
 C11B, Volume 12, December 3, 1731, f. 169; C11 B, Volume 11, September 18, 1730, f. 167.
Edits, Ordonnances Royaux, .... (Quebec, 1854), February 25, 1748, pp. 591 ‑ 605.
 Of all the buildings, perhaps the proposed Block 2 rubblestone residence of Duperrier and Rodrigue is the one where one might have at least found a reference to whitewashing. In 1737, they had contracted with Muiron, the Fortification Contractor, to build a home for them , which among other things, included roughcast walls; planed and molded joists; oak window sashes, doors, and door frames; and the latest styled mastic window glazing. G2, Volume 184, 1737, ff. 392 ‑ 394; G3, Carton 2046, Item 55, September 13, 1738.
building as charpente. The historical record also merely describes the building as wooden, but not covered with bevelled boards.
 G3, Carton 2040, December 15, 1729.
 G3, Carton 2040, December 29, 1733.
ANQ, November 21, 1729.
C11A, Vol. 76, 1 September 1741, f. 49v.
C11A, Vol. 82, 26 September 1744, ff. 179v‑180.
C11A, Vol. 82, 26 September 1744, f. 182.
Peter Kalm, Travels into North America .... (London, 1771), Volume 2, p. 144.
C11A, Vol. 93, November 8, 1749, ff. 425 ‑ 427v.
R. G. 8, C Series, Vol. 381, 2 May, 1778, ff. 13 ‑ 15.
John Lambert, Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America, in the years 1806, 1807, & 1808 (London, 1814), Volume 1, p. 151.
R. G. 8, C Series, Vol. 385, 19 June, 1809, pp. 131 ‑ 132.
R.G. 8, C SERIES, Vol 389, 20 June, 1815.
D. Dainville [Gustave Bossange], Beautés de histoire du Canada (Paris, 1821), p. 484
Joseph Sansom, Travels in Lower Canada .... (London, 1820), p. 16.
Extraits Des Archives Des Ministeres de la Marine et de la Guerre (Quebec, 1890), p. 177.
 [Bénigne Charles Fevret de Saint-Mesmin], "Journal of our navigation leaving from the port of Falmouth in England to that of Halifax in Nova Scotia," in Report of the Department of Public Archives for the Year 1946 (Ottawa: Edmond Cloutier, 1747), pp. xxiv-xxv. Original at the Newberry Library.
 NAC, R.G. 11, Vol. 4120, file 10962‑3, March, 1935/October 25, 1935; The document received the following stamp: 27420 APR [?]135; The PAC references can be found at: Fortress of Louisbourg Archives, RB 370, File 02 and 03.