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The North Shore: Properties 8 and 9 
(and Properties 1 and 7)

Preliminary Examination

By Eric Krause, 1990 

[Web Version - August, 2002]


PROPERTIES 8 AND 9

Eustache Le Pestour De Lagarende and Nicolas Gaudin
Property Concession Numbers and the Vallée Survey

By January of 1734, Governor St. Ovide and Commissaire-Ordonnateur Le Normant recognized the fact that the "occupied" properties on the North Shore ("Costé du Nord") did not necessarily match their original granted size. [1] As a result, they instructed Francois Vallée to survey, number and report upon them. Although he used a slightly different numbering system in 1741, this report respects his 1734 system.

According to Vallée, most of the 1734 harbour properties outside the town walls exceeded the regulation size of no more than 40 "toises" to 60 "toises" in depth. Indeed, to compensate for the poor quality of land in that area, the authorities had issued grants that measured as much as 100 "toises" from the shore to their interior limits.[2]

Magnetic North: 1713 - 1758

Plan 1736-1 has noted that the magnetic north for Nova Scotia, Acadia and Cape Breton varied 13 degrees west of true north in 1736. However, in 1767 (1767-3), Samuel Holland recorded the variance for Louisbourg as 16 degrees 1/2. For comparison purposed, other recorded readings for Louisbourg, or vicinity, have been:

Cartographic Survey:
Significant Sources for
Properties 8 and 9

According to the earliest available detailed map, 1716-7 (as well as ND-3), building and wharf construction, as well as tree clearances, had occurred in the vicinity of future properties 8 and 9 by 1716. By 1729 a road, bisecting property 8, may have (or intended to have) served the immediate interior terrain behind Louisbourg as a major terminus to the town's harbour (Plan 1729-2). At any rate, this roadway connected up with the "chemin neuf" (to the "Grand Lac de Miré") and the "chemin de Lave Maria". Of interest, some such as George Follings, included it (as well as some property 8 and 9 buildings?) on maps (1745-19), even while ignoring others, such as the road to the Royal Battery.

In 1738 map sources (1738-1, 1738-3) indicated that the property 8 road continued to serve not only as the terminus for "Chemin de Lac de Miré" ("Chemin Neuf") and "de Lave Maria", but now, as well, the Louisbourg roadway network which served the Royal Battery and island portions east and north of the town.

In general, detailed maps of the area, at least prior to the first siege (1734-2, ND-45, ND-46, 1742-3), generally suggest that the "Chemin de Miré," the "Chemin de la Batterie Royalle," and the point at which the "Chemin de la Batterie Royalle" turned south to the harbour did not meet to form an actually 4-way intersection. Rather, the "Chemin de Miré" terminated at approximately property 9's eastern boundary, while the "Chemin de la Batterie Royale," at a more westerly point at the conclusion of the "Chemin de Barachois." From that point the Royal Battery roadway continued its turn southerly toward the harbour as it bisected property 8.

On the other hand, according to Plans 1758-9, 1758-11, 1767-3, 1781-1 and, in particular, 1812-1, the property 8 road either may have, by the time of the second siege, entirely disappeared or have taken a new further easterly alignment (1758-19 or 1827-3) and, hence, become a new southerly extension of the "Chemin de Miré". Plan 1758-19 is also significant in that it identifies Martissan as an apparent major player in the vicinity of properties 8 and 9. Equally, Plan 1758-9 revealed buildings in the same area.


PROPERTY 8

In 1716 (or on [1] November 1717 according to another source), the Governor and commissaire-ordonnateur were stated to have conceded land, in the vicinity of future properties 7 and 8, to Francois Robert, Sieur Desoudrais of St. Malo. In 1720 from the comfort of his home in France, together with another man named Maugeis, Desoudrais was practicing a cod and oil fishery on this "habitation." However, it was in Louisbourg that Dutestre Louis, master of the beach, was actually conducting the day-to-day operations, with one of his clients being Duclos Frenet, captain of the ship "Chat de Veiné" of St. Malo. [3]

Interestingly, neither the 1717 nor the 1718 list of conceded lands confirm the Desoudrais consession. Rather, at the time, they noted that 130 "toises" of non-conceded land existed between property 1 and property 13. [4] As well, the census of 1715, 1716, 1718 (of active fishermen or European ships involved in the fishery), 1720 or 1724 do not clearly suggest any residency at all on this property. [5]

On the other hand, on 21 June 1720, in the presence of Dutertre Louis (who was seeking a settling of accounts) of Oliver Tulon de la Galanderie (acting on behalf of Desoudrais), of Olivier Orange de Betteseue (?) and of Thomas Boridere, a Louisbourg official conducted an extensive inventory of Desoudrais, fishing "habitation". Among the extensive items he noted, some of which were Basque, were the following constructions:

(1) One fish house/wharf (fish stag) [where the men would have dressed and salted their catch];

(2) One bridge [possibly leading to the fish stage];

(3) One wash cage [for washing salted fish prior to drying];

(4) One "Gless" [platform ("clai") and/or fish flake ("vigneaux")], covered with poles with a large deck upon which to pile the cod;

(5) Two cabins, each with a new fireplace, for the fishermen and the men who dressed and salted the catch;

(6) One cabin, with a new fireplace, for the master [of the beach], which inside, had a board [partitioned] "cabinet" [sized room] and a [storeroom];

(7) One storehouse (where the salt was kept) behind the said cabin;

(8) One garden, behind the hut, [surrounded] by a "piquet" [fence];

(9) A beach. [6]

In addition the same inventory revealed Desoudrais as the owner of:

(1) Six fishing "chaloupes";

(2) One coasting ["chaloupe" or "goelette"];

(3) One boat which had been rented out to DuClos Dosé, captain of the "St. Louis";

(4) 85 boards;

(5) 33 dozen of [roofing] "plan";

(6) 385 "piquets," including the 150 which he had sold to DuClos Dosé.

In June of 1721, Louis was apparently still attempting to settle his accounts in Louisbourg. At any rate, at his request George Lasson submitted a statement in which he maintained that he had never been in account with Louis or bought any merchandise, etc., while Louis had been master of the Desourdrais "habitation."[7]

In 1724 (or earlier), Desourdrais, who had revealed himself to be a St. Malo merchant ("marchand bourgeoise"), sold Oliver Tulon, a Grande Ville merchant, half of the North Shore property which he and Tulon had held in partnership. Following that sale, in November of 1724, Desoudrais, presently in Louisbourg, sold the remaining half of this property (and associated partnership rights still held in society with Tulon) to Charles Deschernais Duhamel, also a "marchand bourgeoise" from St. Malo, but now in Louisbourg. While the Duhamel sale drew 2239 "livres" 8 "sols" 6 "deniers" (which money Duhamel was to turn over to Toulon before his - who? probably Desoudrais who, currently lived in Louisbourg, owed an equal amount to Toulon - departure from the town), the agreement did not actually describe the property (although it did suggest the existence of some outbuildings, equipment and boats associated with a fishery enterprise). However, it did note that Duhamel was to compensate Monsieurs Forterie and Frequant for materials and work which they had contributed to the "habitation". In consideration, Desoudraus agreed to turn over to Duhamel not only his 1/2 ownership of the cod oil which he held in partnership with Tulon, but also his 1/2 ownership of the ship or vessel ("navire") "St. Ovide" constructed that year on the property.[8]

However, just two days later, Tulon agreed to accept Duhamel, in place of Desoudrais, as his 1/2 partner of the entire operation, which included both the property and the "St. Ovide". The reason for this new arrangement resulted out of Duhamel's acceptance of Desoudrais' 2239 "livres" 8 "sols" 6 "deniers" debt obligation to Tulon.[9]

In 1724 census takers recorded of the above property eight players, only the name of Tulon. Since they placed his name between those of Nicolas Gaudin (property 9 to the east) and George de Lasson (property 1 to the west), he was no doubt residing on part of the former Desoudrais North Shore property. At the time Tulon employed 29 fishermen and operated three ships, none of which was a "chaloupe."[10]

In 1725 Tulon was working his portion of the property 8 fishing establishment, receiving that year a loan of 2000 "livres" (with an attached interest of 25 "livres" on the 100 "livres") from Grand Clos Meslé, a businessman of St. Malo. Robert Duhamel, Sieur de la Fosse also of St. Malo, was to assure its payment. [11]

In the same year, in May, Duhamel and Tulon purchased the "Petite Charlotte", a 15" tonneaux goelette," for 1000 "livres". Payment was guaranteed for September, which De la Plagne, acting on behalf of the vendor, Martin Dasance, confirmed in October as having been paid.[12]

By April of 1726 Duhamel, presently in Louisbourg, had engaged eight men to work the upcoming summer fishery on board the "goelette" the "Marie". A 30 to 35 "tonneaux" vessel, it had been built the previous winter in "Baye des Espagnolles" (Sydney) for Duhamel-Tulon partnership account. On the other hand, payment to the men, which included hard currency as well as cod and oil, may have been on the Duhamel account alone.[13]

The property which Duhamel acquired from Desoudrais in 1724 probably measured 53 "toises" of face along the harbour. However, on 25 June 1726, the two partners (both of whom were quite literate) decided to dissolve their mutual society. Accordingly, they divided their commonly-held 53 "toises" of waterfront face into two equal parts, hence each presumedly of 26 "toises" 3 "pieds". In this new scheme, Duhamel received a western parcel (property 7) and Tulon an eastern parcel (property 8) upon which all the commonly ("mitoyen") held buildings and the wharf sat.

(1) The Tulon Section (Property 8)

(A) To the east: [26 "toises" 3 "pieds"] along the sea [harbour];

(B) To the North: Property 9;

(C) To the South: Duhamel (property 7). [14]

Upon this property, as well as upon his [1/2] ownership in ships - including the 130 "tonneau" "St. Ovide" of which Duhamel was the Captain to various ports such as Bordeaux, Nantes, etc., interests in France held Tulon's mortgage, representing money advanced to Tulon for conducting his fishery, etc. Upon this eastern property also sat a new commonly-owned Tulon-Duhamel building without yet its roof rafters (traverses - "repairs" would also include boards). Yet the building was apparently occupied: on the north side by Tulon and Grand Clos Millé, a tenant (at Duhamel's insistence), paying 500 "livres" but involved in his own fishery; and on the south by Duhamel. The building's entry door was on the south side while the wharf lay closest to Tulon's side. As well, at the time, the Tulon-Duhamel fishery consisted of six men (who were 36 month men from Spanish Bay), two "goelettes" and two "chaloupes." [15]

According to the 1726 census both Tulon and Duhamel were established in Louisbourg, as "habitant" fishermen. Accordingly, the takers had sandwiched their names between those of Nicolas Gaudin (property 9 to the east) and George de lasson (property 1 to the east). However, whereas Duhamel employed 24 fishermen and operated five "chaloupes," Tulon's contribution had been reduced by this time to neither employed fishermen nor operating ships. [16]

In an 8 October 1726 sale, Duhamel sold his rights to his portion [i.e. 1/2] of the "cabane," flakes and wharf that rested on Tulon's property 9 section, to Pierre Martissan of Property 7. [17] Following that, on 10 July 1728, to the east of Martissan's current property 7 holdings, Tulon sold Martissan 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of [waterfront] facing land. Apparently then this sale represented Tulon's share of the "cabane," flakes and wharf. If so, Tulon had effectively carved away 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of water frontage from the most western face of property 8.[18]

On 2 September 1727 Tulon was noted as still owner of his land, where he may still have been living ("chez"). At this time, Nicolas Gaudin of property 9 to the north, was his neighbour.[19]

Eustache le Pestour de Lagarende (who, active in Newfoundland prior to 1713, was in 1725 described as a merchant of Grand Ville in France), openly referred to his ownership of property 8 as early as October of 1729. However, according to Tulon's creditors, Lagarende did not acquire the "habitation" until 1732.[20] Notwithstanding this contradiction (of which 1729 was most assuredly the correct date), Tulon's creditors (who learned of the property sale only after Lagarende had made it public in Grande Ville to satisfy lien requirements), were quite adamant in 1734 that Tulon still owed them 2500 "livres" (which included interest). Consequently, out of the 4500 "livres" which Lagarende had (or was to) pay Tulon, they demanded restitution.[21]

At any rate, from 1724 (according to the census takers of 1724 and 1726) as well as in 1729 (when he first claimed ownership of property 8), and at least until 1739, if not later, Lagarende, as Eustache le Pestour was commonly known, lived ("habitant"), not in Louisbourg but in Niganiche (Ingonish), also known as Port D'Orleans. And it was there that he was known as a businessman ("negociant"). Consequently, in 1724, he employed 50 fishermen while operating eight ships (5 of which were "chaloupes"); in 1726 he had increased these numbers to 52 fishermen and 12 ships (of which 11 were "chaloupes"); while in 1734 the numbers were 64 fishermen and 15 ships (of which nine were "chaloupes", and four (two of which were built that year in Niganiche) were for the carrying trade.[22]

Notwithstanding his continuing Niganiche residency, when in January of 1725 two fires, which he claimed to be arson destroyed several of his Niganiche fishing "chaloupes," he later, in 1729 (while at the same time embroiled in a lawsuit over a gambling wager (l100 "livres" - which he was subsequently forced to pay, plus several other costs), used these Niganiche fires as an excuse for a desire to work his Louisbourg North Shore property. His reasoning went as follows:

(1) His Niganiche losses made it almost impossible for him to carry on his Niganiche fishery or to develop its associated "habitation" (besides, this property was much exposed to the turmoil of the sea);

(2) Thus to secure what he had left he came to Louisbourg to work his North Shore "habitation";

(3) However, once again he was forced to suffer a loss, for he found out, in 1729, that part of the "Chemin Royalle" (which he also called the "Chemin du Roy"), which had been constructed that year ("que lon a fait cette année"), which went from the harbour to the Royal Battery ("aller du bord de la mer a la bastille Royalle") passed directly upon his "habitation" ("passe directement sur cette habitation") and that it destroyed it in part ("quil detruit en partie");

(4) And so, he wanted this wrong corrected.[23]

Interestingly, Tulon continued to live somewhere on the North Shore as late as 15 May 1730. At that time he sold Pierre Martissan the "Saint Olivier", a "batteau" of 30 "tonnaux," for 1050 "livres", of which 663 "livres" was immediately paid.[24]

Plans 1734-2 and ND-45 illustrated property 8 (or d on ND-45) as belonging to Eustache le Pestour de Lagarende, "habitant" fisherman and businessman. According to both the plan of 1734 and the written evidence, but not according to ND-45, property 8 consisted of two separate sections, one to the east and one to the west of a "chemin de la Batterie Royalle" after its south easterly turn towards the harbour. As a result, in 1734, the concession boundaries (as defined as in the case of other properties by "bornes" or boundary stakes of some type), were as follows:

(I) The Eastern Section (1425 square "toises" - of which a portion was in beach [note: as a result, this resulted in Vallée taking his concession depth measurements from the beach, and not from where the land portion behind actually began] and a portion in fish flakes):

(1) To the southwest, between the harbour and [southeast] terminus of the "chemin de la Batterie Royale" - property 7;

(2) To the approximate Northwest - the "chemin de la Batterie Royalle" to that point at which the road began its turn towards the [northeast]: approximately 95 "toises" (i.e. 95 "toises" was the average depth of this property) - where the road began its turn (according to Plan ND-45), the property continued another 18 "toises" along the "chemin" (to meet the western boundary line of property 9);

(3) To the Southeast - the harbour: 12 "toises" along a face running N.E. 1/4 of North and S.W. 1/4 of South. Jutting into the harbour stood a wharf paired with another on property 7 (Plan ND-45, however, illustrated only the property 8 wharf at the foot of the "chemin de la Batterie Royalle");

(4) To the northeast - property 9: [100 "toises" along property 9].

(II) The Western Section (323 square "toises" 2 "pieds" - which included fish flakes - Plan ND-45 did not illustrate this portion):

(1) To the Northeast - [an unspecified distance approximately 97 "toises"] along the "chemin de la Batterie Royalle";

(2) To the Southeast - 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" [along the end of a storehouse ("en continuation dun magazin") belonging to Pierre martissan of property 7;

(3) To the Southwest - 97 "toises" along property 7 on a boundary that ran in a Northwest [as well as Southeast?] direction;

(4) [To the Northwest] - the "chemin du Barrachois" (which, incidentally, (i) at property 3 was 16 "pieds" wide and; (ii) ND-45 did not indicate as an existing road at all).[25]

On 19 July 1734, Lagarende appeared in Louisbourg in the case to satisfy the creditors of Tulon. At the time, he may have stayed in the town rather than on the North Shore, at the home of André Carrerot, who was living on Rue de Toulouse.[26]

In 1735 accounts submitted following the death of Antoine Perré indicate that Perré, or his widow, had rented the Louisbourg "habitation" of Lagarende in order for "molues que Mr. Peree" ["mulsavée" or "mulsures" or "malrue" = "merluche" or dried cod] sur la grave de Mr. Lagarende."[27] Perré had paid in cod worth 135 "livres". According to another account (of 10 October 1735), Martissan owed Perré for 60 "quinteaux" of cod which Perré had ["mulsure"] on the beach of Lagarende.[28]

During 1736 accounts of Boularderie's bankrupt "La Compagnie de L'Isle D'Orleans" (Ingonish) noted some financial dealings between it and Lagarende, of a relatively small nature, during the 1731-34 period. Interestingly, Lagarende also participated in some of the inventory sales to purchase some working and old "chaloupes."[29]

In 1741, Francois Vallée returned to the North Shore ("Costé du Nord") to produce a list of measured properties then actually occupied "au de la chemin de Louisbourg a la batterie Royalle et de la baleine." By this time too the "chemin du barrachois," as it was known in 1734, now referred to as the "chemin dutour du barrachois a la batterie Royalle" may have ended at the "pont St. Esprit" upon which road it had been constructed. Consequently, from the "pont" to where it met the "Chemin de la batterie Royalle," Vallée referred to this portion as the "chemin du pont St. Esprit a la batterie Royalle." As well, where the "chemin de la batterie Royalle" turned south in 1734, Vallée now variously referred to this portion as follows: "chemin tournant de la batterie royale a la grave," or simply "chemin tourant," or "le retour du chemin de la batterie a la grave," or "chemin en retour de la batterie royalle," or "chemin de la grave."[30]

At any rate, while Vallée's survey revealed relatively the same measurements as 1734, his more precise mathematics reduced the square "toises" of the western portion to 1098, while increasing the eastern portion to 672. Accordingly, Vallée revealed the following new information about the Legarende property (incidentally, he was now described as simply a "habitant" fisherman) while still confirming those of 1734:

(I) The Eastern Section

(1) The face of the 12 "toises" of land on the harbour took a 56 degree northeast and southwest alignment;

(2) The distance northwest along the "chemin de la grave," whose alignment was 47 degrees, measured, when taken at the harbour face, 83 "toises" to the point at which it turned towards northeast (Vallée says, ambiguously, where it met the "chemin de la batterie Royalle");

(3) The 18 "toises" distance on the "chemin en retour de la batterie royalle a la grave" took a northeast and southwest alignment;

(4) The distance along the boundary line of property 9, confirmed as being 100 "toises", took a 47 degree northwest alignment.

(II) The Western Section

(1) The distance along the ["chemin de la] batterie au pont St. Esprit," which ran to the northwest of the property, was 25 "toises".[31]

(III) Measurement Inconsistency: 1726 Versus 1734 and 1741

According to the 1726 agreement between Tulon and Duhamel, Tulon ought to have received one-half of the property, that is, 26 "toises" 3 "pieds" of waterfront, given that the entire face at the time of the 1726 division was 53 "toises" in length and, given that later in 1726, Duhamel would sell Martissan, of property 7, his section ["sa part"], whose waterfront face measured 26 "toises" 3 "pieds". Combined with Tulon's 1728 transfer of ownership of 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of harbour front face from property 8 to property 7, the Tulon-Lagarende sale of c. 1729 ought to have involved 23 "toises" 1 "pied" of waterfront face (plus another 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of property, in line, but lying some distance back of the harbour beach).

In significant contrast, Vallée's 1734 and 1741 measurements revealed Lagarende in possession of only 12 "toises" of direct waterfront property, plus the other 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of boundary face lying some 20 "toises" distant from the water. In other words, while the Tulon sale ought to have involved 26 "toises" 3 "pieds" in total, the Vallée measurements recorded only 15 "toises" 2 "pieds" in total, leaving 11 "toises" 1 "pied" unexplained.[32]

While Lagarende's complaints about the road which the [engineer] had cut through his property in 1729 might account for a part of the reduced front, the reason for most of the missing 11 "toises" 1 "pied" cannot but lie somewhere else. For example, in 1734 the "Chemin de Barrachois," a major artery leading to the town (and thus, perhaps, an indication of the width of the road which passed through property 8), measured, according to Vallée, 16 "pieds" in width or, in other words, only 2 "toises" 4 "pieds".

As well, property 7 to the west, according to the purchases of 1726, 1728 and 1732 ought to have measured 71 "toises". However, according to Vallée, in 1734 it measured 75 "toises". Considering that, in 1734, property 1 to the immediate west of property 7 was, in 1734 less in width than in 1716-17, and that property 9 was, in 1734, 2 "toises" 2 "pieds" wider than in 1725 (and 1727), with property 10, to its immediate east, remaining as it had been in 1731, these changes might suggest that properties 7 and 9 had increased their frontal dimensions at the expense of property 8.

In summary, these property and road measurement changes might have explained away 8 "toises" of property 7's missing 11 "toises" 1 "pied" if the 1741 Vallée measurements had remained consistent with those of 1734. Unfortunately, his 1741 survey reduced the face of property 1 by 3 "toises", the face of property 9 by 1 toise 1 "pied", but left unclear the actual face size of property 7 since Vallée had increased its measured face to 115 "toises" by including in it a part of purchased property 1. On the other hand, his measurements confirmed properties 8 and 10 with the same face dimensions as in 1734.

Accordingly, comparison exercises such as this may be fruitless for a number of reasons:

(1) The sampling is actually too small: all the North Shore properties must be considered;

(2) In the end, sea action, as well as survey inadequacies, might prove significant;

(3) Unrecorded sale agreements might be involved.


PROPERTY 9

According to the census of 1724, Nicolas Gaudin, fisherman, born in Granville, was already living in Louisbourg, but employed neither fishermen nor operated any ships. Accordingly, the census takers had sandwiched his name between several, including Joannis Toulon (property 10 to the east) and Oliver Tulon de la Galanderie (property 8 to the west).[33]

On 20 August 1725, Governor St. Ovide and Commissaire-Ordonnateur De Mesy awarded Gaudin a concession whose harbour front measured 14 "toises". Although he registered this concession with the Clerk of the Conseil Superieur on 2 September 1727, as early as June of 1726 the property 8 division between Tulon and Duhamel noted his ownership of the land to the north of them.[34]

In the 1726 census, Gaudin (with perhaps Charles La Ronde, a fisherman from St. Malo) was again identified, sandwiched between the widow Joannis Toulon (property 10 to the east) and Tulon (property 8 to the west). Either Gaudin or La Ronde had become engaged in the fishery that year. However, Gaudin employed neither fishermen nor operated any ships.[35]

According to the 1727 concession, the Gaudin property was described as follows:

(1) 14 "toises" of face on the port, to run from a piquet set 2 "toises" distant from the house ("maison") on property 10 to meet the home ("chez") on property 8.[36]

On 3 September 1731, Nicolas Gaudin was noted as the owner of property 9 to the west of property 10.[37] However, on 31 October 1731, he initialed in a poor hand an inheritance ("don mutuel") statement of his intent to go to France, while leaving his wife and young daughter in Louisbourg.[38]

According to an official list of inn and tavern keepers, one of the tavern keepers ("cabaretier") outside Louisbourg was a person named Gaudin (unfortunately, his first name went unrecorded).[39]

In December of 1734, "habitant" fisherman Nicolas Gaudin owned property 9 (2066 square "toises" 4 "pieds"), consisting of a part in beach, and a part in flakes, with the following measurements:

(1) To the south southeast - 16 "toises" 2 "pieds" on the harbour, whose face took a northeast 1/4 of North and southwest 1/4 of South alignment;

(2) To the northwest - 100 ""toises"" of depth;

(3) To the northwest - 25 "toises" along the "chemin de la batterie royale";

(4) To the northeast - the property 9-10 boundary line, whose alignment ran northwest 1/4 of North;

(5) To the southwest - property 8.[40]

According to the census of 1734, Nicolas Gaudin, "habitant" fisherman, continued to live on the north shore, yet employing neither fishermen nor operating any ships.[41]

On 17 June 1735, Pierre Martissan sold Nicolas and Barthemely, brothers and 1/2 partners, the 15 "tonneau" ship "Le Trois" for 1025 "livres", despite just having purchased it, on 6 June 1735, from the English captain, John Bradstreet for 1400 "livres". Interestingly, as well, the Gaudin purchased ship had now increased to 20 "tonneau."[42]

In 1739 Nicolas Gaudin was described as living on the north shore. [43]

In 1741 Vallée confirmed his 1734 description of Gaudin's property 9 (though noting how that Gaudin was simply a "habitant"), with the following additions:

(1) The property was now 2100 "toises" square;

(2) The harbour face, now 15 "toises" 3 "pieds" long, took a 56 degree northeast and southwest alignment;

(3) To the southwest - 100 "toises" along property 8, at a 47 degree southeast and northwest alignment;

(4) to the northeast - 106 "toises" along property 10, at a 47 degree southeast and northwest alignment.

In May of 1743 Jacques Grenet was living with an innkeeper ("aubergiste") named Gaudin (no first name) on Rue du Quay.[44] Yet, on 30 November 1743, Nicolas Gaudin was noted as living on the North Shore in a "habitation" which he owned. It was also at this time that Gaudin bought property 10 to the east of him for 1720 "livres". As Gaudin immediately paid only 900 "livres", Francois Lessenne, acting on behalf of the family of Joannis Toulon, the deceased owner of property 10, accepted a lien against the now two Gaudin properties for the remaining 820 "livres".[45]

In 1743 or 1744 Marsans Harismeredy stayed at the home of a Gaudin (no first name), rue de l'Etang. Interestingly, Jacques Grenet, who in 1743 had stayed with a Gaudin on Rue du Quay was, at the time, involved in the inheritance negotiations over a property in Block 20, Rue de l'Etang.[47]


Other Significant Properties: For Determining the
Measurements for Properties 8 and 9.

PROPERTY 1

In January of 1715, census takers identified George Lasson as residing on the North Shore with a clerk, shoemaker and valet. However, in 1716, he employed 30 fishermen, while increasing that number to 44 fishermen in 1717.[48]

In December of 1717 (and confirmed in June of 1718), George Lasson occupied property 1 on the North Shore. Developed partly as a beach, partly for [fish] flakes, it was suitable for [at least] a 6 "chaloupe" operation, with a space of land being where he actually carried on the fishery, and constructed his houses and storehouse. Accordingly, this property, situated on the point the most recessed at the end of the harbour, measured as follows:

(I) Beach Section

(1) 90 "toises" of [harbour] face by 6 "toises" wide;

(II) [Land] Space

(1) To the southwest: 58 "toises" of [harbour] face on the sea;

(2) [To the northeast]: 27 "toises" of depth;

(3) [To the southeast]: Non-conceded land, 130 "toises" facing the harbour by 40 "toises" deep, out of which properties 8 through 12 later came to be conceded.[49]

In 1720, Lasson operated four "chaloupes" and employed 20 men. However, in 1724, the numbers had been reduced to 13 fishermen and one ship (which was not a "chaloupe"). In 1726, a further reduction in fishermen occurred that brought the number to six. However, the Lasson operation continued to operate with one ship, identified as involved in the carrying trade.[50]

On 22 December 1734, Vallée noted that since June of 1718 [wave] action ("lagitation des eaux de la mer causée par les mauvais temps") had altered the beach bank (the original 90 x 6 "toises" section) so much so that George Lasson, "habitant" fisherman, (at this time it was Jean and Michel Lasson, his nephews, who actually were occupying the property), enjoyed neither these measurements nor the total square footage (2116 "toises") as conceded in 1718. Rather since one section had decreased in size while the other had increased, the square footage was now 2484 square "toises" under the following regime:

(I) Tongue Section - Graveled Bank Which Formed The Entrance To The Barrachois To The Southwest Of The Shore:

(1) 107 "toises" long 

(2) 12 "toises" wide

(II) Land For Flakes

(1) To the Northeast (meant Southeast?): 40 "toises" of [water frontage];

(2) To the Northeast: 30 "toises" of average depth along the beach of Property 7;

(3) To the Northwest and Southwest: the barachois.[51]

On 22 February 1739, Estienne Heguy (of Ingonish in 1733), who had earlier acquired property 1 from the now deceased George Lasson, sold it to Jean Heguy who, in turn on 5 November 1740, sold it to Pierre Martissan for 2000 "livres". As the sale provided the measurements as outlined in the original grant of 1717, this information may not have been current. Notwithstanding, the sale did note that the property of Martissan (who owned number 7) lay to the east, and that on property 1 stood a "piquet" cabin with a chimney in behind.[52]

On 20 October 1741 Vallée included property one in his description of property 7 of Pierre Martissan. Accordingly,

(I) Beach Bank Which Formed The Barachois (624 square "toises"):

(1) 104 "toises" in length running Southwest; 

2) 6 "toises" at width (at high tide).

(II) [Land]:

(1) [To the Southeast]: 40 "pieds" running Northeast and Southwest - [i.e. 115 "toises" of face (as noted in 1741 as the total harbour front face - not including the beach bank - less (26 "toises" 3 "pieds" plus 41 "toises" 1 "pied" plus 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of waterfront which Vallée, in 1734, noted Martissan had bought after 1727, but which Vallée surveyed as 75 "toises" rather than 71 "toises"];

(2) To the Southwest (beach bank side): 35 "toises" of depth, running Northwest, from the harbour face to where it met the Barachois;

(3) To the Northwest (the Barachois) side: 40 "toises" running at a North Northeast oblique angle along the Barachois [to where it met the western boundary or property 7].[53]

PROPERTY 7

Between 1726 (once erroneously stated as 1727) and 1734, Pierre Martissan, fisherman and businessman, purchased a number of properties which, together, ultimately came to form property 7.[54] Accordingly, on 8 October 1726, Martissan purchased 26 "toises" 3 "pieds" of North Shore harbour front property 7 land from Duhamel.[55] This land was once part of a larger Pièce of property sold in 1724 by Desoudrais to Duhamel and Tulon, with a waterfront measurement of probably 53 "toises". However, in June of 1726, Duhamel and Tulon, in dissolving their partnership, had agreed to divide this land equally between themselves into, presumedly, two equal 26 "toises" 3 "pieds" waterfront facing parcels.[56]

Accordingly, the Martissan purchase - for 350 "livres" - which being the western one (property 7) of the Duhamel-Tulon property 7-8 division and, hence, probably devoid of any buildings, took the following configuration:

(1) To the Southeast: 26 "toises" 3 "pieds" along the [harbour] sea;

(2) To the North: Tulon property 8 and Grand Clos Meslé, paying rent;

(3) To the Southwest: property 7 of Francois Bauchet dit St. Martin.[57]

Of interest, census takers of 1724 identified Francois Bouchet dit St. Martin, born in Rouen, as a resident and "habitant" fisherman of Petit de Grat, where he had resided at least as early as 1718. At the time of the 1720 census, he employed 8 "chaloupes" and 25 men; while according to the 1724 census he had increased these numbers to 50 fishermen and 10 ships, of which nine were "chaloupes". On or before 1726 he died; however, his widow, Marie Baudry, born in Plaisance, continued to reside in Petit de Grat after 1726 where, by 1730, the fishing establishment had deteriorated to a very poor state. On the other hand, both the 1724 and 1726 census (attached to a letter of [Dece?] even though he had been active in the town at least as early as 1722, when he bought a boat from Governor St. Ovide.[58]

Included in this sale was also Martissan receiving ownership both of Duhamel's portion [i.e. 1/2] of the "cabane," flakes and wharf which rested on Tulon's property 8 section, as well as of Duhamel's [portion] of "goelettes," "chaloupes" and fishing equipment. In addition, Martissan received blocks of wood, boards and planks belonging to Duhamel.[59]

Then, on 10 July 1728, to the east of Martissan's holdings, no doubt on property 8, Martissan bought from Tulon 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" of [waterfront] facing land (upon which presumably sat Tulon's share of the cabane, flakes and wharf). Following that, in 1732, to the west of his holdings, Martissan completed his purchases by buying 41 "toises" one "pied" of [waterfront] facing land which the Governor and Commissaire-Ordonnateur had earlier conceded [however, likely never conceded] to the widow of St. Martin.[60]

Accordingly, between 1727 and 1732, these purchases ought to have totalled 71 "toises" of waterfront property. However, when Vallée surveyed the face of the property in 1734, he measured 75 "toises" of face, with the 8451 square "toises" 4 "pieds" of area developed partly in beach and partly in flakes, as follows:

(1) To the Southeast: 75 "toises" running Northeast 1/4 and Southwest 1/4, along the [harbour] face;

(2) To the [Southwest], bordering the properties of property 1 and 6: 117 "toises" running Northwest from the harbour face to the "Chemin du Barrachois" which converges on the "Chemin de la Batterie Royalle" and of the "Grand Miré";

(3) To the Northeast, bordering the "Chemin de la Batterie Royalle": 20 "toises" running Northwest, from the harbour face [to where the "chemin de la Batterie Royalle" met the Southeast boundary of the western section] of property 8;

(4) To the Northwest [completely] along the [Southeast boundary of the western section] of property 8: 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" running at a right angle [to the 20 "toises" boundary line], upon which land sat a storehouse whose one face [likely 3 "toises" 2 "pieds" wide, backed upon the western section of] property 8;

(5) To the [Northeast]: 97 "toises", running Northwest along the western boundary line of [the Western section] of property 8 to where it met the "Chemin du barrachois";

(6) To the Northwest: 71 "toises" 4 "pieds" along the "Chemin du Barrachois", [between the boundaries of property 6 and 8].

According to the census of 1734, Pierre Martissan, born in Haspart, was a businessman and "habitant" fisherman, living on the North Shore. At the time he employed 43 fishermen and operated 5 ships.[61]

In 1741, because Martissan now owned property 1, Vallée decided to describe property 7, developed partly as beach and partly in flakes, slightly differently than he had in 1734, as follows:

(1) [To the Southeast]: [75 "toises"] of [harbourfront] face (115 "toises" in 1741 minus the 40 "toises" of property 1 which Martissan had purchased) running Northeast and Southwest;

(2) [To the Southwest, along former property 1: circa 35 "toises"], running Northwest;

(3) [To the Southwest, along property 6]: 82 "toises", running Northwest, to where it met the "Chemin du Pont St. Esprit a la batterie Royalle";

(4) To the Northwest, along the "Chemin du Pont St. Esprit a la batterie Royalle": 81 "toises" 3 "pieds", between the boundary markers of properties 6 and 8;

(5) To the Northeast: 20 "toises", running Northwest from the [harbour front] face along the end of the "Chemin tournant de la batterie royalle a la grave" [to where it met the southerly boundary of the western section of property 8];

(6) [To the Northwest, turning at a right angle off the "chemin tournant," to follow along the southerly boundary of the western section of property 8], in a Southwest manner: 3 "toises" 2 "pieds";

(7) To the [Northeast]: 97 "toises" along the boundary of the [western section] of property 8.[62]

On 1 August 1745, the English attackers set up a battery on the height of land occupied ("occupé") by Martissan.[63]

In 1749 a Martissan returned to Isle Royale aboard the "L'Entrepide". According to the general census of that year both a Martissan fils and the Martissan family itself had re-established itself on the Island by 1750.[64]

In September of 1749, Louisbourg officials noted the fact that there were several fishing establishments to which the former owners had not returned, for reasons including death. As it was the desire of some of these absentee landlords to rent or sell these properties, simply to secure revenue, these officials ruled such a practice as prejudicial to the interests of the colony. Rather, [in compliance to an "ordonnance" of 29 July 1749], they wanted these properties developed within a certain number of years, which preference given to any creditors holding liens against such properties, houses, etc.[65]

Interestingly, as late as 1753, the "ordonnance" of 1749 and 1750 had not yet resulted in the re-possession of all the properties in and about Louisbourg. As a result, a 1 May 1753 deadline was established for their re-possessions, or else the properties were to revert back to the Crown.[66]

On 6 and 11 & 12 July 1758 we find that Martissan had been living near the top of the height of the "chemin de la Batterie."[67] In the 1759 census of families returning to France, that of the widow Martissan was noted.[68]


THE ROADS

In 1758 the regular British Army worked hard on roads connecting their camp with the roads to Miré and the "fond de la baie".[69]


ENDNOTES

1. C11B, Volume 15, 23 January 1734, ff. 52-59.

2. C11B, Volume 15, ff. 15-25, 22 December 1734

3. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 74, 1741; B, Volume 265, 3/7/1720, f. 8v.

4. G1, Volume 462, Pièce 4, ff. 72-73, 23 December 1717; C11G, Volume 12, 22 June 1718, f. 48v.

5. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 51, 14 January 1715; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 52, 1716; C11B, Volume 3, [17 December 1718], ff. 206-06v.; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 54, 1716; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 62, 1720. However, in 1715, between Lasson [property 1] and Joannis Toulon (property 10) appear the following names: Benjamin Lementier (merchant with 12 fishermen), and Augustin Bonneau.

6. G3, 2057, (1720), Pièce 8, 21 June 1720; G3, 2057 (1720), Pièce 9.

7. G3, 2057 (1721), Pièce 6, 29 June 1721.

8. G3, 2058 (1724), Pièce 37, 19 November 1724; G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 21, 1 August 1726; G2, Volume 194, Dossier 60, 21 May 1731.

9. G3, 2058 (1724), Pièce 38, 21 November 1724.

10. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 67, 1724.

11. G2, Volume 194, Dossier 60, 1734.

12. G3, 2058 (1725), Pièce 33, 16 May, 1 June and 27 October 1725.

13. G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 3, 30 April 1726.

14. G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 12, 25 June 1726; G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 13, 18 June 1726; G3, 2-58 (1726), Pièce 21, 1 August 1726; see also G2, Volume 179, 25 July 1726, ff. 447-49.

15. See also G3, 2-58 (1726), Pièce 21, 1 August 1726; G2, Volume 194, Dossier 60, 21 May 1731.

16. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 68, 1726.

17. G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 34, 8 October 1726.

18. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 16v.-17.

19. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 83, f. 23, 13 September 1736.

20. G2, Volume 180, 25 October 1729, ff. 138-47.

21. G2, Volume 194, Dossier 60, 1734. In particular see the Pièce dated 17 July 1734.

22.G1, Volume 466, Pièces 67, 68 and 69, 1724, 1726 and 1734.

23. G2, Volume 178, 1725, ff. 497-98; G2, Volume 180, 25 October 1729, ff. 138-47; G2, Volume 187, August 1730, ff. 1-4; G2, Volume 190, 13 July 1733, f. 91; G2, Volume 183 [1736] and 2 June 1736, ff. 293, 306; G2, Volume 184, August 1737, ff. 357-67; G2, Volume 185, 1739, ff. 340-41; ACM B, 6113, Dossier 14, 19/10/39; G3, 2058 (1725), Pièce 23, 18 August 1725; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 67, 1724; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 68, 1726; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 69, 1734.

24. G3, 2037, Pièce 111, 15 May 1730.

25. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 16-17v.

26. G2, Volume 194, Dossier 60, 19 July 1734.

27. G2, Volume 195, Dossier 83, Pièces 100, 115, 106, 106 bis, [1735].

28. G2, Volume 195, Dossier 83, Pièces 84, 86, 100, 115, 106, 106 bis, 14 November 1734 [1735] and 19 June 1735.

29. G2, Volume 183, 1836, ff. 145-147v, 163, 167, 170, 173, 230, 290-293, 295v-296, 298-299, 302-304, 306.

30. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 74, 1741.

31. G1, Volume 46, Pièce 74, 1741

32. G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 12, 25 June 1726; G3, 2-58 (1726), Pièce 21, 1 August 1726; C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 16v.-17v.

33. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 67, 1724.

34. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, f. 17v.; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 74, 1741; G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 12, 25 June 1726.

35. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 68, 1726.

36. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 83, 13 September 1736.

37. G2, Volume 198, Dossier 166, 3 September 1731.

38. G3, 2038-1, Pièce 36, 31 October 1731.

39. C11B, Volume 24, 23 May 1734, f. 307v.

40. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, f. 17v.; ND-45.

41. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 69, 1734.

42. G3, 2039, Pièce 132, 6 June 1735; G3, 2039, Pièce 133, 17 June 1735.

43. G2, Volume 185, 14 March 1739, f. 361.

44. G2, Volume 198s, Dossier 181, Pièce 5, 17 May 1743.

45. G3, 2047, Pièce 21, 30 November 1743.

46. B 6114, Dossier 17, 22/10/1743.

47. G3, Volume 198s, dossier 181, Pièce 8, 7 June 1743.

48. G1, Volume 466, Pièces 51, 53 and 54, 14 January 1715, 1716, 1717. Interestingly, a Lasson, le Jeune, was operating six "chaloupes" out of Baleine in 1714. E93, Pièce 81, 1714.

49. G1, Volume 462, 23 December 1717, f. 68.

50. G1, Volume 466, Pièces 67 & 68, 1724 and 1726.

51. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 15-15v.

52. G3, 2046-1, Pièce 215, 5 November 1740; B 268, 28/7/1733, ff. 124v.-27.

53.G1, Volume 466, Pièce 74, 20 October 1741; C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 16v.-17.

54. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 16v.-17.

55. G3, 2058, Pièce 34, 8 October 1726.

56. G3, 2058, (1726), Pièce 12, 25 June 1726.

57. G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 12, 25 June 1726; G3, 2058, Pièce 34, 8 October 1726.

58. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 67, 1724; B 6114, Dossier 4, 8/3/1719; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 68, 1726; G2, Volume 179, 20 September & 11 November 1726, ff. 450-457; G3, 2038, Pièce 96a, 28 October 1732; G3, 2057 (1722), Pièce 6, 25 May 1722; G1, Volume 466, Dossier 62, 1720; G3, 2038, Pièce 96a, 28 October 1732; G3, 2056 (1718), 6 September 1718.

59. G3, 2058 (1726), Pièce 34, 8 October 1726.

60. C11B, Volume 15, 22 December 1734, ff. 16v.-17.

61. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 69,

62. G1, Volume 466, Pièce 74, 20 October 1741.

63. F3, Volume 50, 1 August 1745, ff. 371-71v.

64. F5B, Article 56, Item 2/3, 1749; G1, Volume 466, Pièce 76, 1749.

65. C11B, Volume 28, 10 September 1749, ff. 16-21; F3, Volume 50, 1 January 1753.

66. F3, Volume 50, 1 January 1753, f. 50.

67. Gènie, Bibliothèque, Manuscript 66, 1758.

68. C11B, Volume 38, 28 April 1759, f. 268v.

69. C11B, Volume 38, 22 June 1758, ff. 152-53.