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Researching the Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
  Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada


Outbuildings of Louisbourg

by Victor J. H. Suthren

In Historians,
Preliminary Architectural Studies,
Volume 03, Unpublished Report HG 02
(Fortress of Louisbourg, 1972,
Report Number H G 02 04 01)


This report undertakes a preliminary structural study of several designated types of outbuildings. The term "outbuilding" is assumed to refer to all auxiliary as opposed to central structures. The latter are hereinafter referred to as "primary" structures.

Where possible, distinction has been made between free-standing auxiliary structures and those incorporated in, or dependent upon, the structure of a primary building. It will be seen in this regard that the designation "outbuilding" can be appropriate due to role as well as construction and position.



The following buildings constitute the general body of what should be considered as the main outbuilding types, This report examines those outbuildings for which sufficient data existed in the Domestic Architecture File to merit worthwhile consideration.

(i) appenti(t) lean- to; out-house; shed

(ii) brasserie brewery

(iii) buanderie wash-house; laundry

(iv) cabanne small cabin; hut

(v) cabanot shed

(vi) cellier store-room; wine storage shed; lean-to

[Page 4:]

(vii) cuisine kitchen [here used as detached or "summer kitchen"]

(viii) décharge lumber or wood-room; storage hut[?]

(ix) dépendance outlying building; farm shed

(x) écurie stable

(xi) étable barn

(xii) forge blacksmith's forge; smithy's shop

(xiii) grange barn

(xiv) hanger open shed; shelter; lean-to

(xv) porcherie piggery; pigsty

(xvi) poulailler hen-house; hen roost

(xvii) remise coach-house

(xviii) vivier fish pond; fish storage [?]

In each case examination is made under five main headings: location; use; size and dimensions; construction; and doors and windows.




Mention is made of a cabaneau built in lean-to style adjacent to a guardhouse, and in this case the lean-to was located at the rear of the guardhouse, and ran the full length of the rear wall [NOTE 1]. This guardhouse is identified as:

corps de Garde de la Pièce de la Grave Scitué a 1'Epaule de la face gauche de la dite Pièce cotté 7...

Guardhouse of the Pièce de la Grave situated on the shoulder of the left face of the said Pièce 7 !

[PAGE 5:]

This format of guardhouse and lean-to on the back is repeated for the "right hand" guardhouse or the Maurepas gate:

Deux corps de Garde de la porte de Maurepas ... Celui de la Droite ... Sur le derrière est adossé un cabaneau aussi en appenty...

two guardhouses for the Maurepas gate ... that of the right ... on the rear of which is backed a cabaneau as well in lean-to style ... [NOTE 2].

Another entry identifies the lean-to position as being either the rear or side of the primary structure:

Un petit magasin en appentit aussi de piquets couvert en planche joignant au pignon de lad. Maison du costé de l'etang ...

a small storehouse in lean-to style also of picket [piquet] [construction] roofed with boards adjoining the gable end of the said house on the side of the pond ... [NOTE 3].

[PAGE 6:]

A further entry specifically identifies a lean-to serving as a storehouse located on the site of the building in question [NOTE 4]. The final entry refers to a lean-to placed to the north of a house located on the corner of Rue St. Louis and Rue d'Orleans, contiguous to one of the rooms of the house, but without further detail including as to how access to the lean-to was gained [NOTE 5]

(b) USE

One direct reference though not in Louisbourg, is made to the use of a lean-to as a henhouse:

un petit cabanot pour les poulles [a small lean-to cabanot for the hens [NOTE 6].

An entry for Louisbourg, however, refers to a small lean-to serving as a hen house and storehouse [NOTE 7]. In this same inventory is mentioned another "small lean-to" adjoining the house which is identified as being used as a storehouse [Magasin] with a contents list including flour, lard, butter in a barrel and so on [NOTE 8]. The lean-to [PAGE 7:] cabaneau built on the back of the Pièce de la Grave guardhouse, admittedly a military structure, is listed as a fuel storehouse, in order to heat the building:

... a usage de Magasin au charbon, pour le Chauffage du Poste [NOTE 9].


The dimensions of the lean-to at the rear of the Pièce de la Grave guardhouse is given as the length of the guardhouse [42 pieds] and 8 pieds in width [NOTE 10]. The lean-to on the rear of the Right Guardhouse of the Maurepas Gate is not as long as the guardhouse itself [22 pieds 9 pouces] but rather 21 pieds long by 8 pieds 2 pouces wide; it is added belatedly that the purpose of this lean-to is given as the same as that of the Pièce de la Grave: fuel storage [NOTE 11].

The small lean-to storehouse adjoining the building torn down to allow construction of the Dauphin fortification is given as being 15 pieds long by 12 pieds wide, [NOTE 12]


Only one entry exists at present with door and/or window data, which indicates a simple door with some form of key lock, but no windows.

[PAGE 8:]

... entrer dans un apartis et louverture en ayant été ouverte nous n'avons trouvé dans iceluy aucune ouverture que la porte de lentrée pourquoy nous-avons fait refermer lad parte de la chef

[entered] in a lean-to (and) the door being open. We did not find in here any opening but the entry door, which is why we had the said door closed by key ... [NOTE 13]


Piquet construction is mentioned in several earlier, but with varying forms of roofing. One lean-to serving as a henhouse is identified as built of "piquet couvert decorse" [piquet roofed with bark" [NOTE 14] while another, serving as a storehouse, is listed as:

un petit magasin en appentit aussi de piquets couvert en planche

a small lean-to storehouse also of piquet [construction] roofed with boards]. [NOTE 15].

The lean-to of the Corps de Garde or the Pièce de la Grave is simply mentioned as "construit en bois" [constructed in wood] [NOTE 16], while that of the Right Maurepas Gate Guardhouse is specified as of charpente construction [NOTE 17].


Data on breweries and brew-houses is minimal, consisting in two cases of simple mention of the presence of a brewery:

Une habitation consistent en Une Maison ayant à chaque Bout un petit magasin un chaffeaud Deux cabannes La graves et une chaudiere à Bierre pour les Equipages

a dwelling consisting of one house, having at each end a small storehouse, a fish-drying rack, two cabannes, the gravel beach and a beer boiler for the crews [NOTE 18]


... lis y ont fait des bastions vides qui contrenant chacun un petit batiment de charpente deux du quils servent de magazin pour les vivres un de brasserie et lautre de cuisine.

[PAGE 10:]

There they have built empty bastions which contain each a small building [of charpente construction] two of which serve as storehouses for victuals one as brewery the other as kitchen [NOTE 19]

The third entry suggests that a typical brewery might consist of a boiler or cauldron housed in a small building:

... a fait bâtir appuyé sur au rocher à côté du ruisseau une petite cabanne, ou il y a une chaudière à bierre ...

... had built up against a rock at the site of the rivulet a small cabanne, where there is a beer boiler ...] [NOTE 20]

Conclusions possible on brasseries are that those mentioned appear to be freestanding buildings; at least one of these is of charpente construction; and one appears to house boiling equipment or brewery cauldrons of some sort.



The sole buanderie entry deals with terms of a rental agreement; nonetheless of interest:

... plus à la Charge que le Preneur Fera Entourer la Cave au dedans de planches & ses frais et depens et deupecher que personne ne Lave La Lessive et Luy même se dispensera de la Laver dans lade maison afin que le Plancher sort mieux conservé Et en consideration de ce Le Bailleur fera raccommode une cabanne qu'il y a, propre à y laver...

as well at the stipulation that the tenant is to surround the cellar with boarding at his expense and cost and to prevent anyone from washing it in the said house in order that the floor may be better preserved. And in consideration of this the landlord is to refurnish a Cabanne which exists suitable for laundering ... [NOTE 21].




No consistent pattern appears evident of cabanne placement on property while in the sub-building role: a cabanne may lie at the [PAGE 12:] extremity of a property or be indicated, without detail, as "attached":

... d'un maison Scitué au barachois de Cette Ville, avec ses dependancer. Concistant d'un cotté au une chambre et deux cabinets et grenier audessus, d'autre cotté en un grand apartement, on il y a cheminée et plusiers Cabannes attaches ...

... of a house situated on the barachois of town, with its outbuildings, consisting on one side of a room and two cabinets and granary above, on the other side of a large apartment, where there is a fire-place, and numerous attached Cabannes [NOTE 22].

Cabanne location in rental bills, inventories and so on is specified only as required by the circumstances: generally such location is vague and imprecise:

... a Scavoir Les maisons, cabannes, Boulangerie magazin court jardin, vigneau, grave, Et chauffaux delhabitation dudt Deffunet Sieur Pair Scitué sur la grave de cette Ville entre la porte Dauphine et le Passage ...

[PAGE 13:]

To Wit: the houses, cabannes, bakery, storehouse, courtyard, garden, flake, beach and fish drying racks of the said deceased Sr. Paris situated on the beach of this town between the Dauphine gate and the crossing ... [NOTE 23]

Cabannes are indicated for demolition in an entry concerning, quay and fortification construction [NOTE 24]. Remaining entries provide a range from specific cabanne location through general location. In one latter case one finds the following:

Ensuite nous sommes transportez à la pointe de Rochefort ou nous avons trouvez ce qui suit Scavoir deux cabannes contigue ltune a l'autre, ...

Thereafter we went to Rochefort Point where we found that which follows To Wit two cabannes adjoining one to the other ... [NOTE 25].

A few entries make specific location references as in the following inventory:

[PAGE 14:]

Item un terrain au St. Esprit sur la banc de la grave a tribord en entrant d'Environ dix toises ou il y a une mauvaise cabanne un echaufaud estimé le tout

Item. A plot [belonging to] St. Esprit on the side of the beach on the starboard [right] in entering around ten toises where there is a [decrepit] cabanne a fish drying rack estimated the whole ... ] [Note 26.

A description which gives some indication of cabanne usage, the next consideration, involves a location on the Côté du Nord:

... A Scavoir lhabitation de pesche apartenant audit Detchevelard Scitué du coté du nord de ce port Confenant [sic] toises de face tant en grave que vigneaux avec la cabane de pesche qui avoit accontumé de loyer au Capitaine de navire ne se reservant que Son logement dans une pache de la dite Cabane du coté du Nord de la cheminée double: ainsi quil l'occupe actuellement ...

[PAGE 15:]

To Wit: The fishing building belonging to the said Detchevelard situated on the north side of this port containing fifty-five toises along the face, as much in beach as actually occupies it; with the fishing cabanne which he had contracted to rent to [the] ship's captain reserving only his lodging in a part of the said cabanne on the north side of the double chimney; truly he occupies it in actuality ... [NOTE 27].

An inventory entry locates a plot "de soixante pieds sur la rue Dauphine dans Lisle du Plant [sic]" in which is described "une petite cabane presque hors de service ..." [a small cabanne almost out of use] [NOTE 28].

Rue Dauphine provides the locale for the remaining entry which pinpoints cabanne location to any degree. This initially mentions a:

cabanne de picquet converte de corse d'autre ayant face sur la rue Dauphine et l'emplacement enclo de picquet

cabanne of picket construction roofed with bark facing on Rue Dauphine, and the emplacement enclosed with pickets [piquets] [NOTE 29].

Following this, a small cabanne of picket [piquet] construction roofed [PAGE 16:] "en planche angloise" [English boards] is listed, facing as well on Rue Dauphine [NOTE 30]. A last mention is made of an old cabanne [une vielles cabane] on the same Rue Dauphine plot as the above examples [NOTE 31].

(b) USE

In at least two cases cabannes are given as the locale of forges. The first indicates a lot of Rue Dauphine:

sur lequel il y a une petite Cabane presque hors de service qui sert de forge

on which there is a small cabanne almost unusable which serves as a forge [NOTE 32].

The second refers to a cabanne which serves as a forge and lodging for workers as well [NOTE 33].

Considerable use of cabannes was made in the fishing industry, both as work and storage sheds and possibly as housing for the fishermen. Exemplifying the former in the entry for:

un autre petit Cabane Joignant a celle cy dessus si est trouvé environs dix Bariques de Sel qui Servent actuellement a luzage de la peche

another small cabanne adjoining the one above [here] was found about ten casks of salt which in fact serves for use in fishing [NOTE 34].

At least eight specific entries refer to cabannes [PAGE 17:] used "pour les pescheurs", "servant pour les pescheurs", without however specifying whether this indicates lodging in the cabannes or using them as workshops, boat sheds, and so on. One clue for the former comes in the entry which lists:

une cabane pour le logement des Equipages paicheurs et graviers que nous avons estimés...

la cabanne for the lodging of the crews fishermen and beachmen which we have estimated at...] [NOTE 35].

The probability is that cabannes served both work and living purposes, although not necessarily simultaneously.

In at least one case, a cabanne appears to have housed animals:

Item dans un petit Cabanne Sest trouvé deux petits cochons ...

Item. In a small cabanne were found two little pigs... [NOTE 36].

In another use of a cabanne as a wine shop cum tavern appears:

Le nommé Grosnier habitant de lIsle Royalle a baty en pierre une maison dans le distance de 350 toises des fortiffications de la ville de Louisbourg quil yen a aussy plusieurs autres qui ont baty des barraques on cabannes pour y vendre du vin et tenir cabaret ...

The named crosnier inhabitant of Isle Royalle was built in stone a house within the distance of 350 toises from the fortifications of the town of Louisbourg. [There are] also many [PAGE 18:] others who have built barracks or cabannes so as to sell wine there or [maintain] a cabaret [NOTE 37].

The cabanne appears to have served as a barrack or "bunkhouse", as evinced by the entry for:

... ayant meme baty cinq cabannes on pedant lhyver il y en vingt a trente hommes pour y abatre les tous

having similarly built five cabannes where during the winter there were twenty to thirty men to cut wood [NOTE 38].

This is supported by the following:

... Je n'aurois qu'un mois de beau temps avant les rigueurs de l'hyver, pour aller dans les bois, y faire construire quelques cabanes de piquets, calfetes avec de la mousse, couvertes de planches, avec une cheminee de pierre seiche, un peu de terre glaise parny, si l'on trouve suivant l'usage, pour y faire hyvernee des soldats de bonne volonte et matelots

... I would have but one month of good weather before the rigours of winter, to go into the woods, there to have built several picket [piquet] cabannes, chinked with moss, roofed with boards, [PAGE 19:] with a fireplace of dry stone, a bit of glazed earth [brick] among it if one finds it used, so as to have stay over winter the willing soldiers and sailors][NOTE 39].

There would appear to be little doubt that cabannes served for private dwellings in some cases they housed a fairly heterogeneous collection of household retainers and wage-earners, as in the entry for:

une cabanne ou loge son forgeron, charpentier, et tonnelier, et cinq garcons

a cabanne where lives his blacksmith, carpenter and cooper, and five boys [NOTE 40].

At least one other cabanne is mentioned as a servant's quarters:

une cabanne Servant pour domestique [NOTE 41]


Compilation of measurements of eleven cabannes entries allow the following figures to be produced:


(a) Cabanne No. 1: Length = 24 pieds; Width = 18 pieds

(b) Cabanne No. 2: Length = 30 pieds; Width = 16 pieds

(c) Cabanne No. 3: Length = 26 pieds; Width = 18 pieds

(d) Cabanne No. 4: Length = 32 pieds; Width = 18 pieds

(e) Cabanne No. 5: Length = 38 pieds; Width = 17 pieds

(f) Cabanne No. 6: Length = 36 pieds; Width = 16 pieds

(g) Cabanne No. 7: Length = 19 pieds; Width = 18 pieds

(h) Cabanne No. 8: Length = 30 pieds; Width = 16 pieds

(i) Cabanne No. 9: Length = 36 pieds; Width = 16 pieds

(j) Cabanne No. 10: Length = 38 pieds; Width = 18 pieds

(k) Cabanne No. 11: Length = 26 pieds; Width = 18 pieds.


(a) Smallest width = 16 pieds

(b) Greatest width = 18 pieds

(c) Average width = 17.2 pieds

(d) Smallest width = 304 sp. pieds

(e) Smallest length = 19 pieds

(f) Greatest length = 38 pieds

(g) Average length = 30.5 pieds

(h) Greatest area = 684 sq. pieds.

No significant deviation from these dimensional ranges was found.

[PAGE 20:]


In careful examination of construction information, one tendency presented itself: that of the preponderance of picquet construction matched with bark or board roofing. It would appear that these two roofing methods jointly made up the majority of cabanne roofing, with board costing somewhat more than bark [NOTE 42]. A typical bark-roof entry is exemplified in the following, which mentions:

... Sur lequel terrain est batit une petit Maison ou cabanne de piquet converte decorse d'arbre ayant face sur la Rue dauphine ...

... on which plot is built a small house or cabanne of picket [piquet] [construction] roofed with tree bark, facing on Rue Dauphine ... [NOTE 43].

References to board roofing almost without exception take the form of a mention of:

une Cabanne Batie sur picquets Couverte de planches

a cabanne built of [on] pickets [piquets] roofed with boards] [NOTE 44].

Less material is [PAGE 21:] present in reference to sod or earthen roofing, as in:

une cabanne ... construite de piquets ... et couverte de Plan de terre ...

a cabanne... built of pickets [piquets] ... and roofed with sod [NOTE 45].

In a number of entries, isolated mention of structural features occur, albeit too few in number to permit generalization. Mention is made of:

cabanes et autres petits bastiments de planches et charpente ...

cabannes and other small buildings of board and woodwork [NOTE 46],

suggesting that picquet was not universally the structural pattern. One entry indicates:

une cabanne neuve ... planchée de madriers de Canada, et lambricée de planshes de Din...

a new cabanne ... floored with Canada beams and panelled with boards of pine [NOTE 47],

providing some insight into more complex interior finish. On Scatary Island there was said to exist a:

grande cabanne l'ambrissée de planches ...

large cabanne panelled with boards [NOTE 48].

One reference is made to a cabanne which was said to contain a "cheminée double", or double fireplace [NOTE 49].

The question of cabanne doors and windows remains unclear due to the lack of numerous specific references to them. There exists, however, the following detail for a cabanne only slightly larger than average size:

[PAGE 22:]

Une cabanne en piquet qui aura trente six pieds de largueur, sur [sic] seize pieds de largeur; avec quatre fenestres; deux du coté de la mer: et deux du coté du grand chemin, d'une grandeur proportionnée pour un chasis de douze Carreaux de Sept pouces: sur Six: et deux portes, Lesquelles portes et fenestres Lucas garnira seulement de porte; et contrevent en planches avec leur ferrures. Sans serrure; laditte Cabanne sera de la hauteur de Sept pieds et demy sous traverse: sans plancher ni haut ni bas: il y aura Seulement sept traverses pasées sur les dits picquets sans autres assemblages que celuy des fermes pour soutenir le faitage: et chevron, La ditte cabanne sera couverte en planches de Long en double; il y aura aussi lieu dela dite Cabanne une cheminée double en massonne de pierre et terre glace, qui sortira trois pieds et demi sur le faitage.

A cabanne of picket [piquet] construction which will be 36 pieds in length; by 16 pieds wide; with four windows; two on the seaward side; and two on the side of the great road, of a size proportionate for a window frame of twelve panes of seven pouces: by six; and [PAGE 23]two doors, the which doors and windows Lucas will furnish only the door; and Shutter(s) of boards with their (iron) fittings. without lock; the said cabanne will be of the height of 7 pieds and a half under the traverse; without flooring neither above nor below; there are to be only seven traverses placed on the said pickets [piquets] without any other assembly other than that of the trusses to support the ridge-beam: and rafter. The said cabanne is to be roofed with boards, lengthwise and doubled; there is also to be place in the said cabanne [forl a double chimney in stone masonry and clayed earth, which will exist 3 pieds and a half above the ridge beam [NOTE 50].

If a standard type of cabanne could be said to exist, it would be a picquet structure roofed with bark or boards, 30 pieds by 17 pieds, containing possibly one or more windows, chinked with moss perhaps and consisting in most part of vague references to cabanots located about the property in question.

[PAGE 24:]



(a) USE

Cabanots were apparently much used as animal shelters, as for example in the entry which gives:

un cabanot au Nord de lad. cour sy est trouvé deux checres, une truye ... et dans un autre cabanot joignant la maison sy sont trouvé trente poules et coqs huit canards et six d'indes

a cabanot to the north of the said courtyard [in which] were found two goats, a sow ... and in another cabanot adjoining the house [were found] thirty hens and roosters, eight ducks and six turkeys [NOTE 51]

Similar animal shelter cabanots are mentioned in five other sources. This is not to suggest that cabanots were not used for general storage, as implied in the entry which gives:

... une cour enclaux De picquet Dans La quelle son Battie pleusieurs cabanot, pour Lusage de Ladte maison

... a courtyard enclosed with pickets [piquets] in which are built many cabanots, for the use of the said house [NOTE 52].

One not altogether clear entry may suggest cabanot use as a dwelling:

... dans un cabanau de lhabitation de nommé cholet près de la batterie Royalle ou il logeoit avec six autres hommes du meme equipage [PAGE 25:]

... in a cabanot of the homestead of the named Cholet near the Royal Battery where he was lodging with six other men of the same team [crew] [NOTE 53].


Very little data is available on cabanot size save one entry which gives:

un Cabannau de Piquets ... Six pieds et demy ... de Large sur deux pieds et demy de proffondeur

a cabanot of picket [piquet] construction ... six pieds and a half ... long by two pieds and a half deep [NOTE 54].

A second entry does not Specifically title the building a cabanot, but may possibly refer to such:

... Une maison de charpente pièce sur pièce de la longeur de vingt pieds sur quinze pieds de Large Sans être planchés ny sur le haut ny Sur le Bas Couvert de perches et déCorsse avec une Cheminée en Masonne

... a house of charpente, log-cabin style of the length of twenty pieds [PAGE 26:] by fifteen pieds width without being floored neither above nor below, roofed with poles and bark with a masonry fireplace [NOTE 55].


No specific reference of construction type exists for the cabanot other than the less-than- edifying entry which states:

Il s'oblige de demolir a ses frais les Cabanots qui se trouvent actuellement Sur le dt terrain et de les rebatir en bon bois ...

He agrees to demolish at his expense the cabanots which are found actually on the said plot and to rebuild these of good wood ... [NOTE 56].

Two entries indicate however that both shingles ["Bardaux"] [NOTE 57] and boards ["planches"] [NOTE 58] were used in roofing cabanots. A reference to a "cabanot ... fermant a Clef" [cabanot ... closing by key] would seem to indicate at least one instance of a substantial door [PAGE 27:] with accompanying hardware [NOTE 59]. The following entry suggests a use of windows in cabanots:

Un cabanaux situe dans la Cour couvert En Bardaux contenant un poulalie avec un petite fenetre garny [deux] Caraux de vitre

A cabanot situated in the courtyard, roofed in shingles, containing a chicken-coop with a small window supplied [two] panes of glass [NOTE 60].

In general, cabanot construction would appear a "scaled down" version of cabanne construction.



There exist but two references to cuisines as clearly being separate outbuildings: one in the process of an inventory lists that:

Dans La Cuisine ou Cabane aux gens

In the kitchen or cabanne of the people],

kitchen utensils, tables and so on were found [NOTE 61]. This might suggest that construction principles applying to cabannes might hold true for such cuisines as well. The other reference supply states:

[PAGE 28:]

... ils y ont fait des bastions vides qui contienent chacun un petit batiment de charpente, deux quils servent de magasins pour les vivres un de brasserie et lautre de cuisine ...

... They there built empty bastions which contained each a small building of charpente construction, two which serve as victual storehouses, one as a brewery and the other as a kitchen [NOTE 62].

A third major entry goes into descriptive interior detail, but appears to be dealing with a house - located kitchen and was for that reason omitted from discussion [NOTE 63]

Again, the one conclusion tentatively available is the likelihood of cuisine structural similarly to the basic cabanne form.



Two entries only refer to décharges: one indicates this storage-room as comprising actually:

quinze pied d'un magasin derriere pour Servir de décharge

fifteen pieds of a back storehouse to serve as a [wood dishware?] storage room [NOTE 64].

The other refers generally to small [PAGE 29:] courtyard outbuildings which include:

une petite décharge pour la veselle

a small storehouse for the cookware] [NOTE 65].

Evident even in these passages is the ambiguity of the term, not aided by the little data available. No conclusion on décharges are appropriate at this point.



This general term loosely encompasses most outbuildings already discussed as well as others, and therefore should not be considered a separate category. If necessary, context should be scrutinized to determine into which more specific category the structure in question fits, and for that reason the term is mentioned here.



This term is translated as "stable". The few entries available generally list the stable in the property yard or courtyard, as in:

avec la batisse qui est dans la cour qui servait d'écurie

with the building which is in the courtyard which served as a stable [NOTE 66].

It would appear that the building used for the stable might equally be attached to or adjoining another service building including the primary dwelling itself: this is borne out by references to a:

Maison et ecurie y attenante

House and stable there adjoining] [NOTE 67],

and to:

un magasin le tout planche, et attenant aud. magasin est une ecurie

a [PAGE 30:] storehouse, the whole boarded, and, adjoining to the said storehouse is a stable] [NOTE 68].

Within the stable might be found the usual collection of domestic animals, as in:

dans l'ecurie ou il s'est trouvé un cheval une vache et un veau

in the stable where was found a horse, a cow and a calf [NOTE 69].

Another entry lists:

deux chevaux avec deux selles, harnois et une chaviette ... trois vaches et un petit veau ...

two horses with two saddles, harness and a bridle ... three cows and a small calf[NOTE 70].

Only one entry exists with reference to écurie structural detail. This states:

... dans laquelle cour Il y a une Espere d'Ecurie de planches et couverte de audessus de la quelle il y a un grenier a Foin

... in which yard there is a type of stable of boarding (and) roofed with boards, above which there is an oats granary [NOTE 71].

[PAGE 31:]

This suggest a two-storey or attic structure, finished somewhat more finely than a picket [piquet] cabanne. Nonetheless there are no further entries to permit real generalization of this nature.



This term, translated as "barn", but which gives an inference of being an animal shelter, suffers under study from the hazy divisions between it and écurie, and even the terms cabanot, cabanne and appenti(t). Examination of usage of étable reveals only a general purpose animal storage:

... été dans un petit étable ou poulier ou sy est trouvé trois jeunes chevres ... neuf poules et un Cocq

... being in a small stable or henhouse where were found three young goats ... nine chickens and a rooster [NOTE 72].

This general use became specialized in one entry:

... Estable pour chevre et mouton et en une autre Estable pour Beste à grosse Corne

... Stable for goats and sheep and in another stable serving for beasts with large horns [NOTE 73].

[PAGE 32:]

Two entries referring to a "cabanne à bestiaux" [cabanne for beasts] [NOTE 74], and a "cabanne à mouton" [cabanne for sheep][NOTE 75], may perhaps indicate that the general characteristics of a cabanne structure may apply to étables. There is nonetheless one specific reference to stable structure, which refers to a:

Grenier dessus deux Estables Couvert en planches et Bardeaux

Granary above two stables roofed with boards and shingles] [NOTE 76].

Beyond this no further specific material exists on étable construction.



This is translated as "blacksmith's shop", or "smithy's shop", or "forge". Again, the tendency for auxiliary buildings to conform to the general principles of the cabanne type of structure is suggested by entries referring to "la cabanne de la forje [sic]" [NOTE 77], and:

la cabane voisine qui servoit de forge

the neighbouring cabanne which served as a blacksmith's shop [NOTE 78].

Some specific reference does exist, as in the citing of:

the Veille forge en planche et picquet

an old forge (built) in boards and pickets [piquets] [NOTE 79].

[PAGE 33:]

Roofing information is given in one reference to the payment for:

douze douzaines d'écorses quil a fourni pour couvrir les forges du Roy

twelve dozen [pieces] of bark which he furnished to the roof the King's forges [NOTE 80]

The most specific reference to forge construction, and one which does not provide any detailed illumination of interior structure, chimney design, and so on, is a description of rough buildings erected at Port Dauphin, of which one served as a forge:

Ces batimens sont fait de pieces sur pieces ce sont des poutrelles qu'on met les unes sur les autres, et qui sont en coulisse dans d'autres pieces de bois de bout qu'on met de 10 pieds en 10 pieds, ces Sortes de batimens durent 40 A 50 ans ... Ces batimens sont couvertes d'Ecorce, il sera necessaire de les couvrir par la Suitte de Bardeau

These buildings are built of piece upon piece; that is, small beams which one puts down one atop another, and which are linked into other upright pieces of wood which one puts every 10 pieds. These sort of buildings will last 40 to 50 years .... These buildings are covered in bark; it will be necessary to cover them presently in shingles [NOTE 81].

[PAGE 34:]



Of the scanty material present, one reference indicates that the grange may have filled the general role of a barn, but on occasion in dimensions somewhat larger: it refers to:

une maison et une grange de 130 pieds de long, on il y a En jusqu'a Cent Boeufs En hivernment

a house and a barn 130 pieds long, where there were about 100 cattle wintering [NOTE 82].

Structural detail is provided in a second entry which lists a:

Grange de picquets pièce sur pièce de Longeur de trente pieds sur dix neuf pieds de large couverte en planche double

grange of pickets [piquets], piece atop piece, thirty pieds long by 19 pieds wide roofed with double boards [NOTE 83].

This suggests a structure no larger than the approximate average cabanne. Nonetheless a third entry confirms the probability that the grange was a larger structure, mentioning as it does:

une grange en piquet de soixante douze pied de long, sur vingt pied de large

a grange of picket [piquet] construction 72 pieds long by 20 pieds wide [NOTE 84].



Referred to as indicating a shed, the hanger seems to occupy the same multi-purpose role as the cabanne, the étable, écurie and other nondescript auxiliary structures. In support of this is found the entry [PAGE 35:] for:

un angar fermé dans la basse cour pour mettre à couvert la volaille, moutons et autres choses ...

a shed [which closes] in the lower yard in which to put the poultry, sheep, and other things ... [NOTE 85].

Other than several entries for an "Angar" on the King's properties, no other material on civilian hangers is available.



Poulailler is considered as the term for a hen-house chicken coop, or poultry shed of any type. Examination of data available suggest that a distinct structural pattern for a poulailler simply did not exist, but fell within the known types of intermediate auxiliary buildings such as cabanots, étables, and on occasion appentis. Typical of these entries are those mentioning:

deux petits cabaots servant pour loger les poules

two small cabanots serving to house the chickens [NOTE 86],


un petit apentit servant de Magasin et de poulier

a small lean- to serving as storehouse and chicken coop] [NOTE 87].

In one case the unbroken term cabanots poulailler is used [NOTE 88]. In any case where greater structural detail is given, the entry appears to describe one of the major types of outbuildings which happens to be serving as a chicken coop or poultry shed.

[PAGE 36:]



This structure, a coach-house., is supported by a single entry which provides the followings data:

Une Remise en Bois en forme de Magasin non planché sur Terre

a coach-house in wood, in the form of a store-house, not floored, [built upon earth [NOTE 89].


In the wide range of outbuildings in use in Louisbourg, the emergence of the cabanne as the dominant structural type is fairly clear. Consideration of many apparently separate types of buildings will support the view that the most common outbuilding structure in Louisbourg was a moderate sized, picquet structure roofed with bark or planking, with very little complex fitting of windows and doors except in cases which prove the exception rather than the rule.


[NOTE 1:] "Etat General des Pavillions, Cazernes, Corps de Garde, Magasins A Poudre., et de tous Autres Batiments que Ceux affect6s aux Vivres de cette Place".. Louisbourg, 9 octobre 1753. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, C11B. Vol. 33, fol. 230-23OV. [NOTE 2:] Ibid. 3. [NOTE 3:] "Etat de denombrement de la Maison que Monsieur De la Forest procurer du Roy au Siège de l'Amirauté, a été obligé de demolir cette année au cause quelle etoit Scituée au pied de la Butte ou lion fait la fortiffication du demy bastion dauphin a Louisbourg". Louisbourg, 20 avril 1728, AC C11B vol. 10 ff. 154-4v. [NOTE 4:] "Inventaire de la succession de deffuncte Marie Joseph le Bazgne de Belle lsle ferme de Joseph Pepont Duvivier, veuve en premiere nous de feu M. Rondeau". Louisbourg, 21 juin 1754, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2042, no. 60. [NOTE 5:] "Bail à loyer de la moitié d'une maison". Louisbourg, 8 février 1734. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2039, pt. 1, no. 13. [NOTE 6:] Concernant la Succession de Antoine Péré. Plaisance] 17 août, 1714. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 195, fol. 83, p. 4. [NOTE 7:] Inventaire des biens de la communauté d'entre Gabriel Biron dt. Lagelee, Magdelaine Rimbeau, et ses enfans de son premier Mariage avec Longue Epée". Louisbourg, 16 juin 1733. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G2, v. 182, fols. 556-67. [NOTE 8:] Ibid. [NOTE 9:] Etat general des Pavillions, Cazernes, corps de Garde, Magasins a pondre, et de tous Autres Batimens que Ceux affectés aux Vivres de Cette Place: Louisbourg, 9 octobre 1753. C11B, Vol. 33, fol. 230-230v. [NOTE 10:] Ibid. [NOTE 11:] Ibid. [NOTE 12:] Etat de denombrement de la Maison que Monsieur de la Forest procurer du Roy au Siege de l'armauté à été obligé de demolir ... Louisbourg 20 avril 1728. AC C11B, Vol. 10, f. 154-4v. [NOTE 13:] Succession de Pierre Lambert, Rue St. Louis. Louisbourg 25 mars 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, Vol. 205, No. 293, fol. 2v. [NOTE 14:] Inventaire des biens de la communauté dentre Gabrel Biron ... Louisbourg 16 juin 1733. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G2, v. 182, folio 556-67. [NOTE 15:]. Etat du denombrement de la Maison que Monsieur de la Forest ... a été obligé de demolir ... 20 Avril 1728, AC C11B, Vol. 10, ff. 154-4v. [NOTE 16:] Etat General des Pavillions ... 9 octobre 1753, A.C., C11B, Vol. 33, fol. 230-230v. [NOTE 17:] Ibid. [NOTE 18:] Scellé et Inventaire chez Pierre Bullot à St. Pierre. 26 juin 1774. A.M., C7, 41, folio 4-12v. [NOTE 19:] Desherbiers, [L'Indienne] 9 août 1749. A.C. C11B, Vol. 28, Fol. 76. [NOTE 20:] Gratien d'Arrigrand à Rouille, s.1. et s.d., [Côte du Nord 1753?] Concernant sa concession au Barachois de Pledien. A.C. E9, Fol. 26 p. 2. [NOTE 21:] Bail à loyer, Joseph Marie Armant à René Legros. [Bavadrois-Louis bourg] 14 avril 1755. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2043, no. 66. [NOTE 22:] Plumitif d'audience, Maison de Feu Pierre Herpin, Louisbourg [?] 9 mai 1757. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 209, dossier 505, ff. 27-28. [NOTE 23:] Bail à loyer d'une maison ... Jean Seigneur à Pierre d'Etcheverry, Louisbourg fauxbourg, 25 octobre 1734. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, carton 2039, pt. 1, no. 10. [NOTE 24:] Sabatier, Louisbourg, 12 août 1722. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, Vol. 179, folio 2. [NOTE 25:] Inventaire chez M. de Costebelle qui est mort à Port Dauphin. Louisbourg, 7 octobre 1717. A.C., E93, fol. 155-159. [NOTE 26:] Inventaire fait après le deceds de Thomas Lacroix. 5 novembre 1733. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, V. 182, ff. 609-628. [NOTE 27:] Bail à loyer d'une habitation de pêche, Joannis Detchevelard à Francois Lessene. 14 septembre 1734. A.N., Section outre-mer, G3, carton 2039, pt. 1, no. 12. [NOTE 28:] Inventaire des effets de Joseph DUGAS, Louisbourg 19 septembre 1733. A.N. Section outre-mer, G2, v. 182, ff. 629-660. [NOTE 29:] Vente de la maison de Jean Amerlek ... 1734. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 194, fol. 103v. [NOTE 30:] ibid., 105. [NOTE 31:] ibid., 107. [NOTE 32:] Inventaire des effets de Joseph DUGAS, op. cit., folio 650. [NOTE 33:] Conseil à M. de Beauharbois à Rochefort Louisbourg, le 4 fevrier 1723. A.C., E95, fol. 1-9. [NOTE 34:] Inventaire et vente d'Effets nobiliers de la veuve Peré. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G2, Vol. 194, No. 80, pièce 307. [NOTE 35:] Inventaire des biens du Sr. François Chevalier. Louisbourg, 2 juin 1734, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G2. V. 183, ff. 55-64. [NOTE 36:] Inventaire de la dame Veuve Dastarit. Faubourg de la Port Dauphine, 13 fevrier 1735. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2039, pt. 1, no. 66. [NOTE 37:] Louisbourg, 5 mars 1721. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 179, folio 5. [NOTE 38:] Entre Boularderie et Connauxtitre (?) le brun, marchant de present cy cette Isle deffendeur. Boularderie, 10 octobre 1726. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 179, fol. 84. [NOTE 39:] Gratien d'arrigrand à Rouille. Paris, le 16 may, 1751. A.C., E9, fol. 16, p. 2. [NOTE 40:] Concernant l'affaire Le Brun - Bonlarderie. Bonlarderie, le 27 septembre 1726. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 180, fol. 365. [NOTE 41:] Bail à loyer, Jean Milly à Jeacques Martin. Mira, 1 mai 1741, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2046, no. 51. [NOTE 42:] [...]; Côté du Nord, 19 janvier 1736, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2039, no. 44. [NOTE 43:] Vente d'une Maison. François Lecontre Ecuyer Sr Debourville à Jean Amerlek v 18 Decembre 1730. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2037, no. 118. [NOTE 44:] Vente d'une Maison. Jacques Perrin à Jean Claparede. Lorembec, 1 fevrier 1754, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2042, no. 37. [NOTE 45:] Verrier, 12 mai, 1726, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 179, fol. 432. [NOTE 46:] Concession ceccordé à la Bonlardene. Paris, le 15 fevrier, 1719. A.M., 67-154, pièce 1, Art. 11. [NOTE 47:] Le Brun à l'sle de Niganiche ou d'Orleans. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 180, fol. 365. [NOTE 48:] Scellé chez le Sr. Elie Tesson de Fleuery. 22 mars 1741. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 197, fol. 143, p. 2. [NOTE 49:] Bail à loyer, Joannis Detchevelard à Franqois Lessenne, coté du Nord, 14 septembre 1734. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2039, pt. 1, no. 12. [NOTE 50:] Bail à loyer, André Monier dit Surgene à François Lucas. Côté du Nord, 19 janvier 1736, A.N., 5ection Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2039, no. 44. [NOTE 51:] Inventaire après la deceds de Dame anne Levron à la Requete du S. Pierre Benoist Enseigne des Compagnie de la Marine son mari. Louisbourg, 19 decembre 1733, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, v. 182, folio 1001-1002. [NOTE 52:] Vente de maison, Louis Logier à Thomas Micquet. 6 octobre 1757, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2041, suite no. 94. [NOTE 53:] Vol de moutons, 8 octobre 1755, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 205, no. 409, fol. lv. [NOTE 54:] Vente d'un terrain. Dame Marie Joseph Rousseau de Souvigny à Cantin Lelievre. 17 novembre 1743, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2047, pt. 1, no. 40. [NOTE 55:] Inventaire de la communauté de Marguerite Terriau et Pierre Boisseau. 24 octobre 1755, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 19. [NOTE 56:] Vente d'une maison, Jean Despiet Depensens à Jean Crisostome Loppinot. 1 septembre 1750, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2041, pt. 1, no. 58. [NOTE 57:] Bail à loyer, Angelique Butel à Elie Allenet. 12 septembre 1757, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2045, no. 37. [NOTE 59:] Bail à loyer, Pierre Damestoye pour les héritiers Detchevery à J.B. Dubois. 10 juillet 1750. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2047, pt. 1, no. 121. [NOTE 60:] Bail à loyer, Angelique Butel à Elie Allenet. 12 septembre 1757, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2045, no. 37. [NOTE 61:] Inventaire de la dame Veuve Dastarit. Fauxbourg de la Porte Dauphine, 13 fevrier 1735. [NOTE 62:] Desherbiers, L'Indienne, 9 août 1749. A.C. C11B, Vol. 28, Fol. 76. [NOTE 63:] Marché entre Mr. Beaubassin et Dubenca. [NOTE 64:] Bail à loyer, Joseph Ronsson à Gerome Larieux Bonlanger. 23 fevrier 1753. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2041, suite, no. 32. [NOTE 65:] Bail à loyer, Marie Brunet, veuvre Destouches à Jean Claparède, 13 juillet 1750, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3 carton 2047, pt. 1. no. 70. [NOTE 66:] Inventaire chez Claude-Joseph Desmarest. Louisbourg, 13 13 avril 1741. A.C., E126, fol. 4. [NOTE 67:] Vente de maison, Jean Baptiste Lebeque à Jacques Philipe Rondeau, 25 novembre 1731, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2038, pt. 1, no. 31. [NOTE 68:] Succession Isabeau- Planton. 26 fevrier 1731. A.N., Section Outre-- Mer, G2, Vol. 180, fol. 685. [NOTE 69:] Scelle et Inventaire chez Simone Millon, Veuve La Floury du coté du nord ... 2 decembre 1744. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 198, fol. 184, no. 2v. [NOTE 70:] Scellé chez le Sr. Elie Tesson la Fleury. 22 mars 1741. A.N., Section Outre-Mer G2, Vol. 197, Fol. 143, p. 2. [NOTE 71:] Inventaire de la succession de deffunte Marie Joseph Le Bazgne de Belle Isle, femme de Joseph Dupont Duvivier, veuve en premiere noces de feu M. Rondeau, 21 juin 1754, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2042, no. 60. [NOTE 72:] Inventaire des biens de la communauté dentre Gabriel Biron dt lagelee, Magdelaine RIMBEAU, et ses enfans de son premier Mariage avec Longue Epée. 16 juin 1733, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 182, ff. 565. [NOTE 73:] Bail à loyer. Jean Milly à Jacques Martin. Mira, 1 mai 1741. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2046, no. 51. [NOTE 74:] Concernant l'affaire Le Brun - Boularderie. Niqaniche, 27 septembre 1726. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, vol. 180, fol. 365. [NOTE 75:] Ibid. [NOTE 76:] Bail à Ferme. R.P. Felix Camay à Jacques Aurieux. Mira, 14 novembre 1738. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2046, pt. 1, no. 96. [NOTE 77:] Estimation de la Valeur des Cabannes etc. de le Brun Sur l'Isle d'Orleans. 13 juillet 1733, A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, Vol. 190, fol. 91. [NOTE 78:] Conseil à M. de Beauharbois à Rochefort. Louisbourg, le 4 fevrier 1723, A.C., E95, fol. 1-9. [NOTE 79:] Vente d'un terrain. Joseph Felix Chesnay à Jean Minaud Maitre Forgeron. 14 avril 1752. A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2041, suite, no. 25. [NOTE 80:] Bordereau des payements qui, ont été fai-ts à la colonie de l'Isle Royalle. 20 decembre 1756. A.C., C11B, vol. 36, fol. 212. [NOTE 81:] Batimens et fortifications du Port Dauphin. Port Dauphin, 9 septembre 1715. A.C., C11B, vol. 1, fol. 296. [NOTE 82:] Le neuf de la Vallière au Ministre de la Marien, De Sartine. A.C., E277, fol. 7-7v. [NOTE 83:] Inventaire de la communauté de Marguerite Terriau et Pierre Boisseau. 24 octobre 1755, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2044, no. 19. [NOTE 84:] Bail à loyer, Marie Joseph Cheron, Veuve Carrerot à Reuy Bussac dt. Rochefort. Menadon, 26 juillet 1751. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2041, pt. 1, no. 113. [NOTE 85:] Verrier, 19 decembre 1739. A.C., C11B, Vol. 21, fol. 268. [NOTE 86:] Inventaire, René Herpin du côsté du nord, 13 mars 1739. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2. Vol. 185, fol. 365v. [NOTE 87:] Inventaire des biens de la communauté dentre Gabriel Biron dt lagelee et Magdalene Rimbeau, op. cit., ff. 566. [NOTE 88:] Bail à loyer, Angelique Bidel à Elie Allenet, 12 septembre 1757, A.N., Section Outre- Mer, G3, carton 2045, no. 37. [NOTE 89:] Bail à loyer, Guillaume Delort pour Rousseau de Villejouin à combert. 14 octobre 1754. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2043, no. 24.