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Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada
Storehouses of Louisbourg
by Christian Pouyez
[Christopher Moore, Translator]
Preliminary Architectural Studies,
Volume 04, Unpublished Report HG 02
(Fortress of Louisbourg, 1972,
Report Number H G 02 04 02 E)
The present report is based exclusively on the primary sources presently indexed in the Domestic Architecture File of the Fortress of Louisbourg archives. The documentation is abundant. Unfortunately it is too general to provide satisfactory answers to many questions about store houses. We have drawn all possible information from it.
In order to classify and interpret more than five hundred index cards which have been used in this study, we have established a file of note cards, an example of which is shown in appendix 2; on each card has been listed all our information on a single storehouse, even if the information comes from two or three different documents.
In the first chapter of this report, we will try to define the meanings of the terms storehouse (magasin) and boutique, after which we will analyse the given information: types of construction, designs and dimensions of storehouses. Finally we will consider structural details: windows, doors, floors, etc.
It should be noted immediately that we have left aside the study of storehouses in the military sense of the word, that is, as Robert (Dictionnaire alphabétique et analogigue de la langue franiçaise) defines them, buildings and premises designed to hold the munitions, provisions etc., necessary to an army. Hence we have not studied the King's Store house nor the Artillery Storehouse.
At first glance, it may seem superfluous to study, no matter how briefly, the terminological problems of a word as simple in appearance as storehouse. Such a study is necessary however, if only to establish clearly the difference between storehouse and boutique, and to show the precise sense of the terms in 18th century Louisbourg.
The boutique, in the 18th century just as today, was usually a part of the front of a house where a merchant displayed and sold his goods. According to the Encyclopédie, the boutique opened on the street and was situated on the ground floor of the house [NOTE 1]. This was the sense in which the term "boutique" was used at Louisbourg. It most often was a room, on the ground floor of a house, used for retail sales [NOTE 2]. Sometimes, though this seems to have been unusual, the boutique was not located in the merchant's house: Louis Delort's boutique, on lot A of block 4, was in the same building as his storehouse [NOTE 3].
Though it is fairly easy to define boutique, it is not the same for the term magasin. The dictionary definitions are simple: according to Robert, a magasin is above all a place of storage for merchandise for sale or preservation. Until the 19th century, the term designated a building of some importance, and one rarely found the confusion - common since then between magasin and boutique [NOTE 4]. The Encyclopédie confirms this definition. It describes a magasin as a
place where one houses merchandise, whether to sell it in parts or as packaged bales as wholesalers do, or to store it until an opportunity arrives to transport it to a boutique, as retailers do. The latter also call a storehouse the rear of a boutique where they put the best merchandise and that which they do not want to show [NOTE 5].
If we could abide by these definitions, a storehouse would be a warehouse strictly for commercial purposes. However the term had a much wider meaning at Louisbourg. After analysizing all the documentation presently available, we have concluded that "magasin" was a generic term, designating any building or part of a building used for the storage of goods or even for the shelter of livestock. These goods or livestock were not necessarily intended for sale. A few examples will illustrate the matter: in 1732 when an inventory was made of the widow Berrichon's storehouse, the following were found there:
(01) 170 quintaux of biscuits from Canada
(02) 26 quarts of flour
(03) 7 quarts of salted beef
(04) 9 large barrels of wine
(05) 13 quarts eau de vie: [TRANSLATOR: EAU de vie - Spirits, almost certainly brandy]
(06) 11 bricks of rozine [TRANSLATOR: Rozine - a not definitely identified substance]
(07) 8 casks of butter
In this case, the storehouse was in effect a warehouse, established to serve the business needs of Berrichon, who was a merchant [NOTE 6]. But there were also storehouses containing large quantities of supplies in the fishing settlements: at Niganiche (Ingonish), Le Brun owned three storehouses, one for salting and storing fish, the other two for housing the food, fishing equipment, and drink necessary to the settlement [NOTE 7]. Finally, it is common to find storehouses which belonged to men of Louisbourg who were not in commerce. In these cases, the storehouse would simply be a storage place: for example Joseph Dugas, a carpenter, had in the yard of his house a storehouse containing wine, rum, joiner's tools, a cart, a horse and three cows [NOTE 8]! Similarly, Marie Josèphe Le Borgne, wife of Sieur Dupont- Duvivier, used the storehouse adjoining her home "to [store?] supplies there" [NOTE 9].
Hence it must be clearly established that the term storehouse, as used at Louisbourg, does not always indicate commercial activity. Usually it was a generic term, the meaning of which must be determined for each particular case.
Another question arises which is very important for the reconstruction project: to what type of building was the term "storehouse" applied? We are not referring here to the type of construction (pickets [piquets], masonry etc. this will be covered later) but to the nature of the premises called a storehouse. Three possibilities can be seen: the storehouse could be part of a house and occupy a room or a side of it. It could also be a lean-to attached to a house. Again, it might be a separate building not [PAGE 6:] attached to any house. Table 1 shows the distribution of these possibilities in the positioning of storehouses. The six cases under the heading "Other" are the storehouses for which this information is unknown or dubious.
IN RELATION TO HOUSES
(01) IN THE HOUSE
(b)% of all storehouses = 14.4
(b) % of all storehouses = 24.5%
(b) % of all storehouses = 54.5;
(b) % of all storehouses = 6.6
(05) TOTAL NUMBER OF STOREHOUSES = 90
It must also be noted that an entire house could sometimes be used as a storehouse. There is one example of that in 1732: Sieur Tabois occupied the house situated on lot A of block 16, and made it a storehouse. We know for example that he added shelving in one of the cabinets, situated to the left of the entrance [NOTE 10]. It is also worth noting that in 1754 Daccarette's heirs had a building constructed "in the form of a storehouse and house", that is, with a ground floor used as a warehouse and the second floor as a house [NOTE 11].
Thus the term storehouse, in the sense given it at Louisbourg, covered a variety of situations. A storehouse could be used as a commercial building, as a supply depot for the fisheries, or simply as a storage for things which did not find their place elsewhere: that could mean food (bread, butter, drink), or tools, or even livestock. Storehouses could be situated in a house, or attached to one, or completely separate.
In this report, we will systematically leave aside any case of a storehouse located in a house, for it is evident that the architectural problems it poses are not of the same order as those raised by a storehouse in a lean-to or completely separate. Moreover, it is likely that the interior arrangement and even the architecture of buildings called storehouses varied according to the way each building was used. That would make necessary separate studies of storehouses according to their functions, but information is too scarce in this area for us to be able to complete such a project. In a word, the present study concerns storehouses whatever their function, as long as they were not located in a house.
DESIGN AND DIMENSIONS
The documentation presently indexed in the Domestic Architecture File has enabled us to gather information on seventy-one storehouses. That in no way means that we have the complete architectural details of these buildings: sometimes we know only the dimensions, other times the design, the dimensions and a few structural details. Consequently each case in this study has a different documentary base and we will specify the relevant documents each time.
(01) TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
Type of construction can be determined in only 33 of the 71 cases (Table 2).
STOREHOUSES: TYPES AND CONSTRUCTIONS
(01) SEPARATE STOREHOUSES: 13 OF PIQUETS CONSTRUCTION plus 11 OF CHARPENTE construction plus 3 OF MASONRY construction plus 22 of UNKNOWN construction = 49 STOREHOUSES
(02) ATTACHED STOREHOUSES: 4 of PIQUETS construction plus 2 of CHARPENTE construction plus 0 of MASONRY construction plus 16 of UNKNOWN construction = 22 STOREHOUSES
(03) TOTAL OF TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION : 17 PIQUETS plus 13 CHARPENTE plus 3 MASONRY construction plus 38 of UNKNOWN construction = 71 STOREHOUSES
(04) TOTAL OF SEPARATE AND ATTACHED STOREHOUSES: 49 SEPARATE plus 22 ATTACHED = 71 STOREHOUSES.
We have found very few references to storehouses of rubblestone or brick. The most common type is pickets [piquets], closely followed by charpente. There is rarely any specification of the type of construction of storehouses attached to houses, but it is likely that they were made with the same material as the house: we know the materials used for six attached storehouses and five are the same as the house. This is certainly an indication of the practice of the time. Moreover it is logical that an attached storehouse built at the same time as the house would be of the same material.
As one might expect, there was no standard size for storehouses. Their dimensions depended on a great many factors: the intended use of the building, the space available, the price the owner wished to pay, etc. Hence the dimensions we have picked out for use in Table 3 are purely for guidance. Lengths have been listed in ascending order. It is easy to see that no typical dimension presents itself. The most common dimensions are clustered around 20 to 29 pieds and 40 to 48 pieds, but the sample is too small to permit definite conclusion.
SELECTED DIMENSIONS OF STOREHOUSES (IN PIEDS)
(01) ATTACHED: Length 15 X Width 12
(02) ATTACHED: Length 21 X Width 48
(03) ATTACHED: Length 26 X Width 20
(04) ATTACHED: Length 33 X Width 20
(05) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 20 X Width 20; (06) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 22 X Width 15
(07) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 24 X Width 18; (08) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 28 X Width 18
(09) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 29 X Width 19
(10) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 29 X Width 25
(11) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 30 X Width 20
(12) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 38.5 X Width 19.5
(13) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 40 X Width 20
(14) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 40 X Width 20;
(15) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 45 X Width 20
(16) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 45 X Width 20.5
(17) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 48 X Width n.p.
(18) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 50 X Width 20
(19) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 59 X Width 22
(20) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 60 X Width 33
(21) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 66.5 X Width 33
(22) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 75 X Width 24
(23) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 80 X Width n.p.
(24) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 81 X Width 20
(25) SEPARATED STOREHOUSE: Length 100 X Width 30
Only about ten documents give descriptions of the design storehouses. Once again the information is vague and difficult to interpret. For example, what can we conclude when we know that a storehouse had one or more "upper rooms", or when we know that the upper part of a storehouse was used to store merchandise? The storehouse may have had a ground floor, an upper floor and an attic, or simply a ground floor and attic. The same problem arises with references to a storehouse with two floors. Does that actually mean ground floor, upper floor and attic or simply ground floor and attic? Since a firm conclusion cannot always be made, table 4 has a special classification for doubtful cases.
(01) Number of Storehouses with a CELLAR, GROUND FLOOR, AND ATTIC = 0
(02) Number of Storehouses with a GROUND FLOOR, AND ATTIC = 2;
(03) Number of Storehouses with a CELLAR, GROUND FLOOR, SECOND FLOOR, AND ATTIC = 2
(04) Number of Storehouses with a GROUND FLOOR, SECOND FLOOR, AND ATTIC = 1
(05) Number of Storehouses with an UNSPECIFIED DESIGN = 6
(06) TOTAL NUMBER OF STOREHOUSES STUDIED = 11
From the limited amount of information here, we can at least determine two things. First, it was fairly rare to have a storehouse with a cellar. The two store [PAGE 11:] houses that are known to have had cellars were buildings of stone. The others had none. Second, it seems strange that only two references to storehouses with a ground floor and an attic, can be found and none to storehouses with only a ground floor. It is likely that the six "doubtful cases" in table 4 were actually structures of these types.
Almost nothing is known about the interior layout of storehouses. We may assume that Louis Delort's storehouse (Block 14, Lot C) had at least two rooms downstairs and one above. There may have been other partitions but for the moment we have no proof of them [NOTE 12]. Details on the interior design of storehouses are given in only one other document, an agreement between Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company and Dubenca, a carpenter, for the construction of a storehouse of 60.5 pieds by 33 pieds. The building was to have a ground floor, second floor and attic. It was intended that the ground floor would be partitioned into two storehouses, one at either side of the entry. A kitchen was also to be included. The second floor was reserved for rooms and antechambers, though the precise number of these is not given [NOTE 13]. It seems clear that this building was intended to be both storehouse and home. Consequently we cannot infer design details of other storehouses from it.
(01) WINDOW, WINDOW-FRAMES, EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR SHUTTERS
In this section, the term "window" will be used to refer to the entire opening, for a window, and "sash" (croisée) means the glassed window frame usually placed in windows. Exterior shutters (contrevents) and interior shutters (volets) could also be placed in windows.
Some storehouses had no windows at all. Of twelve storehouses studied, two had no windows - their only opening was the door [NOTE 14]. However most did have windows. This raises the question of whether they had glassed sashes or simply exterior and/or interior shutters. From the available information - unfortunately very limited - it must be judged that there was no general rule. A single storehouse had glassed sashes and exterior shutters in all its windows [NOTE 15]. Five others had exterior shutters but no glassed sashes [NOTE 16]. In three other cases where we know there were windows, we do not know whether there were glassed sashes or simply exterior shutters in them. One document, the agreement about the charpente storehouse built for Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company [NOTE 17], gives numerous details about windows. We have listed them below.
(i) Ground floor:
Storehouse windows with two iron bars "eclanchées" and closed inside with interior shutters mounted on two pintles, two (horizontal) hinges and a bolt. The meaning of the adjective "eclanchées" is not clear, [PAGE 13:] but it may mean that the flat iron bars were barbed on the sides. In the kitchen, the windows had glassed sashes with 24 panes each 7 by 8 pouces.
(ii) Second floor:
(01) The windows facing the street had double windows: two glassed sashes of 24 panes of 7 by 8 pouces each. The interior frame was mounted with hinges à vase and a spring-bolt.
(02) The eight antechamber windows facing, the yard had single leaf window frames (croisées bâtardes) with 18 panes of 7 by 8 pouces. The interior frame also had hinges à vase and a spring-bolt.
The attic had six dormers, three overlooking the yard and three overlooking the street. The sash had 18 panes 7 pouces long each. The height of each pane is unspecified. The frames were mounted on two pintles with vertical strap hinges and had one hook each.
All the sashes were made of pine.
Hence there is a combination of windows without frames in the part to serve as a storehouse and windows with frames for the rest of the building. Only the frames of the second floor were double, probably because that was the residence. It should be noted that this storehouse is the only example of windows closed with interior shutters.
Our information on doors is limited almost entirely to the means used to close them. The agreement about the Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company storehouse gives a few details on types of doors [NOTE 18]. We know that the building was intended to have three doors on the street: a main door, 4 pieds 6 pouces wide by 7 pieds high, mounted on four pintles and four hinges, closed by a lock, two bolts and a buttress (arc-boutant). Besides that door, each of the two storehouses on the ground floor was to have a door 3 pieds wide. On the second floor, the doors of rooms and antechambers were made of local boards assembled in three panels. That is all the information we have on types of doors. For further detail one may wish to refer to Linda Hoad's report [NOTE 19].
Means of closing doors were varied. We have information on about twenty doors, both interior and exterior. Interior doors include two closed with padlocks, and one with a lock and key [NOTE 20]. The Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company building had a lock and a latch on its second floor doors [NOTE 21]. That is a special case, however, for that floor was a residence rather than a storehouse.
Entry doors had key locks in seven cases [NOTE 22]. In two other cases are found, respectively, (01) a lock and a bar in one case, and (02) a lock, two bolts and a buttress in the other [NOTE 23]. Two doors closed with only a bolt [NOTE 24], and another with a padlock [NOTE 25], and another with a bar [NOTE 26].
Means of closing were clearly numerous, but locks were the types most frequently used.
There is almost no information on the kind of stairs which might have been found in storehouses. They may have been simply steep narrow staircases called ship ladders or something larger, but it is impossible to judge at present. Only the estimates for the Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company building specify that the steps and risers and the string-wall of the stairs were to be of hardwood [NOTE 27]. This staircase was more than a simple ship ladder, since it had risers, but once again it should be remembered that this building was a residence as well as a storehouse.
Only three documents make direct reference to the inclusion of partitions in storehouses, and only one discusses them in detail. It specifies that the partitions were to be made of the thickest type of local boards [NOTE 28]. One cannot conclude from the scarcity of references to partitions that storehouses generally did not have them. The sources simply neglect to mention them and we have only indirect evidence about most partitions. The Delort storehouse (Block 14, lot C) had partitions, since there were rooms on both floors, but the partitions are not specified in the document [NOTE 29].
Once again the only document with details on the topic is the agreement between Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company and Dubenca. The storehouse, built of timber was to rest on a foundation of piles:
... the foundation will be made of piles driven as deep as possible with a ram, placed three pieds apart. On top of the said piles will [PAGE 16:] be placed pieces of pine or spruce at least twenty pieds long by seven or eight pouces thick. These pieces will be fitted "à oreille" on the piles with a planking nail for each one [NOTE 30].
The piles were to be driven in as deeply as possible by a ram and the joists on the piles were to be fitted "à oreille" (which may mean that cuts were made in the joists to fit over the heads of the piles).
The report by Brenda Dunn, published in Preliminary Architectural is recommended for information about floors. We have only found ten references to floors in the documentation on storehouses.
In three cases, storehouses had earthen floors [NOTE 31]. One may have had a picket [piquet] floor [NOTE 32], and the flooring, is unspecified in the six remaining cases.
(07) WALL COVERINGS
Other than the agreement about the Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company storehouse, to which we will return, only two documents provide information of wall coverings. Each case is an exterior covering on a store-house made of charpente: one had an exterior covering of English boards [NOTE 33], the other was covered on three sides by boards bevelled "à sifflet" [TRANSLATOR: à sifflet: Boards were frequently bevelled so that the joint between them was tighter and more waterproof. The bevel could be made at various angles. A sifflet refers to one of the standard angles]. The gable end was covered with boards and shingles [NOTE 34].
The estimate for the Beaubassin storehouse planned the following coverings [NOTE 35]:
(i) Exterior coverings:
Planed Boston planks bevelled " à sifflet" to the level of the second floor;
above the second floor Boston boards with a one-pouce overlap "à sifflet.
(ii) Interior coverings:
In the storehouses: the walls were to be covered with pickets [piquets], clamped with laths and rough-cast.
In the kitchen: squared pickets [piquets], roughcast with clayey earth below and mortar above, and whitewashed.
In the rooms and antechambers of the second floor: squared pickets [piquets] coated with clayey earth, rough-cast with mortar and whitewashed.
As a rule, storehouses had no chimneys [NOTE 36]. They have only been found on three storehouses, which may be considered exceptional. The old lodging for troops, sold to Guillaume Delort in 1715 and henceforth used as a storehouse, had a chimney [NOTE 37]. A storehouse belonging to Vallée which faced Rue du port had a chimney in the center: the storehouse was joined to a small house which also belonged to Vallée [NOTE 38]. The Beaubassin building had several chimneys: one for the kitchen and the others for the rooms upstairs.
It may be noted that there were none in the storehouse area [NOTE 39]. [PAGE 18:] It may be concluded that storehouses did not have chimneys, unless they also were or had been inhabited.
Materials used for the roofing of storehouses have been studied in the report on roofs and roofings [NOTE 40]. That report is recommended as a source of further information on roofings. The table in it which concerns storehouses is reproduced here.
TYPE OF ROOFINGS AND TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
(01)Construction type: SHINGLES
- Construction type: PICKETS [PIQUETS] 1; TIMBER 2; STONE 0; BOARDS 0; UNKNOWN 3; TOTAL 6
(02) Roofing type: PLAN - [TRANSLATION - Plan: Possibly similar to bark roofing. Very little information is available on it. It is discussed in Blaine Adams' report on Piquets, pp. 8, 9 and Toits et Couvertures par Christian Pouyez p.15. Both reports are included in Preliminary Architectural Studies.
- Construction type: PICKETS [PIQUETS] 0; TIMBER 0; STONE 0; BOARDS 0; UNKNOWN 1; TOTAL 1
(03) Roofing type: SIMPLE BOARDS
- Construction type: PICKETS [PIQUETS] 5; TIMBER 2; STONE 0; BOARDS 0; UNKNOWN 0; TOTAL 7
(04) Roofing type: BARK
- Construction type: PICKETS [PIQUETS] 1; TIMBER 0; STONE 0; BOARDS 0; UNKNOWN 0; TOTAL 1
(05) Roofing type: DOUBLE BOARDS
- Construction type: PICKETS [PIQUETS] 0; TIMBER 0; STONE 0; BOARDS 0; UNKNOWN 0; TOTAL 0
(06) Roofing type: TOTALS
- Construction type: PICKETS [PIQUETS] 7; TIMBER 4; STONE 0; BOARDS 0; UNKNOWN 4; TOTAL 15.
This report on storehouses is only a preliminary study. It should be completed when there is an opportunity to do so, using all the sources not currently indexed, the historical and archaeological studies of certain properties in Louisbourg, and the map file.
It is easy to see that a report like this does not lend itself to the drawing of general conclusions: our time will not have been wasted if this report merely clarifies some ideas and begins the solution of certain problems.
The text of "Marche entre Mr. Beaubassin et Dubenca" concerning the building of a storehouse for Beaubassin, Sylvain and Company will be found as an appendix to this report.
[PAGE 20:] [NOTE 1:] Diderot, Encyclopédie, article BOUTIQUE. Robert, Dictionnaire alphabétique et analogique de la langue française, article BOUTIQUE. [NOTE 2:] Voir le Fichier d'Architecture Civile, à l'article BOUTIQUE. [NOTE 3:] Inventaire chez la veuve Delort. Louisbourg, 22 décembre 1753. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G 2 vol. 202, no 296. [NOTE 04:] Robert, Dictionnaire... article MAGASIN. [NOTE 5:] Diderot, Encyclopédie, article MAGASIN. [NOTE 6:] Succession de la veuve Berrichon. Louisbourg, 19 mai 1732. A.N., Section Outre-Mer G2, vol. 208, pièce 44. [NOTE 7:] Affaire Le Brun-La Boularderie. Louisbourg, 27 septembre 1726. A.N., Section Outre-Mer G2 vol. 180, fol. 365. Voir aussi: Scellé et inventaire chez Pierre Bullot. St Pierre, 26 juin 1774. A.N., C741, fol. 9-10. [NOTE 8:] Inventaire des effets de Joseph Dugas. Louisbourg, 19 septembre 1733. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 182, fol. 629-660. [NOTE 9:] Inventaire de la succession de défunte Marie Josèphe Le Borgne. Louisbourg, 21 juin 1754. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3 carton 2042, no. 60. [NOTE 10:] Procédure faite à cause du vol dans le magasin du Sr Tabois. Louisbourg, 9 octobre 1732. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 181, fol. 489-499. [PAGE 21] [NOTE 11:] Transaction entre les héritiers Daccarette. Louisbourg, 12 décembre 1754. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2043, no. 45. [NOTE 12:] Vol dans le magasin Delort. Louisbourg, 8 août 1740. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2. vol. 186, fol. 232. Les dimensions de ce magasin sont données dans: Vente d'un terrain: Le Neuf de la Vallière à Delort. Louisbourg, 6 octobre 1739. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G 3 carton 2046, pt. 1, no. 118. [NOTE 13:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 14:] Succession de Pierre Lambert. Louisbourg, 25 mars 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer G 2, vol. 205, no. 393. Voir aussi: Plumitif... concernant la maison de feu Lambert, rue St Louis (15C). Louisbourg, 10 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 206, no. 417, fol. 32. [NOTE 15:] Bail à loyer: Joseph Brisson à Gérôme Larrieux. Louisbourg, 23 février 1753. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2041 suite, no. 32. [NOTE 16:] (i) Réparations dans une maison. Louisbourg, 7 aoct 1752. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 208, dossier 475, piéce 72. (ii) Muiron. Louisbourg, 6 novembre 1743. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 183, fol. 179. (iii) Bail à loyer: Jean Claparéde à Jacques Brunet. Louisbourg, 1er juin 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2045, no. 67. [NOTE 17:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 18:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [PAGE 22] [NOTE 19:] Linda Hoad, Doors, in: Preliminary Architectural Studies, vol. 1. [NOTE 20:] (i) Vol dans le magasin Delort (14C). Louisbourg, 8 août 1740. A.N., Section Outre- Mer G2 vol. 186, fol. 232. (ii) Apposition de scellés après la mort de la Veuve Berrichon. Louisbourg, 28 avril 1732. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G2 vol. 208, dossier 476, pièce 41. (iii) Inventaire des effets du Sr Nicolas Berrichon. Louisbourg, 4 avril 1721. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 208, dossier 476, pièce 1. [NOTE 21:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 22:] (i) Bail à loyer: Jean Claparède à Jacques Brunet. Louisbourg, 1er juin 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3 carton 2045, no. 67. (ii) Succession de Pierre Lambert. Louisbourg, 25 mars 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2 vol. 205, no. 393. (iii) Bail à loyer: Angélique Bultel à Elie Allenet. Louisbourg, 12 septembre 1757. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2045, no. 37. (iv) Bail à loyer: Pierre Boisseau à Guillaume Lecraiy. Louisbourg, 3 septembre 1743. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, 2047, pt. 1, no. 57. (v) Scellés chez Dolhabarats à Saint Esprit. Louisbourg, 13 septembre 1735. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 194, no. 238. (vi) Concernant une clef du magasin Boisseau. Louisbourg, 21 septembre 1739. A.N., Section Outre-Mer G2, vol. 190, reg. 61. [PAGE 23] (vii) Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 23:] (i) Vol de marchandises chez Antoine Castaing. Louisbourg, 11 novembre 1751. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 210, dossier 517, pièce 1. (ii) Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 24:] (i) Bail à loyer: Pierre Boisseau à Guillaume Lecraiy. Louisbourg, 3 septembre 1743. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2047, pt.1, no. 57. (ii) Apposition de scellés après la mort de la Vve Berrichon. Louisbourg, 28 avril 1732. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2 vol. 208, dossier 476, pièce 41. [NOTE 25:] Réparations dans une maison, Louisbourg, 7 août 1752. A.N., Section Outre- Mer G3 vol. 208, dossier 475, pièce 72. [NOTE 26:] Vol dans le magasin Delort. Louisbourg, 8 août 1740. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2 vol. 186 fol. 232. [NOTE 27:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 28:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 29:] Brenda Dunn, A preliminary study of floors in Louisbourg in: Preliminary Architectural Studies., vol. 1. [NOTE 30:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 31:] (i) Bail à loyer: Jean Claparède à Jacques Brunet. Louisbourg, 1er juin 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2045, no. 67. (ii) Bail à loyer: Guillaiime Delort pour Rousseau de Villejoin à Gombert. Louisbourg, 14 octobre 1754. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2043, no. 24. [NOTE 32:] Certificat de l'Hermitte, joint à la lettre de Lagrange. Paris, 27 janvier 1717. A.N., Col., C11C, vol. 15 suite, pièce 230. [PAGE 24] [NOTE 33:] (i) Bail à loyer: héritiers Bottier à Nicolas Bottier. Louisbourg, 19 septembre 1735. A.N., Section Outre-Mer G3, carton 2039, pt. 1, no. 134. (ii) Bail à loyer: héritiers Bottier à Louis Jouet. Louisbourg, 3 janvier 1739. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2046, pt. 1, no. 146. [NOTE 34:] Réparations dans une maison. Louisbourg, 7 août 1752. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2. vol. 208, dossier 475, pièce 72. [NOTE 35:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 36:] Henri-Paul Thibault, "Heating and cooking facilities in private dwellings in Louisbourg (1713-1758)", in: Preliminary Architectural Studies, vol. 1. [NOTE 37:] Estimation faite par les Srs Lelarge et Morin.... Louisbourg, 19 octobre 1715. A.N., Col., C11B, vol. 1, f. 255v. [NOTE 38:] Partage successoral. Louisbourg, s.d. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 205, no. 395. [NOTE 39:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 53. [NOTE 40:] Christian Pouyez, "Rapport préliminaire sur les toits et couvertures", in: Preliminary Architectural Studies, vol. 2.