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Exterior Storm Porches at Louisbourg

By

Eric Krause

Krause House Info-Research Solutions

September 30, 2004

Index

1. Introduction
2. Recommendations
3. Transcribed Sources (By Property Location)

INTRODUCTION

Often one used the term "tambour" in 18th-century Louisbourg to mean an interior vestibule:

... au coin des Rues St Louis et d orleans ... .. une grande chambre au Ret de chaussé au Nord de la cheminée Mitoyenne ou Sont quatre fenêtres Vittées deux ayant veue sur la Rue St. Louis et les deux autres sur la Cour de la d Maison avec la chambre attique ou grenier au dessus avec un petit appentit qui est au Nord de la d. Maison contigu a la dite chambre ... et comme la porte d'entrée de la d. Maison qui est Sur la Rue St Louis est commune avec les appartemens d Icelle a êté convenu que ... pour oter cette communication fera condamner la porte du dedans du courroir qui communique dans l appartement presentement loué et qu il fera ouvrir une autre porte sur la rue a la place de la fenetre qui est a l extremité du cote du Nord de la d. Maison et qu Il fera faire un petit tambour de planche en dedans de l appartement avec une double porte celle de dehors fermant a Clef et lautre avec un loquet ...

[G3, Carton 2039-1, Pièce 13, February 8, 1734. Block 16, Lot A: The north apartment was entered by a small boarded vestibule, (tambour) which was to be added on the Rue St. Louis by converting a window into a door at the northern end of the house. The porch would have two doors the outside one closing with a key, the interior one with a latch (loquet) - Robert J. Morgan, A History of Block 16, Unpublished Report H D 25 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1975] 

However, according to several 17th-18th century dictionary definitions, and within the Quebec experience, a "tambour" could  take either an interior or exterior form:

TAMBOUR ... est une avance de maçonnerie ou de menuiserie dans un bastiment où on veut faire une double porte, comme on en voit aux Eglises. On en faisoit autrefois dans les chambres.

[Antoine Furetière, Dictionnaire Universel (A L Haye, 1690), Tambour]

Tambour Est, dans la menuiserie, une enceinte formée de lambris, au devant d'une porte, soit pour empêcher la vue des passans, soit à cause de l'incommodité du vent; tels sont ceux qu'on voit aux portes de la plupart des Eglises.

[C. F. Roland Le Virloys, Dictionnaire D'Architecture (Paris, 1770), Volume 3, p. 8]

... deux Tambours avec planches Embouffetees & blanchies des deux Costez avec une porte a chaque Tambour dont LUn sera La porte du coste de la rue & Lautre a La porte quy regarde La Rivière ...

[Archives judiciaires de Montréal, 1878, May 13, 1691]

Adding to this mix was the "perron", defined as "a flight of several steps giving access to a covered or uncovered landing, that is placed outside in front of the entrance of a floor that is slightly above ground level" and which was relatively popular at Louisbourg.

[Chabat, Dictionnaire des termes employés dans la construction (Paris, Morel, 1876), T.2, Article Perron: un emmarchement de plusieurs degrés donnant accès à un palier couvert ou découvert qui est placé à l'extérieur, devant l'entrée d'un étage un peu élevé au dessus du sol]

---------------------------------------

LOUISBOURG

At  Louisbourg, exterior storm porches are under-represented in the present interpretation programme and they should be installed wherever the practical/seasonal need may arise to justify their construction, and, conversely, their removal. Interior vestibules ("tambours") appear to have been the norm for isolating one area from another, or for hindering the effects of exterior elements such as wind or cold. For sure, storm doors (a relative rarity) were always an alternate possibility, but, again, only where they make the greater sense.

The Custom of Paris, in part a civil building code, and which had a strong legal grounding in Louisbourg, may have dictated the degree to which storm porches were allowed to have protruded into the streets, though perhaps the colder months may have been a mitigating factor.

As well, portions of a 1720 Louisbourg regulation may have been another determining factor:

Conditions des Concessions à observer par ceux qui feront Bastir des maisons et magasins dans ce port 

1e  Bastir Les maisons et magasins Sur les faces des rues
2  mettre aL'uny lamoité des Rues qui font face aux Concessions
3e faire un petit canal au millieu des rues a moitié faits de pierre Seiche pour le coullement des Eaux ...
7e On nemettera point des piquets d'avances pour Soutient dans les rues mais Seulement des lisses dapuy et de Liatiton dunaut aubas
[C11C, Volume 15 suite, pièce 230, septembre 20, 1720]

Finally, whether regulations, such as those of Quebec of 1727, which governed the flight of steps before a building were informally adhered to in Louisbourg is an unknown matter:

... unless a building had a vaulted basement, a perron before a door of more than three steps was forbidden ...

[Comments based on:  Arrets et Reglements...[1727], (Quebec: 1855), p. 315, 210] 



RECOMMENDATIONS

STORM PORCHES AT LOUISBOURG

(1) Construct them of walls of "charpente" or "piquet" - board revetted or not - with board or shingled roofs, 1 or 2 "pouce" thick floors, and exterior doors with appropriate hardware

(2) Base their components on previous design decisions of Structural Design (1961-present)

(3) Regard them as temporary constructions to meet real climatic concerns where an interior "tambour" was impractical (e.g. Grandchamp Inn) or never existed (e.g. not mentioned in a detailed inventory description)

(4) Impinge them as little as possible into a street

(5) Remove them when the seasonal need has disappeared

(6) Insure they not fly in the face of archaeological evidence 



TRANSCRIBED SOURCES (By Property Location)

WEST OF BLOCK 1: LARTIGUE RESIDENCE: 

YEAR: 1718

Louisbourg Map Number: 1718 - 2 .... Four, possible Five First Lartigue Complex Buildings (of which one lies parallel to two others in line); First Lartigue Complex Storm Porches and/or Attached Outbuildings ...

YEAR: 1725 

Louisbourg Map Number: 1725 - 9 ... Two Long Parallel First Lartigue Complex Structures (the "south-east" One with a storm Porch or attached Outbuilding facing the "north-west" Structure), with each divided into three Units ...

YEAR: 1731

Louisbourg Map Number: 1731 - 3 ... Two long Parallel First Lartigue Complex Buildings (one with a storm porch or attached outbuilding) ... Two long (one consisting of three adjoining units) Parallel First Lartigue Complex "Piquet" Buildings (one with a storm porch or attached outbuilding) with Exterior Wall Struts, and Roof Chimneys ...

YEAR: 1734 

Louisbourg Map Number: 1734 - 3 MAP TITLE: ... Two Truncated Parallel First Lartigue Complex Buildings (One with a Storm Porch or attached Outbuilding) with one of its Property Fence crossing Rue du Petit Etang; Lartigue's "New House"...

YEAR: 1734 

Louisbourg Map Number: 1734 - 4 ... Two Truncated Parallel First Lartigue Complex Buildings (One with a Storm Porch or attached Outbuilding) with one of its Property Fence crossing Rue du Petit Etang; Lartigue "New House"...

YEAR: 1735

Louisbourg Map Number: 1735 - 7 ...  Two Truncated Parallel First Lartigue Complex Buildings (One with a Storm Porch or attached Outbuilding) with its Yard, Garden and Property Fences (of which One Fence crosses the Rue du Petit Etang) ...

YEAR: 1735

Louisbourg Map Number: ND - 105 ... Two Truncated Parallel First Lartigue Complex Buildings (One with a Storm Porch or attached Outbuilding) with its Yard, Garden and Property Boundaries of an unknown nature (of which One Boundary crosses the Rue du Petit Etang) ...

[The Built History of Rue Du Petit Etang, (Rue de Rempart) And Selected Adjacent Features, Louisbourg, Isle Royale, 1713-1768, by Eric Krause, Volume Two: Chronology of Built Events (1713-1768), Unpublished Report (Krause House Info-Research Solutions), May 11, 1998]


BLOCK 1: BAKERY

... hangard ou cabanot d'hiver fait de charpente et 
de planche ded Baston, pour couvrir la Porte de la 
Boulangerie et la preserver des neiges

La Charpente qui le compose contient suivant Le
Toisé, 31 pieds cubes et 3 pouces Estimé 20 Sols le
pied cube cy ................................................................................  31. 5. 0.

Le Revettement au pourtour de La Charpente avec
la couverture double contient Suivant le Toisé qui
En a Esté fait 7 toises quarré et 8 pouces Estimé
6:to 10:s la toise quarrée cy ...................................................... 46. 4. 4 ...

[Estat des Ouvrages de reparations Et fournitures qui ont esté faittes dans tous les bastiments du Roy a Louisbourg, tant En Maçonnerie, qu'en charpente, Menuisserie Serruirreuie, Vitrerie et Journées, par Le Sr. Claude Coeuret Entrepreneur En Consequence de l'ordre qu'il en a reçeu de Monsieur Prevot Commissaire ordonnateur En cette Isle le 23e Juillet 1749, C11B, Volume 28, December 31, 1749, f. 343v.]

... The entrance to the boulangerie seems to have been through a door off the courtyard, situated at the interior angle formed by the two wings of the building. In 1749, a wooden structure was built around this door to protect it from the snow. This cabanot d'hiver was constructed of timber and covered with planks [45-19]. (see plan 751-18) ...

[Block 1 Boulangerie, Hangard D'Artillerie, New England Storehouse, By Linda Hoad, Supervised by Blaine Adams, Unpublished Report H D 08, (Fortress of Louisbourg), May, 1967]


BLOCK 1: ENGINEER'S HOUSE

Apenti ou Cabanot dhiver pour couvrir La 
porte de l'apartement et la preserver de la neige 
dont la charpente qui a esté Blanchis et 
monte Suivant le toisé qui est a Esté fait a 39.
pieds cube et 8 pouces estimé 25 sols le pied
cube cy ..................................................................................... 49. 11. 8

Le plancher dud. Apenty, le Revettement au 
pourtour, la Couverture et Les pignons Le tout 
fait de planches d'1. pouce blanchis et embou-
- veté, contient ensemble Suivant Le toisé qui
en a Esté fait 8to-2-0p
Estime 12to La toisse 
quarrée cy .............................................................................. 100. 0. 0 ...

[Estat des Ouvrages de reparations Et fournitures qui ont esté faittes dans tous les bastiments du Roy a Louisbourg, tant En Maçonnerie, qu'en charpente, Menuisserie Serruirreuie, Vitrerie et Journées, par Le Sr. Claude Coeuret Entrepreneur En Consequence de l'ordre qu'il en a reçeu de Monsieur Prevot Commissaire ordonnateur En cette Isle le 23e Juillet 1749, C11B, Volume 28, December 31, 1749, f. 346]

[Block 1, The Ancien Magasin and the Engineers House, by Linda Hoad, Unpublished Report H D 09 (Fortress of Louisbourg), November, 1967]


BLOCK 2, LOT D

... A door which may have been the main entrance was located in the east wall of the house, facing the yard. Plans 1731-3-(l), 1734-4 and N.D. 105 show a flight of stairs on the south section of the east wall, while Plan 1767-1 places one of the small structures which are assumed to be storm porches in this approximate location. ....

[The Private Properties in Block 2, Louisbourg, by Brenda Dunn, Unpublished Report H D 17 R (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1971 - Revised 1978]


BLOCK 2, LOT E

... The cabinet which probably was Dugas' office seems to have been situated in an addition, for the inventory described the room as "a Coste en bas" [NOTE 42]. Additions appear on only two plans, 1730-2 and N.D. 24, which show two small additions with pitch roofs on the east and west sections of the north wall ...

[ The Private Properties in Block 2, Louisbourg, by Brenda Dunn, Unpublished Report H D 17 R (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1971 - Revised 1978]

PORCH: Possible use of addition (s) on north wall. [BASIS: Not given ("C" credibility)]

[Historical Report: Reconstruction Check List (1744-1745) - [The Private Properties in Block 2, Louisbourg, by Brenda Dunn, Unpublished Report H D 17 R (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1971 - Revised 1978]

... 1749-58:  ... At sometime during this sequence of events some work may have been done on the fireplaces in the building (2E44). Plans for reconstructing these fireplaces may have been changed and a new fireplace may have been built along the northern wall where a masonry pad was found (2E12). Council has interpreted this pad as the base for a bake oven, but there is no historical bests for such an interpretation. The pad may have signified the location of a variety of different constructions including an ordinary fireplace, a forge, or a porch, as well as a bake oven. ...

[A Summary of the Archaeology of the Town Site of Louisbourg, 1959-79, By Donald A. Harris, Unpublished Report A E 55 (Fortress orf Louisbourg), 1982. [PAGE 165] Block 2 - Lot E - Detcheverry-Dugas Property]


BLOCK 2, LOT G

... Plan 767-1 also shows square projections on the west wall of the house--one in the corner formed by the west wall of the north magasin and the south wall of the main part of the house, and two further along the magasins' west wall. These possibly were storm porches, indicating possible door locations ...

[Brenda Dunn, Block 2, Lot G, Property of the Commissaire, Unpublished Report H D 14 R (Fortress of Louisbourg), September, 1969]

ITEM (15): SHEET 30 - STORM PORCH: RECOMMENDATIONS: Design approved. [BASIS: Historical information from the 1749 repair toisé].

[Structural Design Team Minutes, Chronological Index, B 219 172 - 174, August 17, 1971 August 18, 1971 - Editor's Note: The storm porch recommendation is based on the storm porches for the Block One Engineer's Residence and/or Bakery]


BLOCK 2, LOT L

... Some form of structure was found archaeologically, attached to the Lot L building at the rear. ... 3 -3- The absence of any indication on the historic Plans of outbuildings in the Lot L yard may have contributed to the interpretation of the rear of the Lot M building as a barn. Many outbuildings are not shown, however, which we know from archaeological evidence to have existed. For example, the shed/porch on the rear of the Lot L building, Block 2 and the outbuildings in the yard of the Chevalier Residence, Île du Quay. Putting aside a preconception that the Lot M building included a magasin at the rear, the evidence to me seems to support an interpretation of the Lot M building as having only three rooms on the ground floor (kitchen/dining, sleeping/living and office/storage), for the following reasons ...

[TO: Eric Krause FROM: Susann Myers; Date: August 03, 1993; SUBJECT: Interpretation of Grandchamp House and Magazin (Lot M, Block 2)]


    BLOCK 2, LOT H

... Two views in 1731 picture the Rodrigue dwelling as a structure of one storey with an attic and a basement. (See Plans 1731-1 and 1731-3-(2). A distinctive feature on the Quay façade is a porch or veranda with a railing and with steps on both ends ...

[ The Private Properties in Block 2, Louisbourg, by Brenda Dunn, Unpublished Report H D 17 R (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1971 - Revised 1978]


BLOCK 2, LOT I

... Plan 1767-1 shows small squares projecting from the Lot I section of the south wall. It is thought that these structures, found only on this plan, are storm porches and may indicate the location of doors ...

[ The Private Properties in Block 2, Louisbourg, by Brenda Dunn, Unpublished Report H D 17 R (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1971 - Revised 1978]


BLOCK 3, LOT A

... A large number of new buildings appear on plan 1767-1. The west wing is shown as a separate building, with another building added on; the second building is marked "y Stores and Stables occupied at present". The property lines have radically changed, and a large area is now fenced off adjacent to this building. At the south end of the west wing in the courtyard is one of the small square structures which have been interpreted as storm porches ...

[Report on Lots A and B of Block 3, by Linda Hoad, Unpublished Report HD-16 (Fortress of Louisbourg), June 1971]


BLOCK 3, LOT B

... View 1731-1 shows both the quay and the Rue de 1'étang facades. The house is at a lower elevation than the Lagrange house, and it seems to have a cellar, at least at the east end - a vent or doorway is shown below the main door. The quay facade contains a window, a door, and two windows. The door is reached by means of an elevated porch with steps at either end ...

[Report on Lots A and B of Block 3 by Linda Hoad, Unpublished Report HD-16 (Fortress of Louisbourg), June 1971]


BLOCK 5, LOT A

MAP 1767 - 01 AND MAP 1767 - 01A ... The gable end of a wooden building [inhabited house] - with an eastern [assumed] storm porch opening upon a yard - at the corner of Rue Royalle and Rue Dauphine - with a garden to the east of the yard - fronting Rue Royalle ...

[Structural Documents Associated with Property Developments Fronting Rue Royalle and Rue D'Orleans (Including Rue D'Estrées and Rue Dauphin Fronting Block Thirteen): A Chronology (Louisbourg: 1713-1760), by Eric Krause, Unpublished Report (Krause House Info-Research Solutions), August 21, 2000]


BLOCK 13: HOSPITAL

... Etablissement de deux Apentis ou Cabanot 
d'hiver pour preserver des Neiges la porte de La 
Commenauté qui donne sur la terrasse et celle 
de la cuisine.

La Charpente qui compose ces deux ouvrages con-
-tient Suivant le Toisé qui en a Esté 78 pieds 
Cubes et 9 pouces Estimé 20 Sols Le pied cube
cy ................................................................................................   78. 15. 0:

Le Revettement Simple et les Couverture 
doubles des dte Cabanots faittes de planches 
de Baston constitenne Ensemble Suivant le Toisé qui
est a Esté fait 24 toises quarrée 3 pieds et 8 pd 
Estimée 6.to 10 s la Toise quarrée cy ......................................... 159 .. 19 .. 4 

Le plancher de pied du Cabanot de la Porte de La 
communauté fait de madriers de 2 pouces d'Epais-
-seur, contient Suivant le Toisé qui en a Esté fait
une toise quarrée 2 pieds et 8 pouces Estimé 12# la
Toise quarrée cy ........................................................................  17 .... 6 ...8: ...

Estat des Ouvrages de reparations Et fournitures qui ont esté faittes dans tous les bastiments du Roy a Louisbourg, tant En Maçonnerie, qu'en charpente, Menuisserie Serruirreuie, Vitrerie et Journées, par Le Sr. Claude Coeuret Entrepreneur En Consequence de l'ordre qu'il en a reçeu de Monsieur Prevot Commissaire ordonnateur En cette Isle le 23e Juillet 1749,C11B, Volume 28, December 31, 1749, f. 334v.

... Winter/storm porches

(a) [Construction] of a [1/2 timber] winter/storm porch for the [central] passageway door which opens upon the terrace (@ 20 sols per cubic pied)

(i) [Construction] of a single layer of weatherboarding, of Boston boards (@ 6 livres 10 sols per square toise)

(ii) [Construction] of a double board roof, of Boston boards (@ 6 livres 10 sols per square toise)

(iii) [Construction] of the ground-floor flooring, of 2-pouce thick planks (@ 12 livres per square toise)

(b) [Construction] of a [1/2 timber] winter/storm porch for the kitchen door (@ 20 sols per cubic pied)

(i) [Construction] of a single layer of weatherboarding, of Boston boards (@ 6 livres 10 sols per square toise)

(ii) [Construction] of a double board roof, of Boston boards (@ 6 livres 10 sols per square toise)

(iii) [Construction] of the ground-floor flooring, of 2-pouce thick planks (@ 12 livres per square toise) ...

[The King's Hospital - A Structural History of Louisbourg's Block 13 Royal Hospital 1713 - 1960, by Eric Krause, KKrause House Info-Research Solutions, August 21, 2000 (Fortress of Louisbourg Report  RA983.L4K72000) - Estat des Ouvrages de reparations Et fournitures qui ont esté faittes dans tous les bastiments du Roy a Louisbourg, tant En Maçonnerie, qu'en charpente, Menuisserie Serruirreuie, Vitrerie et Journées, par Le Sr. Claude Coeuret Entrepreneur En Consequence de l'ordre qu'il en a reçeu de Monsieur Prevot Commissaire ordonnateur En cette Isle le 23e Juillet 1749, C11B, Volume 28, December 31, 1749, f. 334v.]


 BLOCK 16, LOT D

... Plan 767-1 shows small structures projecting from the south end of the Carpenters' Shop. Similar structures are seen in Block 16 on the Despiet and Howell houses. No documentation has been found to define the projections. It is possible that they were storm porches and thus give an indication of door locations. In some cases archaeology has found doors situated to correspond to the location of the structures [During the first English occupation at least one small shed was set up in the yard of this lot. (Library of Congress, A.G. 2444, 1 Aug. 1747)].

[Robert J. Morgan, A History of Block 16, Unpublished Report H D 25 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1975]


BLOCK 16, LOT E 

MAP 1767 - 01 AND MAP 1767 - 01A ... The face of a large wooden building [inhabited house] with a [assumed] storm porch to the west - with an attached feature to the east - at the corner of Rue d'Orléans and Rue Toulouze - with, to the east of the corner building, the face of another wooden building [inhabited house] with a [assumed] storm porch to the east - with a yard between the two buildings - fronting Rue d'Orléans ... 

 [Structural Documents Associated with Property Developments Fronting Rue Royalle and Rue D'Orleans (Including Rue D'Estrées and Rue Dauphin Fronting Block Thirteen): A Chronology (Louisbourg: 1713-1760), by Eric Krause, Unpublished Report (Krause House Info-Research Solutions), August 21, 2000]

Plan 767-1 also showed square structures projecting from the east side of the Howell house....

[Robert J. Morgan, A History of Block 16, Unpublished Report H D 25 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1975]


BLOCK 17, LOT A

Il est aussi possible qu'une sorte de tambour extérieur ait existé, adjacent à la maison et au magasin Rodrigue [NOTE 123]. [A.F.L., M.C., 766-1.]

L'Ilot 17 De Louisbourg, 1713 - 1768, par H. P. Thibault, Unpublished Report H D 20 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1972


BLOCK 18, ANCIEN GOUVERNEMENT

Couverture de Bardeaux du prix de 10#. La toise quarrée ... 

Au Vieux Gouvernement 

Long. .............................................. 10 - 0 - 0} 
Larg. .............................................. 2 - 1 - 0  }.... 21 - 4 - 0 - 0 

Sur les Tambours des portes d'Entrées et des deux Lucarnes 

Long. .............................................. 2 - 0 - 0} 
Larg. .............................................. 1 - 1 - 0}.... 2 - 2 - 0 - 0 

[France, Archives Nationales, Colonies, C11B, Volume 12, ff. 122-143. "Toisé general et difinitif de tous les Ouvrages de terres, Maçonnerie, Pierre de Taille, Charpente, menuiserie, hopital, Magasin, et Angar, Et des Reparations qui avoient Eté faits au Vieux hopital, Vielles Cazernes, et Vieux logement des officiers et du Gouvernement, par le feu Sr. Michel philipe Isabau Entrepreneur des fortifications de Louisbourg depuis l'année 1719. jusqu' en 1724. En Consequence de Son marché passé a Paris le 7e mars 1719. et des Ouvrages qui ont Eté faits aprés Son decés par Ses heritiers charges de procuration jusqu'en 1730. non Compris Ceux que le Sr. Ganet a faits aux dites Cazernes portes par un toisé particulier." Louisbourg, le premier septembre 1731,  ff. 141-141v. - Year 1727-1731]

Palissades
Une toise courante de piquets plantez en palissades
pour former le tambour du vieux gouvernement,
estimée a la somme de seize livres cy ..... 16"

[France, Archives Nationales, Colonies, C11B, Volume 12, ff. 145-147v. "Toisé des ouvrages qui ont eté faits aux cazernes, Bastion du Roy, vieux hôpital et vieux gouvernement etc. par feu le sr. Michel Philippe Isabeau, entrepreneur des fortifications de Louisbourg et par ses heritiers, les prix desquels ouvrages n'ont pas eté compris dans le marchez du d. feu Isabeau passé a Paris le 7e. mars 1719 ." Louisbourg, 1 septembre 1731, f. 147- Year 1727-1731]


BLOCK 19, LOT A 

MAP 1767 - 01 AND MAP 1767 - 01A ... The face of an L-shaped wooden building [inhabited house] - with a [assumed] storm porch to the west - at the corner of Rue d'Orléans and Rue St. Louis, fully occupying the lot fronting Rue d'Orléans ...

[Structural Documents Associated with Property Developments Fronting Rue Royalle and Rue D'Orleans (Including Rue D'Estrées and Rue Dauphin Fronting Block Thirteen): A Chronology (Louisbourg: 1713-1760), by Eric Krause, Unpublished Report (Krause House Info-Research Solutions), August 21, 2000]


BLOCK 34, LOT C

... Plan 1767-1 ... 

(C) Lot C: 

(1) Three major attached buildings, beginning at the corner of Rues de France and St. Louis, run along Rue St. Louis to meet up with another three building complexes in Lot D. 

(i) the first building, at the corner, was a square-like house presently occupied, with a [assumed] [storm porch] facing Rue St. Louis ... 

[Eric Krause, Krause House Info-Research Solutions - Block 34, Lot C Overview]


BLOCK 34, LOT D

... Plan 1767-1 ... 

(D) Lot D: 

(1) Three major attached buildings, beginning at the corner of Rue de Scatary and running south to meet the Lot C building complex: 

(i) The first building, at the corner, was a rectangular house, presently inhabited, with its gable end facing Rue de Scatary. It had a [assumed] [storm] porch facing Rue St. Louis; 

(ii) The next building to the north, was a rectangular stores and/or stables, whose gable end faced Rue St. Louis; 

(iii) The last building to the north, was odd shaped, with gable ends facing north, south, and east, with a [assumed] [storm] porch facing Rue St. Louis ...

[Eric Krause, Krause House Info-Research Solutions - Block 34, Lot D Overview]


BLOCK ISLE DU QUAY, LOT A

... puisqu'il s'agit d'un magasin. D'après le plan 767-1, il y avaît un tambour à l'extrémité nord de la façade ouest du magasin. Sans doute était-ce la porte d'entrée principale, peut- être même la seule porte, si l'on néglige la vue 745-1 (plan 36) ...

[L'Ile Du Quai De Louisbour, par Christian Pouyez And Gilles Proulx, Unpublished Report H D 21 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1972]


BLOCK ISLE DU QUAY, LOT C

... Enfin, sur le plan 767- 1, on peut distinguer trois "annexes" de la maison Chevalier: sur la facade sud de la maison est indiqué ce que nous croyons être un tambour ...

[L'Ile Du Quai De Louisbour, par Christian Pouyez And Gilles Proulx, Unpublished Report H D 21 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1972]

... CHEVALIER HOUSE: RECOMMENDATIONS: ...

... (E) "Tambour" at boutique entrance on Place du Port (south): This question was brought up by archaeologist, discussed briefly as to the earliest date of its existence, but no conclusion was reached, since this item can be studied separately at some later date, being probably a removable "contraption" anyway. It was noted that the door on Quay (west) side would have been in more need of protection due to its exposure, which brought up once again the yet unresolved question of storm doors in the first Louisbourg period [BASIS: 1767 drawing shows protrusion at approximate location where some evidence of door was found] ...

[Structural Design Team Minutes, Chronological Index, B 225 144 - 154, June 22, 1978]

... (ii) [Isle Du Quay] Chevalier House S. Myers noted that checks for storm doors are contributing to rot of posts and sills, without storm doors. Decision required re historic accuracy of storm doors for this building. It was agreed by Design Team members that there will be no storm doors, and subsequently no checks. (Basis: Documentary evidence that storm porches were more prevalent than storm doors at Louisbourg; Hist. Plan 1767-1, indicating storm porch at south wall of House; chimney location suggesting interior vestibule at west wall.) ...

[Structural Design Team Minutes, Chronological Index, B 244 160 - 167, August 06, 1992]

... S. Myers noted some archaeological evidence of storm porch on south façade of Chevalier ...

[Structural Design Team Minutes, Chronological Index, B 313 78 - 84, April 20, 1995]

(h) CHEVALIER RESIDENCE AND CASSAGNOLLES- DETCHEVERRY MAGASIN, ILE DU QUAI

... request door in opening from vestibule to kitchen, and addition of door from vestibule to meeting/ Boutique area, to suit period use of building [BASIS: Both interior and exterior "tambours" often mentioned in Louisbourg documents] ...

[Structural Design Team Minutes, Chronological Index, B 313 236 - 242, November 30, 1995]


BLOCK ISLE DU QUAY, LOT E

... Certains plans illustrent, à l'est et à l'ouest de la maison, deux annexes dont on ne connaît pas l'utilisation (plans 726-4, 731-3, 734-4, 740- 4). A l'ouest, il pourrait peut-être s'agir d'un tambour, ou d'un porche: les dimensions moyennes en sont de 3 pieds (Est-Ouest) par 5.7 pieds (Nord-Sud). A l'este il s'agit peut-être d'un appentis, car les dimensions sont plus importantes: en moyenne, 6 pieds par 11 pieds ...

L'Ile Du Quai De Louisbour, par Christian Pouyez And Gilles Proulx, Unpublished Report H D 21 (Fortress of Louisbourg), 1972]


ITEM (12) RECAP OF BARON HOUSE, ILE DU QUAI

... Historic Plans 726-4, 731-3 and 740-4 all show extensions of the building, both east and west, indicating there was some form of porch or shed structure on the east end of the building. S. Myers recommending storm door checks at east elevation be eliminated in Recap - Design Team concur ...

[Structural Design Team Minutes, Chronological Index,  B 317 88 - 93, August 1, 1996]


BLOCK PRESQU'ISLE DU QUAY, LOT A

 ... Etant dans ladite maison avons en execution delarrest du conseil Superieur ... 

Levée denosdits Scellez apposé Sur laporte du magazin Contigu alouest deladite maison et ayant son entree par le tambour qui communique alEtang ... a la requisition du Sieur Cousard beau fils de la veuve .... fait ouverture delapartement qui est audesus dudit magazin ...

[Archives Nationales, Section Outre-Mer, G2, Volume 208, Dossier 476, 1721, 1732-1733, Pièce 44, May 19, 1732]


UNKNOWN LOCATION

 Reparations et fournitures qui ont été faittes dans un maison particulier pour pouvoir y Loger Six officiers nayant pas de chambres Vuides dans les Cazernes et Ce par ordre de Mrs Le Gouverneur et ordeur ... 

1730. ...

[Crepissage/maconnerie?] Pour Le dessus du tambour de la 
porte estimé a .............................................................. 10 [livres] ... 

Une paire de Pentures a la porte 
du tambour ................................................................... 6 ...

Pour le transport des piquets pour 
Le tambour et dautres endroits 
necessaires a la maison Cy .......................................... 4 ... 

[C11B, Volume 18, May 1, 1736, f. 183v]


QUEEN'S GATE

Cazernes de la Porte de la Reine ... Scituées a droitte et a Gauche ... Construits totalement en bois ...

L'On observe que les Cazernes Sont Etablies sur un Sol de maçonnerie de Pierres Séches, d'un Construction Legere et toutes En bois, tres froides ...

A LEntrée de Chacune de Ces Chambres, est un avant Corps de 6 pieds de Longueur suvautant de Largeur, Elevé de 2 pieds au dessus du niveau de la Rüe Construit en vüe d'y moderer la Rigueur du froid ...

[Genie, article 14, piece 28, 1751; C11B, Volume 33, October 9, 1753, f. 227v - deux batiments de charpente qui servy de cazernes a la Porte de la Reine: C11C, Volume 13, December 10, 1751, f. 167v]


ISLE ST JEAN: PORT LA JOYE

Etat de la depenses qui a été faite pour la construction des Batiments provisionels qui ont été etablies au port la Joye dans L'Isle St Jean pour y loger le detachement qui est en garnison faits par Gautier habitant ...

... Poudrier ...

l'Apenty qui couvre la Porte de lad. poudrier
contient deux toises courantes et trois pieds de
pourtour, Estimée pour fourniture de piquets
torchis, couverture et facon a Sept livres la
toise courante, cy............................................................. 17: 10:

La porte de planches brut avec barres Estimés
quatre livres ..................................................................... 4: 0:

Une paire de penture avec Ses gonds Estimés
Cinq livres cy ................................................................. 5: 0:

Un Loquet a main Estimé Cinquante Sols cy ............. 2:10: ...

[C11B, Vol. 28, September 3, 1751, ff. 289-289v]


ISLE ST JEAN: PORT LA JOYE 

Etat de la depenses qui a été faite pour la construction des Batiments provisionels qui ont été etablies au port la Joye dans L'Isle St Jean pour y loger le detachement qui est en garnison faits par Gautier habitant ...

... Logement de l'aumonier et du Chirurgien ...

Ce Logement fait comme les precedents ...

Les Cloisons qui Separent les deux logements et celles qui
forment les Cabinets et le tambour ...

[ C11B, Vol. 28, September 3, 1751, f. 290]


ISLE ST JEAN: PORT LA JOYE 

... Logement d'un Capitaine ...

La Couverture dudt. Logement faitte de planches
double et celle du tambour joignant la dte maison
contient ensemble Suivant le toisé Vingt Six toises
quarrées cinq pieds et quatre Pouces Estimés tous
compris a neuf livres dix Sols la toise cy .......................... 255 8 ...

Touttes les Cloisons qui Separent la chambre deux
cabinets et le tambour contiennent ensemble cinq
toises quarrées deux pieds et huit pouces Estimees
pour fourniture et façon a Sept livres dix Sols
la toise quarrée cy ............................................................... 40 16 ...

[C11B, Volume 28, September 3, 1751, ff. 292-292v]


LES PERRONS

Un perron est "un emmarchement de plusieurs degrés donnant accès à un palier couvert ou découvert qui est placé à l'extérieur, devant l'entrée d'un étage un peu élevé au dessus du sol" [NOTE 10]. Le perron peut donc affecter une grande variété de formes, depuis la simple marche jusqu'au perron double. Nous avons relevé neuf exemples de perrons: les plus simples, qui apparaissent sur les plans 733-9b, 733-11 et 739-5, sont composés de deux ou quatre marches, la marche inférieure étant plus longue que la seconde, elle même plus longue que la troisième, etc... [NOTE 11].

On voit, sur le plan 734-4 (Terrain D, Ilôt 2), un autre type de perron, un peu plus comulexe: les marches courent parallèlement à la longueur de la maison, et elles aboutissent à un palier; l'ensemble est entouré d'une rampe en angle [NOTE 12].

Enfin, dans les maisons dont le rez de chaussée est passablement élevé au dessus du sol, on rencontre parfois des perrons doubles, composés d'un palier, face à la porte d'entrée, et d'une volée de marches de chaque côté. Une rampe à balustrade compléte cette structure qui est parfois soutenue par deux poteaux (731-3, par exemple). On rencontre de tels perrons sur le terrain B de l'ilôt 3 [NOTE 13] (Le Billard), devant la maison Rodrique (2H) [NOTE 14] et devant l'une des maisons appartenant à Lartigue [NOTE 15]. Dans ce dernier cas, la même maison possède trois perrons: deux doubles et un simple, ce dernier n'ayant qu'une volée d'escaliers, au lieu de deux. Quant à la maison Rodrique (2H), le plan 731-1 y fait apparaitre un perron qui court sur toute la façade de la maison, avec un escalier à chaque bout, tandis que le plan 731-3 illustre une structure différente: les portes de la maison sont situées aux deux extrémités de la façade, et on y accède par trois ou quatre marches; entre ces deux portes, un balcon s'étend sur toute la longueur de la maison, au niveau du rez de chaussée.

Telles sont les rares informations dont nous disposons à l'heure actuelle sur les escaliers, balcons et perrons dans les maisons privées de Louisbourg. Il faut espérer que la documentation non encore indexée sera plus riche que celle dont nous disposons présentement ...

ENDNOTES

[NOTE 1:] Bail à loyer, Jean Claparède à Jacques Brunet, Louisbourg. 1er juin 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2045, no 67; [NOTE 2:] Marché entre Beaubassin et Dubenca. Louisbourg, 30 mai 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2044, no 53; [NOTE 3:] Devis pour la construction d'une maison. Louisbourg, 26 juillet 1754. Section Outre-Mer, G3, carton 2042, no 69; [NOTE 4:] Devis estimatif de réparations. Louisbourg, 7 août 1752. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, 208, doss. 475. pièce 72; [NOTE 5:] Plan de la maison Dugué. Louisbourg, 6 octobre 1752. A.F.L., M.C., 752-13; [NOTE 6:] Bail à loyer, Jean Claparède à Jacques Brunet. Louisbourg, 1er juin 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer., G3 carton 2045, no 67; [NOTE 7:] A.F.L., M.C., 751-1; [NOTE 8:] A.F.L., M.C., 731-1, 731-3, 731-3a, N.D. 7, N.D. 7a; [NOTE 9:] Brenda Dunn, Block 2, Lot G. Property of the commissaire ordonnateur, (Louisbourg, septembre 1969), p. 5; [NOTE 10:] Chabat, Dictionnaire des termes employés dans la construction (Paris, Morel, 1876), T.2, Article Perron; [NOTE 11:] A.F.L., M.C., 733-9b, 733-11, 739-5, 753-1; [NOTE 12:] A.F.L., M.C., 734-4; [NOTE 13:] A.F.L., M.C., 731-1 et 731-3; [NOTE 14:] A.F.L., M.C., 731-1 et 731-3; [NOTE 15:] A.F.L., M.C., 753-1.

[Escaliers, Balcons, Perrons by Christian Pouyez In Historians, Preliminary Architectural Studies, Volume 02, Unpublished Report HG 02 (Fortress of Louisbourg, 1972, Report Number H G 02 02 01)

PERRONS

A perron is "a flight of several steps giving access to a covered or uncovered landing, that is placed outside in front of the entrance of a floor that is slightly above ground level" [NOTE 10]. The perron can therefore take on a great variety of shapes, from the single flight to the double flight. We discovered nine examples of perrons: the simplest ones appear on Plans 1733-9b, 1733-11 and 1739-5 and consist of two to four steps; the bottom step is longer than the second, the second longer than the third, etc ... [NOTE 11].

On Plan 1734-4 (Iot D, Block 2) another type of perron, which is slightly more complex can be seen: the steps run parallel to the length of the house and end at the landing; the whole perron is girded by an angled railing [NOTE 12].

Finally, in houses where the main floor is fairly high above the ground, we sometimes find double perrons, consisting of a landing opposite the front door and a flight of stairs on each side. A railing with balusters completes this structure, which is sometimes supported by two posts (1731-3 for example). Such perrons were found on Lot B of Block 3 [NOTE 13] (Le Billard), in front of the Rodrigue house (2H) [NOTE 14] and in front of one of the houses belonging to lartigue [NOTE 15]. In this last case the same house had three perrons: two double ones and a single one; the single perron had only a single flight of stairs instead of two. As for the Rodrigue house (2H), Plan 1731- 1 shows a perron that runs along [ PAGE 7:] the whole façade of the house, with stairways at each end, while Plan 1731-3 illustrates a different structure: the doors of the house are located at both ends of the façade with access possible by means of three or four steps; between these two doors, a balcony extends over the length of the house at main floor level.

Such is the scarce bit of data we have available at present on stairways, balconies and perrons in private homes at Louisbourg. It is to be hoped that the source material not yet indexed will be more extensive than what we have now. [PAGE 8:]

ENDNOTES

[NOTE 1:] House lease, Jean Claparède to Jacques Brunet, Louisbourg. June 1, 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2045, No. 67. [NOTE 2:] Contract between Beaubassin and Dubenca. Louisbourg, May 30 1756. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2044, No 53. [NOTE 3:] Specification for the building of a house. Louisbourg, July 26, 1754. Section Outre-Mer, G3, Carton 2042, No 69. [NOTE 4:] Repair estimates. Louisbourg, August 7, 1752. A.N., Section Outre-Mer, G2, 208, file 475, document 72; [NOTE 5:] Plan of the Dugué house. Louisbourg, October 6 1752. A.F.L., M.C. 1752-13; [NOTE 6:] House lease, Jean Claparède to Jacques Brunet. Louisbourg, June 1, 1756. A.N., Outre-Mer, G3 Carton 2045, No. 67. [NOTE 7:] A.F.L., Plan 1751-1; [NOTE 8:] A.F.L., M.C., 1731-1, 1731-3, 1731-3a, N.D. 7, N.D. 7a. [NOTE 9:] Brenda Dunn, Block 2, Lot G. Property of the commissaire-ordonnateur, (Louisbourg, Septembre 1969), p. 5; [NOTE 10:] Chabat, Dictionnaire des termes employés dans la construction (Paris, Morel, 1876), T.2, Article Perron. [NOTE 11:] A.F.L., M.C., 1733-9b, 1733-11, 1739-5, 1753-1; [NOTE 12:] A.F.L., M.C., 1734-4; [NOTE 13:] A.F.L., M.C., 1731-1 et 1731-3; [NOTE 14:] A.F.L., M.C., 1731-1 et 1731-3; [NOTE 15:] A.F.L., M.C., 1753-1.