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Researching the Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site of Canada
  Recherche sur la Forteresse-de-Louisbourg Lieu historique national du Canada




Brenda Dunn

In Historians,
Preliminary Architectural Studies,
Volume 03, Unpublished Report H G 02
(Fortress of Louisbourg, 1972,
Report Number  H G 02 03 05)

Copyright © Parks Canada/Parcs Canada


This preliminary study of floors has been done from the documents in the Domestic Architecture file. Further study will be required when the file is more complete. A compilation of historical maps and plans has been appended but has not been discussed in this preliminary study.

Terminology, as usual, is a problem in studying floors. The term traverses can be used in discussing either roofs or floors, while planché can be translated as planking (e.g. an exterior revetment) or a wooden floor. The translation is usually determined by the context. In this study, the lower storey is called the ground floor and the upper storeys, the first storey, etc.

Almost invariably, the ground-floor and first-storey floors are mentioned together, plancher haut et bas, or where a lack of flooring is indicated, sans plancher et bas. Thus a building with a wooden ground-floor floor usually had a wooden first-storey floor. The floors of the two or three storeys sometimes were not of the same kind of wood and or the same finish.




Madriers or planks is the common term used to describe Louisbourg floors. Planches or boards are described in only a few cases, usually in reference to upper floors [NOTE 1]. When the thickness is not specified, boards are assumed to be one pouce and planks two pouces (or over), as this is the terminology used consistently throughout the Domestic Architecture file. [PAGE 2:]

With one exception all specific references to the thickness of flooring materials call for two pouce planks. This includes all structures: King's buildings, private picket [piquet], charpente, and masonry houses [NOTE 2]. The one exception was a lean-to or storm porch (apenti or cabanot d'hiver) with a floor, roofing, and revetment of one pouce boards, mentioned in the 1749 repair toisé. This was in no way a standard, as another storm porch in the same document called for a floor of two pouce planks [NOTE 3].

The width of floor planks was specified in only one document, 1753 Devis: oak and birch planks were to be 10-12 pouces wide, and pine planks to be 11-12 pouces. [See NOTE A]



Pine was the material commonly used for floors. The specifications for King's buildings detail pine floor planks for the barracks in Louisbourg and for the barracks, the powder magazine, the Engineer's house, Magasin des Vivres, and other official buildings in Louisbourg and for the barracks and other civil buildings in Port Toulouse and Isle St. Jean. The planks of the Isle St. Jean barracks were described as madriers de bois a l'ordinaire and madriers de pin, the two terms presumably being used synonymously. [See NOTE A]

The cost of constructing, a pine floor (usually detailed as two pouce planks, planed on one side, tongue and grooved, and nailed) in Louisbourg official buildings remained at a near constant of 18-20 livres per square toise, with a drop to 12 livres 16 sols in 1737. [PAGE 3:]

The cost of construction in Isle St. Jean and Port Toulouse was significantly lower than in Louisbourg.

(1) Louisbourg (1719-1724): Barracks, hospital, magasin and hangard = 20 livres per square toise;

(2) Isle Royalle (1720): "works" = 20 livres per square toise;

(3) Louisbourg (1727): King's Bastion barracks and pavilion = 19 livres per square toise;

(4) Louisbourg (1727): Magasin des Vivres = 20 livres per square toise;

(5) L'Isle St. Jean (1733): Officers' residence and storehouse = 10 livres;

(6) Port Toulouse (1733): 3 buildings = 16 livres per square toise;

(7) Louisbourg (1734): Engineer's house = 20 livres per square toise;

(8) Louisbourg (1737): fortifications = 12 livres 16 sols per square toise;

(9) Louisbourg (1749): fortifications and buildings = 18 livres per square toise;

The Domestic Architecture file has reference to pine floors in picket [piquet], charpente, and masonry buildings. In each case, the pine was to be used for both the ground and upper floors [NOTE 4].


The 1727 supplement to Ganet's official Marché included articles allowing planks of oak or birch to be used for floors. The price of 35 livres per square toise was considered very expensive. In 1737 and 1753, floors of oak or birch were itemized in two Devis for King's buildings.

(1) Oak or birch (1726): 35 livres per square toise (price asked);

(2) Birch (1727): 35 livres per square toise (received);

(3) Birch (1737): 28 livres per square toise;

(4) Oak and birch (1753): n/a; [PAGE 4:]

Birch and oak floors were definitely luxuries. Their cost was approximately twice that of pine (35 livres compared to 19, and 18 livres compared to 12 livres 16 sols). Each Marché or Devis itemizing oak or birch floors also deals with pine floors. [See NOTE A] There are no references to oak or birch floors in private buildings. Such floors seem to have been exceptions rather than the rule in Louisbourg.


The intended use of fir (sapin) for floors is mentioned only once and that is during the early years. The Isabeau Marché in 1719 specifies floors of fir planks, nailed, at a price of 20 livres per square toise (i.e. a price similar to those later stated for pine). The remainder of the Marchés and Devis call for pine, oak, birch. It seems that there was limited use if any, of fir floor planks. [See NOTE A]


Floors of Boston boards and planks seem to have been more common the second than in the first period of French occupation. All references to these floors are in the second (post-1749) period. Floors of Boston boards and planks are not precluded for the first (Pre- 1745) period, however, as Boston boards and planks were building materials in Louisbourg prior to 1745.

Two private houses under construction in the early, 1750's were to use Boston planks and boards for the floors. In a charpente house with picket [piquet] fill, the ground- floor and first-storey floors were to be of Boston planks and the second-storey floor of "thickest Boston boards" ("planches de Baston la plus epaisses"). The second house, [PAGE 5:] which also seems to have been of frame and picket [piquet], called for a lower floor of rough planks and an upper floor of Boston boards [NOTE 5].

"At the entrance door" of the Desmarest house, seven square pieds of floorings, was removed and replaced with 2 pouces Boston planks in 1752. At the same time, a partition was removed and the flooring of the kitchen and corridor (presumably also ground- floor rooms was replaced with pine planks [NOTE 6].

Several repairs to King's buildings in 1749 were carried out with Boston planks and boards. A floor of Boston planks was built in the provisional latrines at the Maurepas Gate and an upper and lower floor of Boston boards in the bakery of the Royal Battery. A double floor of Boston boards was installed at the King's Bastion guardhouse ("plancher double de planches de Baston"). Repairs with Boston boards were also made to the floor in the Maurepas Gate guardhouse and to an upper floor in the Queen's Gate guardhouse.

The Boston planks used in the 1749 repairs cost the same as planks of unspecified material - 12 livres per square toise. Both prices were twice that of reused planks from an upper floor installed by the New Englanders in the Chapel and removed by the French in 1749. Boston boards cost 6 livres 10 sols per square toise [NOTE 7].


A new cabanne, 32 pieds x 22 pieds, is Described in 1726 as having a floor of madriers de Canada [NOTE 8]. [PAGE 6:]


Planing on one side, presumably the upper, is the usual finish described for floor planks. The Marchés and Devis for King's buildings usually call for planed planks and, when more detailed, planks planed on one side ("blanchis d'un Costé). [See NOTE A] This type of finish was also to be used for all the floors in the Rodrigues' proposed masonry house in Block 2 [NOTE 9].

In three private houses the floor finish of the first-storey was better than that of the ground floor. Two houses had rough, unfinished planks (madriers Bruts) on the ground floor. On the first-storey floor, one of these houses had planed Boston Boards, while the other had Boston planks "planed on both sides." The third house also specified 1ocal planks (probably pine), planed on both sides for the first-storey. In the last case, the floor was above the salle. The function of the room below would probably influence the finish of the underside of the first-storey floor planks. Planing on one side, however, seems to have been most commonly used [NOTE 10].

Plank foors were assembled either with tongue and grooved or lapped joints. Tongue and groove (Embouveter or joints a Languettes et Ranures) is the usual method described in the documents. There are only two references to lapped joints. A choice of a tongue and groove or a lapped joint (joints recouverts was given for the proposed Rodrigue house while tile floors repaired in the guardhouses of the Maurepas Gate and Queen's Gate in 1749 had lap joints (ajoints reconverts) [NOTE 11].

It seems reasonable to assume that non-residences and cruder residences would not be as well-finished as better-constructed houses. [PAGE 7:] The recommendations for repairs in the dilapidated picket [piquet] barracks in Isle St. Jean suggested that the floor planks be tongue-and-grooved (faire emboufter) [NOTE 12]. The 1737 Marché for a powder magasin called for pine floor planks which were unfinished ("Sans etre blanchis ny Embouffettés") and without any remanants of bark (sans croutes). The latter specification suggests the corollary: wood flooring may often have had remanants of bark attached. This corollary would seem appropriate in poorer or less important buildings (e.g. latrines, storehouses, cruder residences, etc.). [See NOTE A]

All detailed references to floor- nailing in both private and King's buildings specify that the planks were to be fixed to the joists with two nails at each joist. Flooring nails of 5 and 6 pouces respectively are mentioned in the 1719 and 1726 Marchés. The earliest Marchés (1719 and 1720) state that floors secured by wooden pegs instead of nails cost 3 livres per square toise extra. Nails were included in the cost of later Marchés and Devis, with the exception of the Marché for the floor of the powder magasin which was to be pegged, obviously to avoid the danger of sparks. In the veuve Poinsu's house a partition and upstairs floor were to be nailed with cloux de charranche, which cost 40 sols per hundred [NOTE 13]. [ A] No definition has been found for this type of nail.


Trap doors were sometimes cut into wooden floors. These probably would be made from the same the same planks or boards as those used for the flocring. The Guion house and proposed Rodrigue house in Block 2 both [PAGE 8:] had access to their respective basements through trap doors cut into the ground-floor floor. A trap door was cut into the first-storey floor of a magasin in order to raise merchandise which could not be brought up the stairs. The latter door was to be made of planks and secured by two hinges (couplets) and a padlock [NOTE 14].


Joist details

The small amount of information available at this time on joists outlined below [See TABLE page 9]. Joist sizes are very similar, with the largest being 8 x 9 pouces in the masonry houses and the smallest, 7 x 8 pouces in the picket [piquet] house. The spacing of the joists varies from two to six pieds with three pieds seeming about average.

Joist finish is described for three buildings only, thus limiting generalizations about this detail. The finish would probably be in agreement with the degree of finish and decoration in the room below. Moulded joists are described for the first- storey floor of both a picket [piquet] and a masonry house. The joists of the picket [piquet] house were to be "well planed with a moulding" ("bien blanchies, avec une moulure dessus"), while those of the masonry house were to have a quarter round finish (quart deronnées). Ground floor joists would be square, such as in the Rodrigues' proposed masonry house.

The first joists in Louisbourg civil buildings were fir. The 1719 Marché with Isabeau calls for fir floor planks and sets a price of 45 sols for each finished fir joist. [See NOTE A]

[PAGE 9:]

(01) PRIVATE MASONRY HOUSE [see note 15]: (A) GROUND FLOOR (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 x 9 pouces (ii) Material: pine (iii) Spacing = 3 pieds, center to center (iv) Finish: squared (v) Length: n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks; (B) FIRST STOREY (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 x 8 pouces (ii) Material: Pine (iii) Spacing = 3 pieds, center to center (iv) Finish: Quarter Round (v) Length: n/a (b) Flooring (i) material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks; (C) GRENIER: (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 x 8 pouces (ii) Material: Pine (iii) Spacing = 3 pieds, center to center (iv) Finish: Quarter Round (v) Length: n/a (b) Flooring (i) material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks;

(02) MASONRY CIVIL HOUSE (Engineer's house) [see note 16]: (A) GROUND FLOOR (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 X 9 pouces (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = n/a (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length: n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: Pine (ii) Size = planks; (B) FIRST STOREY (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 X 9 pouces (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = n/a (iv) Finish n/a (v) Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: n/a (ii) Size = n/a;

(03) CIVIL MASONRY HOUSE (PORT TOULOUSE) [see NOTE A] (A) UNSPECIFIED FLOOR LEVEL (a) Joist (i) Sizes = n/a (ii) Material: Pine (iii) Spacing = n/a (iv) Finish n/a (v) Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks;

(04) CIVIL CHARPENTE HOUSE (ISLE ST. JEAN) [see note A]; (A) GROUND FLOOR (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 X 9 pouces (ii) Material: Red Pine (iii) Spacing = n/a (iv) Finish n/a (v) Length n/a; (b) FLOORING (i) Material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks; (B) FIRST STOREY (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 8 X 9 (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = n/a (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length: n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks;

(05) PRIVATE CHARPENTE HOUSE [see note 17]; (A) UNSPECIFIED FLOOR LEVEL (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 7 X 9 pouces (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = 2 pieds between them (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: n/a (ii) Size = n/a;

(06) PRIVATE PICKET [PIQUET] HOUSE [see note 18] (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 7 X 8 pouces; (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = 3 1/2 pieds between (iv) Finish: well planed with a moulding; Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material n/a; Size = 2 pouces planks;

(07) PRIVATE HOUSE [see note 19] (A) GROUND FLOOR (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 7 X 8 pouces (ii) Material n/a (iii) Spacing n/a (iv) Finish n/a (v) Length = 10 pieds (b) Flooring (i) Material: Pine (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks; (B) FIRST STOREY (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 7 X 8 pouces (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = n/a (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length = 8 pieds (b) Flooring (i) Material: Boston planks (ii) Size = 2 pouces planks; (C) FIRST STOREY (a) Joist (i) Sizes = 7 X 8 pouces (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing = n/a; (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: Local wood (ii) Size = Boards;

(08) PICKET [PIQUET] CABANNE (A) GROUND FLOOR (a) Joist (i) Sizes = n/a (ii) Material: n/a (iii) 6 pieds between them (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: n/a (ii) Size = n/a; (B) FIRST STOREY (a) Joist (i) Sizes = n/a; (ii) Material: n/a (iii) Spacing 5 pieds between them (iv) Finish: n/a (v) Length = n/a (b) Flooring (i) Material: n/a (ii) Size = n/a;

In his 1723 remarks, Vallé [PAGE 10:] complained that the timber of the floor framing was all of half-rotten fir ("toutte de bois de sapin amitié échaufé et a moitié pourie") [NOTE 21]. Since later specifications called for pine floor planks, it seems likely that pine joists were also used. Pine joists were to be used in the Port Toulouse and Isle St. Jean buildings in 1733 and in the Rodrigue house in 1738 [NOTE 22]. [See NOTE A]

There seems to be no apparent correlation between the joists and flooring used in a building.


The documents and plans suggest four methods of supporting joists. At this time it is not possible to determine the extent each was used. Documentary descriptions are vague, while the official specifications make general mention of joists with roof-framing, house-framing, etc. under the heading of CHARPENTE. Much information on joists remains to be indexed for the file.

(1) A common method for supporting floor joists on the ground floor, as seen on the historical elevations, was by resting each end on a ledge of the masonry foundation wall. This is shown for charpente and masonry buildings.

(2) A second method was critized by Vallée in 1723 in his "remarks on the works at Louisbourg". The joists were "attached" on one end to a large beam sealed in the wall, while the other end was "attached and nailed with large nails to a kind of posts usually without props ...

" ...les poutres et sabliers sont tous la plusparts attachées d'un bout a une grosse poutre scéllée dans les murs, qui rendent les murs plus foibles et auguement la toise de maconnerie qli est cherre; d'un autre [PAGE 11:] bout attachées et clouées avec des gros clouds a des especes de pilliers la plus part sans jambes de forces...

The description seems to suggest that the posts would be located midway between two walls, with a joist extending from a beam in each wall and meeting on a centre post. This type of construction would have been useful in masonry buildings for spanning great widths at ground-floor level. Variations could be used in other building types, with the joist ends resting on interior sills in picket [piquet] and charpente structures, or on the foundation walls of charpente buildings. Vallée objected to sealing the beams into the walls as they weakened the walls [NOTE 23].

There is a possibility that a document in 1755 refers to this method. Seven pine posts were to replace the pickets [piquets] which held the joists ("changer les piquets qui tiennent les traverses de lad. Maison pour Subsistuer a la leur place des poteaux de bois de pin"). Because seven is an odd and relatively small number, the method described by Vallée is possible [NOTE 24].

This method should be kept in mind when interpreting archaeological evidence. A study should also be made in secondary sources.

(3) After critizing the method described immediately above, Vallée recommended that the French follow "L'ordres de l'architecture" and leave a sabliere (corbel or wall plate) or stone cornice at each storey to carry the joists [NOTE 25].

There is one reference to the joists resting on the wallplate. In 1754 the attic floor of a magasin collapsed under the weight of [PAGE 12:] about 10 tons of stored goods. In the trial for damages, a carpenter attributed the collapse to overloading on the evidence that the joists had sagged in the center, causing the ends to "escape" from the wallplate. A second carpenter believed that rotten joists had been responsible for the collapse. Both, as well as a third carpenter who was called in, agreed that props should have been used for additional support [NOTE 26].

Some joists were mortised and tenoned to a sill or a wallplate. Repairs to a house in 1757 included repairing "a joist which had a broken tenon" ("reparer la poutre dont le tenon est Cassé") [NOTE 27].

(4) In masonry houses, joist sockets were often left in the walls. There is little direct documentary evidence of this, although archaeology confirms it in the field. In the 1749 repair toisé an upper floor installed by the New Englanders in the Chapel was removed and the joist holes blocked. Masonry work was done to the joists in the guardhouses at the Maurepas Gate and the Queen's Gate at this time, which consisted of sealing the joists into the walls and making the surface of the wall [level with the joists?] ("La Maconnerie qui a Esté faitte pour Sceller Les soliveaux du plancher et faire La razement du mur au niveau desdits soliveaux, Estimé pour fourniture et facon a quarante livres") [NOTE 28].



Picket [piquet] buildings sometimes had picket [piquet] floors. One of LaGrange's early picket [piquet] houses, 37 pieds x 20 pieds, had a floor of squared picket [piquet]s which [PAGE 13:] rested on squared picket [piquet] sills ("piquets qui en faissoient Les planche," and "un planché et le solage de piquets Escarry") [NOTE 29]. Another picket [piquet] house, mentioned in 1722, had a ground-floor floor of split pickets [piquets] (piquets reffendus) and a first-storey floor of boards [NOTE 30].



References to floors of materials other than wood are rare. This is misleading since certain outbuildings and cruder houses probably had floors of gravel, cobblestone, or, as in the case of the Hangard d'Artillerie in Block 1 an unfinished floor of earth. A magasin floor is described in 1726 as partially finished with cobblestone ("une partie du bas est pavé") while a second magasin in 1754 is described with an earth floor ("magasin non planché sur Terre") [NOTE 31].

The Domestic Architecture file at present includes no references to brick or tile floors. Several brick floors, however, have been found in archaeological excavation (e.g. the Ancien Magasin in Block 1).

Three buildings specified without floors are found in the file: a piece sur piece house without upper or lower floors ("Sans Etre planchés ny sur Le haut ny sur Le Bas"), a picket [piquet] cabanne without an upper or lower storey floor ("sans plancher ni haut ni bas"), and a storehouse without a floor (non Planché) [NOTE 32]. Two adjoining houses in the Barachois had floors (ground- floor and first-storey) in only half of the combined building ("plancher La moitie desd. Maisons haut et Bas") [NOTE 33]. It is quite certain that "without floors" means without wooden floors and does not necessarily preclude other types of floor finish on ground-floor level. [PAGE 14]



The finish of basement floors is seldom mentioned, and it is assumed that they did not usually have wooden floors. In 1750 sand or gravel was to be spread in the basement of the Destouches house [NOTE 34].



The wet climate of Louisbourg was a consideration when constructing floors. This is reflected in problems reported in King's buildings - water coming through the roof and/or seeping up from the ground (e.g. the Ordonnateur's house, the King's Bastion barracks, Hospital, Hangard d'artillerie, Magasin des Vivres, and Isle St. Jean barracks). Private buildings undoubtedly shared this problem.

The condition of flooring material to be used was important. The toisés and marchés occasionally specify that the wood is to be dry and sound. [See NOTE A] In 1727 there were complaints that the floors of the King's Bastion barracks were warping or lifting because the wood had been green and also because it had been secured by only 2 or 3 nails [NOTE 35].

Many floors in private and King's buildings were repaired during the second French occupation period. Repairs often included replacing both joists and planks as well as occasionally raising the floor. In 1749 the floor of the Treasurer's office in the Ordonnateur's house was shored up with a piece of oak [NOTE 36].

Problems of conserving floors were dealt with in two rental agreements. In 1731 it was agreed that the lessee of a house would not cut firewood or any other kind of wood on the floors. In 1755 a lessee was forbidden to wash (presumably clothes) with lye in the house to ensure better preservation of the floor ("afin que Le plancher soit mieux Conservé") [NOTE 37].


[NOTE A:] OFFICIAL SPECIFICATIONS: DEVIS, MARCHÉS AND TOISÉS USED: (i) 7 mars 1719, AC C11B, vol. 4, ff. 278-82 "Marché avec le S. Isabeau..."; (ii) 20 novembre 1720, AC C11B, vol. 5, ff. 220-221v. "Travaux faits en Lisle Royale; (iii) 12 novembre 1726, AC C11B, vol. 8, f. 167, "Suplement de marché) le Sr. Ganet demande"; (iv) 4 mai 1727, AC C11B, vol. 9, ff. 167-169v. "Toise des ouvrages... que le Sr. Ganet a fait au corps des casernes du Bastion du Roy et Pavillon [de ces] casernes"; (v) 7 octobre 1727, AC C11B, vol. 9, ff. 127-132 "Devis d'un suplement de Marché accordé au S. Ganet..."; (vi) 1 novembre 1727, AC C11B, vol. 9, ff. 186v- "Toise definitif des ouvrages... fait pour la Construction du Magasin des Vivres"; (vii) 1 septembre 1731, AC C11B, vol. 12, ff. 136-137, "Toise general et definitif de tous les Ouvrages... faits au Bastion du Roy, Cazernes, hopital Magazin, et Angard... 1719- 24; (viii) 10 septembre 1733, AC C11B, vol. 14, ff. 355-361, Devis pour les ouvrages a faire a lisle St. Jean; (ix) 18 septembre 1733, AC C11B, vol. 14, ff. 343-351, Devis pour les ouvrages a faire au Port Toulouze; (x) 23 septembre 1733, AC C11B, vol. 14, ff. 318-322, Marché pour les ouvrages a faire a Lisle St. Jean; (xi) 28 septembre 1733, AC C11B, vol. 14, ff. 310-317v., Marché pour les ouvrages a faire au port toulouze; (xii) 30 septembre 1734, C11B, vol. 16, ff. 205v.-206, Toisé definitif des ouvrages... fait pour la construction du longement de lingeniéur en chef; (xiii) 10 mai 1737, AC C11B, vol. 19, ff. 182-182v., Marché) pour les fortifications de la Ville de Louisbourg; (xiv) 25 septembre 1753, Surlaville Papers, Archives du séminaire de Quebec; [NOTE 1:] 29 août 1722, AC E 103, ff. 4-4v., Bail devant le notaire Miroin; (i) 10 aout 1737, AFO G2, vol. 185, f.2, Concernant le terrain de Jacques Fournac; (ii) 19 septembre 1737, AFO G2, vol. 184, f. 391, Vente de terrain; (iii) 23 juillet 1738, AC C11B, vol. 20, f. 133; (iv) 7 aoust 1752, op. cit.; (v) 1 octobre 1753, AFO G3, 2041, no, 131, Conventions entre Sieur Dugue et Michel Dubenca; (vi) 21 juin 1754, AFO G3, 2042, no. 60, Inventaire de deffunct Marie Joseph Le Bazgne de Belle Isle; [NOTE 2:] OFFICIAL SPECIFICATIONS (See NOTE A); (i) 13 septembre 1733, AFO G3, 2046, [no. 55] npp. 1-8 Rcdrigue-Dupener-Muiron Convention et Marché; (ii) 30 mars 1751, AFO G3, 2041 [no. 126] Conventions: Marie Joseph Cheron veuve Carrerot et Guillaume Halbot; (iii) 7 aoust 1752, AFO G2, vol. 208, 475, pièce 72, Reparations dans la maison de Made. Demarest. [NOTE 3:] 31 decembre 1749, AC C11B, vol. 28, ff. 330-351v., "Etat des Ouvrages de reparations Et fournitures qui ont esté faittes dans tous les batiments du Roy a Louisbourg... En cette Isle le 23 Juillet 1749." [NOTE 4:] 1727, AC C11B, vol. 27, f. 315; (i) 10 août 1737, op. cit.; (ii) 23 juillet 1738, op. cit.; (iii) 13 sept. 1738, op. cit.; (iv) 7 aoust 1752, op. cit. [NOTE 5:] 11 septembre 1752, AFO G3, 2041, no. 144, Construction d'une maison 1 octobre 1753, op. cit.; [NOTE 6:] 7 aoust 1752 op. cit.; [NOTE 7:] 31 decembre 1749, op. cit.; [NOTE 8:] 27 septembre 1726, AFO G2, vol. 180, f. 365, Concernant l'affaire Le Brun - Boularderie; [NOTE 9:] 13 septembre 1738, op. cit.; [NOTE 10:] 11 septembre 1752 op. cit.; (i) 7 aoust 1752, op. cit.; (ii) 26 juillet 1754, AFO G3, 2042, no. 69. Devis d'une maison. [NOTE 11:] 13 septembre 1738 op. cit.; (i) 31 decembre 1749, op. cit.; [NOTE 12:] 20 octobre 1734, AC C11B, vol. 16, 155v. de Pensens; (i) 18 octobre 1735, AC C11B, vol. 17, 271 de Pensens. [NOTE 13:] 13 septembre 1738, op. cit.; (i) 7 aout 1752, op. cit.; (ii) 18 mars 1754, AFO G2, vol. 205, f. 384 Concernant, les affaires de La veuve Poinsu. [NOTE 14:] 13 septembre 1738, op. cit.; (i) 1 juin 1756, AFO G3, 2045, no. 67, Bail à loyer: Jan Claparede à Jacques Brunet; (ii) 7 aoust 1752, op. cit.; [NOTE 15:] 1737, AFO G2, vol. 182, ff. 392-394, "Devis des ouvrages... quil Convient faire pour la Construction du Bâtiment que M. duperrier et Rodrigue veulle faire construire..."; (i) 13 septembre 1738, op. cit.; [NOTE 16:] 30 septembre 1734, AC, C11B, vol. 16, ff. 196-213. (Engineer's House Toisé); [NOTE 17:] octobre 1753, op. cit.; [NOTE 18:] 30 mars 1751, op. cit.; [NOTE 19:] 7 aoust 1752 op. cit.; [NOTE 20:] 11 juillet 1750, AFO G3, 2047, no. 132, Conventions entre Gilles Chalois et veuve Lagrange; [NOTE 21:] 18 novembre (?) 1723, AC C11B, vol. 6, ff. 310- 310v, Remarques sur les travaux de Louisbourg; [NOTE 22:] 13 septembre 1738, op. cit.; [NOTE 23:] (18 novembre?) 1723, op. cit.; [NOTE 24:] 10 mars 1755, AFO G3, no. 58, Bail à loyer: Joseph Lartigue à Claude Caresmiantrand. [NOTE 25:] Ibid. [NOTE 26:] 7 novembre 1754, AC E 22, ff. 3-4, Rapport d'expert, sur le magasin de Louisbourg; (i) 11 novembre 1754, AFO G2, vol 209, no. 502, ff. 34-35v., Plumitif d'audience. [NOTE 27:] 14 fevrier 1757, AFO G2, vol. 209, no. 505, ff. 2v,-3v., Plumitif d'audience. [NOTE 28:] 31 decembre 1749, op. cit.; [NOTE 29:] 18 fevrier 1717, AC C11C, vol. 15 suite, piece 230, "Estimation des maisons..."; [NOTE 23:] aoust 1720, AC C11C, vol. 15 suite, piece 230, "Memoire de Letat ou Se trouve La maison..." {NOTE 30:] 29 août 1722, op. cit.; [NOTE 31:] 28 novembre 1726, AC C11B, vol. 8, f. 13v., St. Ovide et de Mezy; (i) 4 octobre 1754, AFO G3, 2043, no. 24, Bail à loyer: Guillaume Delort pour Rousseau de Villejouin à Gombert; [NOTE 32:] 19 janvier 1736, AFO, G3, 2039-2, no. 44, Bail a loyer: Andre Monier dit Surgere à Francois Lucas; (i) 24 octobre 1755, AFO, G3, 2044, no. 19, Inventa-ire de la communauté de Marguerite Terriau et Pierre Boisseau; (ii) 1 juin 1756, op. cit.; [NOTE 33:] 28 novembre 1738, AFO G2, vol. 185, f. 302v., Inventaire de Louis Salomon. [NOTE 34:] 13 juillet 1750, AFO, G3, 2047, no. 70, Bail à loyer: Marie Brunet veuve Destouches à Jean Claparede. [NOTE 35:] 1727, AC C11B, vol. 27, f. 315, St. Ovide. [NOTE 36:] 31 decembre 1749, op. cit., f. 347. [NOTE 37:] 10 avril 1731, AFO G3, carton 2038, no. 6, Bail à loyer: Antoine Paris à Jeanne Baucher, veuve de Jean Préville; (i) 14 avail 1755, AFO G3, carton 2043, no. 66, Bail à loyer: Joseph Marie Armant à René Legros.